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The Travels of the Apostle Paul Understanding the context of Paul’s epistles from Acts Developed by Steve Aaron 2014 © Rev. 2.1 This tool has been developed.

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Presentation on theme: "The Travels of the Apostle Paul Understanding the context of Paul’s epistles from Acts Developed by Steve Aaron 2014 © Rev. 2.1 This tool has been developed."— Presentation transcript:

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2 The Travels of the Apostle Paul Understanding the context of Paul’s epistles from Acts Developed by Steve Aaron 2014 © Rev. 2.1 This tool has been developed for study purposes only and is freely available. Please do not attempt to modify it. Comments and suggestions are welcome at steveaarononline.com. Please see the bibliography for any sources used.

3 Lasea/Fair Havens Three Taverns Forum of Appius Berea Apollonia Amphipodis Neapolis Troas Assos Mitylene Cenchreae Patara Myra Lystra Derbe Salamis Sidon Tyre Ptolemais Seleucia SAMOTHRACE MYSIA PHRYGIA Attalia Chios Samos Salmone Cauda CosCnidus Nicopolis Colossae Contents 1. Paul’s Conversion and Early TravelsActs 9:1-12:25 -AD Paul’s Conversion and Early TravelsActs 9:1-12:25 -AD Paul’s Conversion and Early TravelsActs 9:1-12:25 -AD Paul’s Conversion and Early TravelsActs 9:1-12:25 -AD Paul’s First Missionary JourneyActs 13:1-15:35 GalatiansAD Paul’s First Missionary JourneyActs 13:1-15:35 GalatiansAD Paul’s First Missionary JourneyActs 13:1-15:35 GalatiansAD Paul’s First Missionary JourneyActs 13:1-15:35 GalatiansAD Paul’s Second Missionary JourneyActs 15:36-18: ThessaloniansAD Paul’s Second Missionary JourneyActs 15:36-18: ThessaloniansAD Paul’s Second Missionary JourneyActs 15:36-18: ThessaloniansAD Paul’s Second Missionary JourneyActs 15:36-18: ThessaloniansAD Paul’s Third Missionary JourneyActs 18:23-21: Cor; Rom.AD Paul’s Third Missionary JourneyActs 18:23-21: Cor; Rom.AD Paul’s Third Missionary JourneyActs 18:23-21: Cor; Rom.AD Paul’s Third Missionary JourneyActs 18:23-21: Cor; Rom.AD Paul’s Imprisonment JourneyActs 21:18-28:30 Eph; Phil; Col; Phm.AD Paul’s Imprisonment JourneyActs 21:18-28:30 Eph; Phil; Col; Phm.AD Paul’s Imprisonment JourneyActs 21:18-28:30 Eph; Phil; Col; Phm.AD Paul’s Imprisonment JourneyActs 21:18-28:30 Eph; Phil; Col; Phm.AD Paul’s Final Travels Timothy, TitusAD 62-67* 6. Paul’s Final Travels Timothy, TitusAD 62-67* 6. Paul’s Final Travels Timothy, TitusAD 62-67* 6. Paul’s Final Travels Timothy, TitusAD 62-67* Section Biblical Reference Epistles Dates ? ? Paul’s Missionary Journeys Combined Paul’s Missionary Journeys Combined Paul’s Missionary Journeys Combined Paul’s Missionary Journeys Combined Timeline of Paul’s Life Timeline of Paul’s Life Timeline of Paul’s Life Timeline of Paul’s Life Other Views Paul’s Companions Paul’s Companions Paul’s Companions Paul’s Companions Bibliography

4 Lasea/Fair Havens Three Taverns Forum of Appius Berea Apollonia Amphipodis Neapolis Troas Assos Mitylene Cenchreae Patara Myra Lystra Derbe Salamis Sidon Tyre Ptolemais Seleucia SAMOTHRACE MYSIA PHRYGIA Attalia Chios Samos Salmone Cauda CosCnidus Nicopolis Colossae Companions: A.D. 33/34 35/36 Acts 9:1-9 Saul meets Jesus on the road to Damascus and is blinded. Acts 9:3 Acts 9:10-19 Ananias meets Saul and prays for him. Acts 9:26 Acts 9:8 Acts 9:30 Gal. 1:17 Acts 9:26-31 (Gal. 1:18) Saul meets Peter and James but is attacked by the Hellenists and flees. Acts 9:20-25 Saul peaches in Damascus but escapes through the wall after a plot by the Jews. Paul’s Conversion and Early Travels Acts 11:25-26 (Gal. 2:1) Barnabas finds Saul and brings him to Antioch with Titus. Acts 11: Acts 11:27-30 (Gal.2:1-2) Famine is prophesied in Judea. Saul and Barnabas bring relief. Acts 11:30 Acts 12:25 John Mark Saul ministers in Syria and Cilicia for about a decade Home ? ?S Barnabas Titus

