Presentation on theme: "FROM TREATY TO CIVIL WAR Leaving Cert History. Negotiations July to October 1921. By agreeing to talk, both sides would have to compromise. DLG’s coalition."— Presentation transcript:
FROM TREATY TO CIVIL WAR Leaving Cert History
Negotiations July to October By agreeing to talk, both sides would have to compromise. DLG’s coalition government meant he was answerable to Conservatives. Dev was answerable to pacifists like Griffith and hardliners like Brugha.
July 1921 Dev meets DLG in London DLG offered Dominion Status for the 26 counties only with exceptions: GB could move troops into Ireland at times of war No interference with trade with GB. Dev rejected these, talks ended, and he went home. However by letter and telegram they agreed to form delegations.
The Irish Delegation Dev said he would not go because: He could control militants at home Delegates had to refer to him so they would not sign anything under pressure. Some say: Others to take the blame If he signed he had to support it.
The Irish Delegation Militants like Brugha and Stack refused to go so they were never going to accept compromise. Dev tried to balance between hardliner and moderate. Collins went very reluctantly. Griffith was the leader. Robert Barton was a strict republican as was Childers who was to be secretary. George Gavan Duffy and Eamonn Duggan were lawyers. The Dáil voted them as ‘plenipotentiaries’ (could sign on their behalf) Dev instructed them to offer ‘external association’ instead of partition.
The Irish Delegation ‘External Association’ meant that we would leave the Empire and become a republic. Then we would make an alliance with the Empire and the king would be the head of that alliance. This was rejected as unionists already had their parliament and the whole idea was too convoluted to explain to the British people.
The British Delegation The Liberals were represented by DLG and Winston Churchill. The Conservatives by Lord Birkenhead and Austin Chamberlain. Their brief was to protect Ulster’s position and keep Ireland in the Empire.
Negotiations October to December. Case Study An Uneven Match Leadership and experience Location of the talks (London) Imbalance of power. Big army in Ireland and IRA in trouble. Millions had already died for the Empire. Early on it became clear that sovereignty and partition would be the stumbling blocks. There were tensions between Griffith and Childers who was pushing for a republic even though Childers was only the secretary. From then on Griffith and Collins met privately with DLG. The others broke into sub-committees to discuss various issues.
Partition DLG promised to make Craig accept an all-Ireland parliament in return for a letter from Griffith agreeing to the Crown as the head of an association of states of the Commonwealth. DLG promised to resign if he could not deliver. Craig would not even meet him but if DLG resigned, a Conservative would take over. His secretary, Tom Jones suggested a Boundary Commission. When they reported back to Dublin, the Cabinet agreed to the Boundary Commission. At least it would bring many nationalists into the South. DLG managed to persuade Collins that the Boundary Commission would leave Ulster so it could not survive economically. Partition seemed to be resolved for the moment.
Sovereignty Irish unhappy with Dominion Status. They argued that GB would not interfere in Canada as it was too big and too far away. DLG proposed an Irish Free State with the same independence as Canada. If Ireland’s independence was reduced, so would Canada’s and they would not allow this. DLG set a deadline. The NI parliament was to open on the 6th December. Agreement or war within 3 days? He changed the oath to make it similar to Dev’s suggested one. In Canada MPs had to swear ‘true faith and allegience’ to the king. TDs would have to swear allegiance to their own constitution and to be faithful to the king.
Other Terms Governer General would represent the Queen. Queenstown, Berehaven and Lough Swilly. (Treaty Ports) still in British hands. Special treatment for any religion banned.
Why did Collins accept? IRA could not defeat British army but if the British army left it would be difficult for them to return. He knew that the independence of the other dominions was increasing rapidly.
Dividing over the Treaty December 1921 to January 1922 It had taken from July to December to reach agreement. ‘truceleers’ were men who joined the IRA after the truce to get the glory. They were often difficult to control. Some IRA commanders robbed banks, forced people from their homes and even murdered them as ‘spies’ or ‘traitors’. Some just because they were protestant. People feared lawlessness and were glad when the treaty appeared. However dedicated republicans were not.
The Public Debate 19th December to 7th January
The Case Against Hardliners like Brugha, Stack and the 6 women made it clear they would not accept the Treaty even if the Dail passed it. They preferred war. These TDs argued: Good men had died for a republic. All TDs had taken an oath to the republic. Moderates like Childers wanted a renegotiation but not war. Their arguments against: Canada bigger and farther away Impossible to remain neutral with the ports.
The Case For. A war this time would have no element of surprise. Leaders were well known. Spy network was exposed. The British would have the support of people at home and could be more ruthless. Free state could be a “Stepping-stone” to a Republic. The other Dominions would protect our independence or their own would be at risk Far better than Home Rule Popular support was behind the treaty and this may have changed some TDs mind when they went home for Christmas.
Civil War June1922 to May 1923 Collins took Dublin Castle in January. The British had until December 1922 to leave. They did. The Provisional Government was headed by Griffith and Collins. They had to set up an army, police force, judiciary and civil service. A constitution was also needed. The biggest problem was anti-treaty IRA
Anti-treaty IRA Headquarters staff in Dublin supported Collins and Mulcahy. Most country commanders were against. Many IRA would settle for a Republic only. The British didn’t help by leaving barracks to local commanders. March, the Army Convention, led by Mellows and O Connor rejected the Dail. April they seized the Four Courts.
The North IRA violence continued during the truce to resist partition. Sectarian violence against Catholics increased. Collins met Craig several times but Craig was either unwilling or unable to stop it. Collins arranged with anti-treaty IRA to send arms to the north. He hoped this would help prevent the split.
DeValera’s Tatics. Set up a new party to oppose the Treaty. Talked about ‘wading through Irish blood’. Collins and Dev made a pact to form a coalition government after the elections in July.
The British View Churchill demanded an end to the Four Courts occupation. They insisted on no change to the reference to the king and the oath. Collins called off the pact wit irregulars. Election June for 35 against the Treaty.
War Starts Sir Henry Wilson, military advisor to Craig’s government, was killed by IRA. Churchill ordered General Macready to attack the Four Courts. The anti-treaty soldiers captured JJ O Connell, Deputy chief-of- staff of the Free State army. The Civil war was on in earnest. Fighting in Dublin lasted a week. Brugha was killed. Mellows and O Connor jailed. By the end of July every town in Munster was taken. 12 August Griffith died 22 August Beál na mBláth
Cosgrave’s government W T Cosgrave took over. Dail gave his government special powers. Carrying firearms a capital offence. The Civil war became a bitter war of atrocities. TD Sean Hales was killed. Mellows, O Connor and 2 others killed in revenge. Childers executed along with 70 others. It worked. April 1923 Liam Lynch killed and the new leader, Frank Aiken agreed to a ceasefire.