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Chapter 1 overview 1.1DNA is the molecule of heredity “discovered” by Miesher (1869)

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 overview 1.1DNA is the molecule of heredity “discovered” by Miesher (1869)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1 overview 1.1DNA is the molecule of heredity “discovered” by Miesher (1869)

2 Slide of Friedrich Miescher.

3 Chapter 1 overview 1.1DNA is the molecule of heredity “discovered” by Miesher (1869) the “stuff” of transformation is DNA (R to S S. pneumoniae; Griffith 1920’s )

4 © 2006 Jones & Bartlett Publishers Fig. 1.2 The Griffith's experiment demonstrating bacterial transformation

5 Chapter 1 overview 1.1DNA is the molecule of heredity “discovered” by Miesher (1869) the “stuff” of transformation is DNA (R to S S. pneumoniae; Griffith 1920’s ) (Avery MacLeod and McCarty, 1944)

6 © 2006 Jones & Bartlett Publishers Fig. 1.3 Diagram of the experiment demonstrating that DNA is the active material in bacterial transformation

7 Chapter 1 overview 1.1DNA is the molecule of heredity “discovered” by Miesher (1869) the “stuff” of transformation is DNA (R to S Streptococcus pneumoniae) (Avery MacLeod and McCarty, 1944) infection of E. coli by T2 phage uses DNA (Hershey and Chase, 1952)

8 © 2006 Jones & Bartlett Publishers Fig. 1.4 T he Hershey-Chase ("blender") experiment,

9 Chapter 1 overview 1.2DNA is a double helix described by Watson and Crick (1953)

10 © 2006 Jones & Bartlett Publishers Fig Space filling model and diagram showing helical backbones of a DNA double helix

11 pictures of Watson and Crick

12 Chapter 1 overview 1.2DNA is a double helix two long chains of nucleotides A, C, G, T complementary base pairing AT and CG strands have polarity (5’ to 3’) strands are antiparallel described by Watson and Crick (1953)

13 Chapter 1 overview 1.3DNA replication two identical molecules made from one semiconservative original strands separate act as templates

14 © 2006 Jones & Bartlett Publishers Fig Replication of DNA originally proposed by Watson and Crick

15 Chapter 1 overview 1.4(Most) Genes code for proteins Genes have information for making proteins

16 © 2006 Jones & Bartlett Publishers Fig DNA Sequence coding for the first seven amino acids in a polypeptide chain

17 Chapter 1 overview 1.4(Most) Genes code for proteins Genes have information for making proteins Several types of RNA are needed

18 © 2006 Jones & Bartlett Publishers Fig The "central dogma" of molecular genetics

19 Chapter 1 overview 1.4(Most) Genes code for proteins Genes have information for making proteins Several types of RNA are needed usually single-stranded ACGU bases are complementary AU CG

20 Chapter 1 overview 1.4(Most) Genes code for proteins transcription in nucleus make mRNA from one strand RNA polymerase

21 © 2006 Jones & Bartlett Publishers Fig Transcription

22 Chapter 1 overview 1.4(Most) Genes code for proteins translation in cytoplasm at ribosomes nucleotides “read” in 3’s as codon codon compliments anticodon on tRNA tRNA carries particular amino acid ribosome attaches adjacent amino acids genetic code table

23 © 2006 Jones & Bartlett Publishers Fig The role of messenger RNA in translation

24 © 2006 Jones & Bartlett Publishers Table 1.1. The standard genetic code.

25 Chapter 1 overview 1.5Genes change by mutation alteration of codon can change amino acid change in aa can inactivate enzyme

26 © 2006 Jones & Bartlett Publishers Fig The central dogma in action

27 © 2006 Jones & Bartlett Publishers Fig The M1V mutant in the PAH gene

28 © 2006 Jones & Bartlett Publishers Fig The R408W mutant in the PAH gene

29 Chapter 1 overview 1.5Genes change by mutation alteration of codon can change amino acid change in aa can inactivate enzyme examples of diseases PKU alkaptonuria

30 © 2006 Jones & Bartlett Publishers Fig Inborn errors of metabolism

31 Chapter 1 overview 1.6Traits affected by genes and by environment genes may affect many traits traits may be affected by many genes some traits also affected by environment

32 PKU warning on Diet Coke

33 Chapter 1 overview 1.7molecular unity of life organisms share similarities, e.g., genetic apparatus gene similarities gene families

34 © 2006 Jones & Bartlett Publishers Fig Evolutionary relationships among the major life forms as inferred from similarities in DNA sequence RNA from the small subunit of the ribosome

35 © 2006 Jones & Bartlett Publishers Table 1.2. Comparisons of genomes and proteomes.


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