5 Lasea/Fair Havens Three Taverns Forum of Appius Berea Apollonia Amphipodis Neapolis Troas Assos Mitylene Cenchreae Patara Myra Lystra Derbe Salamis Sidon Tyre Ptolemais Seleucia SAMOTHRACE MYSIA PHRYGIA Attalia Chios Samos Salmone Cauda CosCnidus Nicopolis Colossae Paul’s First Missionary Journey Companions: A.D Barnabas John Mark Acts 13:4 Galatians Acts 13:1-3 Paul and Barnabas set apart Acts 13:5 Acts 13:6 Acts 13:6-12 Paul blinds Elymas, the magician, and the proconsul, Sergius Paulus, believes Acts 13:13 Acts 13:14 Acts 13:51 Acts 13:14-52 Paul preaches in the synagogue two Sabbaths after which the Jews revolt. Paul turns to the Gentiles Acts 14:6 Acts 14:1-6 Conflict with Jews. Attempted stoning Acts 14:7 Apostles deified. Paul stoned by Jews Acts 14:20 Acts 14:21 Acts 14:24-25 Acts 14:2648/49 Acts 15:2 Acts 15:1-29 The Jerusalem Council Acts 15:30 Judas Silas ? ? Home i i Acts 15:3 Acts 15:4S Acts 15:35 Paul and Barnabas remain in Antioch

6 Lasea/Fair Havens Three Taverns Forum of Appius Berea Apollonia Amphipodis Neapolis Troas Assos Mitylene Cenchreae Patara Myra Lystra Derbe Salamis Sidon Tyre Ptolemais Seleucia SAMOTHRACE MYSIA PHRYGIA Attalia Chios Samos Salmone Cauda CosCnidus Nicopolis Colossae Paul’s Second Missionary Journey Companions: A.D. Silas Acts 15:40 Acts 15:36 Paul and Barnabas desire to return to the churches from the First Missionary Journey Acts 16:1 Acts 16:4 Acts 16:6 Acts 16:7-8 Timothy Acts 16:1-3 Paul meets Timothy and circumcises him Acts 16:9-10 Paul has vision to go to Macedonia Acts 16:11 Acts 16:12 Acts 16:12-40 Paul meets Lydia. Paul delivers the slave girl from divination. Paul and Silas are beaten and thrown in jail. After an earthquake the prison is opened. Jailer converted. The magistrates set them free and apologise because they are Roman citizens Acts 17:1 Acts 17:1-10 Many Jews and Gentiles converted at Thessalonica. Jews cause a riot. Paul and Silas flee. Acts 17:10-13 Bereans receive the Word. The crowds from Thessalonica riot there too. Paul flees. Acts 17:14-15 Acts 17:16-34 Paul reasons with the Epicurean and Stoic philosophers in the Areopagus. Acts 18:1 Acts 18:1-11 Paul lives and works with Aquila and Priscilla for 18 months. The Jews reject the gospel. Crispus the ruler of the synagogue and his household believe. Many believe. Acts 18:1-11 Paul comes before Gallio. Gallio dismisses the tribunal. Sosthenes of the synagogue is beaten. Acts 18:19 Acts 18:21-22 Acts 18:22 1 Thessalonians 2 Thessalonians 48/49 ? ? Home Galatians i iS 51 Acts 17:10 Luke Silas Timothy Aquila Priscilla

