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UWIC Changing Food Safety Behaviour : Is it needed and what is the role of training ? Is it needed and what is the role of training ? Prof Chris Griffith.

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Presentation on theme: "UWIC Changing Food Safety Behaviour : Is it needed and what is the role of training ? Is it needed and what is the role of training ? Prof Chris Griffith."— Presentation transcript:

1 UWIC Changing Food Safety Behaviour : Is it needed and what is the role of training ? Is it needed and what is the role of training ? Prof Chris Griffith Head, Food Research and Consultancy Unit University of Wales Institute, Cardiff

2 UWIC Contents Importance of Food Handler behaviour Are food handlers to blame ? Role of Training Training and behavioural change Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2008

3 UWIC FAO / WHO Pan European Conference on Food Safety February 2002 FAO / WHO Pan European Conference on Food Safety February 2002 “Foodborne disease caused by microbiological hazards is a large and growing public health problem” “Most countries with systems for reporting foodborne disease have documented significant increases” Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2008

4 UWIC Quotation by Woollen 1999 Concerning Food Safety “Millions of words of advice and millions of dollars spent but the problem is getting worse” Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2008

5 UWIC Reported Food Poisoning Figures 1982 – 2007 in England and Wales

6 UWIC Why? Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2008

7 UWIC Producers TRANSPORT Processors TRANSPORT Retailers Consumers The Food Chain

8 UWIC Why? Microbial Problem Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2008

9 UWIC Why? Microbial Problem and People Problem Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2008

10 UWIC What is the most dangerous part of the human anatomy in relation to food poisoning? Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2008

11 UWIC People in the Food Chain Consumers Enforcement Officers Food Handlers Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2008

12 UWIC Bad News Variable Standards Traditional approach still used Lack of understanding of HACCP Insufficient numbers Difficulty in getting prosecutions Too much change in legislation? Good News Greater urgency / importance Review of methods / research New legislation Human Behaviour – Enforcement ? Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2008

13 UWIC 97 % of food poisoning outbreaks involve food handler error Howes et al., 1996 Human Behaviour: Responsibility for Food Safety Responsibility for Food Safety Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2008

14 UWIC Role of Food Handlers Source of infection Practices used Combination Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2008

15 UWIC Human Behaviour - Food Handler Bad News Inadequate knowledge Specific attitudes Doubts over efficacy of training Good News General attitudes Training requirement Numbers trained Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2008

16 UWIC Food Handlers’ Perceptions of Important Food Safety Actions (n = 137) Wash hands84% Clean equipment, utensils66% and surfaces Prevent x contamination58% Ensure food cookedthoroughly57% Personal Hygiene53% Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2008

17 UWIC Food Handlers’ Perceptions of Important Food Safety Actions (n = 137) Keep records28% Keep raw and cooked foods 25% separate Report illness12% Clayton and Griffith BFJ Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2008

18 UWIC “Food handlers often do not implement known food safety procedures” “Food safety has implications for food, medical and behavioural scientists” Griffith et al., 1995, BFJ Human Behaviour: Responsibility for Food Safety Responsibility for Food Safety Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2008

19 UWIC Self Report FSA 98% knew food poisoning could be life threatening 100% thought food poisoning could ruin their business 39% admitted to not washing their hands after going to the toilet 53% admitted to not washing their hands before handling ready to eat food Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2008

20 UWICQuote “What we know or what we believe is, in the end, of little consequence, the only consequence is what we do” J. Ruskin Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2008

21 UWIC HandwashingUse different utensils raw / cooked Correct Knowledge100% 100% Self Report 45% 80% Actual Behaviour 0% 48% Self Report and Actual Behaviour Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2008

22 UWIC When we find a food handler NOT doing what they should we need to blame that INDIVIDUAL! Responsibility for Food Safety : Now we are getting somewhere ! Responsibility for Food Safety : Now we are getting somewhere ! Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2008

23 UWIC “Over 50% of mistakes (made by operatives) relate to management failures” Dodsworth Human Behaviour: Responsibility for Food Safety Responsibility for Food Safety

24 UWIC Safety / Quality Management Co-ordinated activities to direct and control an organisation with regard to safety / quality Safety / Quality Management Definition Management Co-ordinated activities to direct and control an organisation Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2007

25 UWIC “Schedule driven culture starved of funding with insufficient safety was as much to blame as mechanical failings” “Accident not an anomalous event but rooted in NASA history and culture” “Ineffective leadership” Columbian Shuttle Disaster, February 2003 February 2003 Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2008

26 UWIC British Nuclear Foods Ltd – most experienced company in the development of nuclear safety systems BNFL – Fuel delivered to customers with falsified data – Management of the plant allowed it to happen – Could not have occurred had there been proper safety culture Importance of Safety Culture

27 UWIC OK culture is important and management may have some responsibility as well BUT Responsibility for Food Safety : Now we are getting somewhere ! Responsibility for Food Safety : Now we are getting somewhere ! Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2008

28 UWIC OK culture is important and management may have some responsibility as well BUT If we train that person then we solve the problem ! Responsibility for Food Safety : Now we are getting somewhere ! Responsibility for Food Safety : Now we are getting somewhere ! Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2008

29 UWIC Training a Panacea? Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2008

30 UWIC Training a Panacea? No but it does enable people to act hygienically if they are motivated and able to do so and can be highly successful if the right people trained Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2008

31 UWIC Human Behaviour - Training Bad News Small businesses, turnover, PT Still <50% Low Pay / Status Doubts over efficacy Knowledge based (KAP) Language and educational levels Failure to plan for training Good News Training requirement Numbers trained Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2008

32 UWIC Stages in Behavioural Change Awareness Interest Evaluation Implementation Evaluation Consolidation / rejection Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2009

33 UWIC Barriers to Effective Training: Individual Language and literacy Lack of motivation Inappropriate learning experience Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2009

34 UWIC Learning Experience FormalInformal / Work Based Learning (WBL) Training coursesSoftware / Newsletters / Manuals CertificationCertification unlikely Part-time or full timeOne to One often at work, out of work study Knowledge EvaluationBehavioural evaluation Company valuedEmployee valued WBL - work linked to job requirement - learning at work Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2007

35 UWIC Training targeted and specific work related examples Cover theory and practice Explains why not just how Clear aims / Concise Appropriate Level In hazard / risk context Learning Experience Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2007

36 UWIC Failure to Transfer: Why? Individual Organisational : food safety culture – reasons for training Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2007

37 UWIC Psychological Terms / Constructs Optimistic BiasIt will not happen to me Illusion of ControlI know how to do it Cognitive DissonanceI know I am not doing what I should but these are my reasons Attitudinal AmbivalenceSomething else is more important Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2007

38 UWIC Motivation to Transfer Relevance and Risk Motivational framework. Cultural norms - management standards and behaviour Non acceptance of inappropriate behaviour Emphasise social, medical, financial costs Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2007

39 UWIC Barriers to Effective Training: Food Safety Culture Commitment –supervisory / managerial level to train and implement Lack of resources / facilities Reasons for training Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2009

40 UWIC Ability to Transfer All necessary facilities provided Barriers identified and removed Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2007

41 UWIC Ability to Transfer: Facilitate and Barriers Facilitate More staff70% More time53% (less work less customers) Better design76% (space, location) Greater costs49% and resource Nothing15% Barriers Lack of staff67% Insufficient time33% (Busy periods, other things to do) Lack of resources12% Nothing15% Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2007

42 UWIC Summary of Reasons for Failure Individual Organisational Other Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2007

43 UWIC Summary: How to Improve Training Effectiveness Make training targeted,specific and relevant Information accurate, clear, concise relevant Identify barriers Identify strategies for overcoming barriers Convenient, credible and interesting Ensure facilities are provided Provide motivational framework Establish cultural norms Emphasize need / hazards / risk Assess - Retraining / re-enforcement Prepare employers Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2009

44 UWIC Improves food handlers’ knowledge / skills Shows commitment / importance Legal obligations depending on country Training:Advantages Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2007 Part I: Steps Used

45 UWIC Costs money May not lead to better food safety Staff language / educational skills Training:Potential Disadvantages Can be cost beneficial overall Plan to make it work Many forms of training: on job BUT Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2007 Part I: Steps Used

46 UWIC Human behaviour is neglected: Impt of Food Handlers Known hygiene practices not used Managerial Importance – food safety culture / climate Understanding can help compliance Behavioural Change Recognise and Overcome Barriers : Failure Costs Summary Copyright © Prof Chris Griffith, UWIC 2008


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