7 Lasea/Fair Havens Three Taverns Forum of Appius Berea Apollonia Amphipodis Neapolis Troas Assos Mitylene Cenchreae Patara Myra Lystra Derbe Salamis Sidon Tyre Ptolemais Seleucia SAMOTHRACE MYSIA PHRYGIA Attalia Chios Samos Salmone Cauda CosCnidus Nicopolis Colossae A.D Companions: Gaius Aristarchus Timothy Erastus Paul’s Third Missionary Journey Acts 18:23 Paul goes out to strengthen the churches he has planted Acts 16:1-3 Paul meets Timothy and circumcises him Acts 19:1 Acts 19:1-21 Paul converts the disciples of John and preaches in Ephesus for 2-3 years as the church grows. Occult books are burned. Acts 19:23-41 Demetrius causes a riot in Ephesus. Paul departs. Acts 20:1 Acts 20:2 Acts 20:5 Acts 20:2-3 Paul stays 3 months in Greece. Jews plot against him. Acts 20:6 Acts 20:7-12 Eutychus falls while Paul is preaching. He is raised from the dead. Acts 20:13 Acts 20:14 Acts 20:15 Acts 20:16-38 Paul summons and bids farewell to the elders from Ephesus. Acts 21:1 Acts 21:3 Acts 21:4-6 The disciples beg Paul not to go to Jerusalem. He stays 7 days. Acts 21:7 Acts 21:8 Acts 21:8-14 Paul stays with Phillip. Agabus prophecies that Paul will be arrested in Jerusalem. Paul departs anyway. Acts 21: Corinthians 2 Corinthians Romans Lost Corinthian Letter ? ? 2 Cor. 2:1,3 Home Rom. 15:19 Titus 2 Cor. 9:3-5S 2 Cor. 13:2 Acts 19:22 Sopater Aristarchus, Gaius Timothy Tychicus, Trophimus Luke

8 Lasea/Fair Havens Three Taverns Forum of Appius Berea Apollonia Amphipodis Neapolis Troas Assos Mitylene Cenchreae Patara Myra Lystra Derbe Salamis Sidon Tyre Ptolemais Seleucia SAMOTHRACE MYSIA PHRYGIA Attalia Chios Samos Salmone Cauda CosCnidus Nicopolis Colossae A.D / Paul’s Imprisonment Journey Companions: Acts 21:18-23:30 Paul meets James and the elders. They encourage him to undergo purification to allay rumours about him. He is attacked by a mob in the temple. The centurion guard arrests him. Paul is given permission and preaches to the people. They reject him and Paul is to be whipped. The tribune finds out he is a Roman citizen and is afraid. Paul then goes before the Jewish council. The Pharisees and Sadducees are divided. The Jews vow to kill him. The plot is discovered and the tribune sends Paul under guard to Caesarea to the governor, Felix. Acts 23:31,33 Acts 23:34-24:27 Paul is accused by the council before Felix. He defends himself. Felix dismisses the court and converses often with Paul, but keeps him in custody for 2 years. Acts 25:1-27:1 Festus succeeds Felix and holds another trial for Paul. Paul appeals to Caesar. Paul appears before Herod Agrippa when he is in town. Paul defends himself again. Agrippa would have freed him but he had appealed to Caesar so Paul is sent to Rome. Acts 27:2-3 Acts 27:4-5 Acts 27:7 Acts 27:18-38 The ship is lost at sea for 14 days. Paul says he had a vision that they will all be saved but will lose the ship. Acts 27:13-16 Acts 27:9-12 Paul prophecies that they will be caught in a storm but the ship goes out anyway. Acts 27:41-28:11 The ship is wrecked on the beach. The soldiers want to kill the prisoners. The centurion stops them wanting to save Paul. Paul is bitten by a snake while making a fire but nothing happens. The locals think he is a god. Paul receives favour from Publius, the chief of the island and they stay there for 3 months. Acts 27:39-40 Acts 28:11-12 Acts 28:13 Acts 28:14-15 Acts 28:17-30 Paul is kept under house arrest in Rome. He preached and taught the Jewish leaders and all who came to him for 2 years. ? ? Home Ephesians Colossians Philippians Philemon Col. 1:1; 4:10S Acts 27:8 Acts 27:6 Acts 28:16 Phm Tychicus Luke Aristarchus Epaphras, Tychicus Mark, Demas Timothy Eph. 6:21

9 Lasea/Fair Havens Three Taverns Forum of Appius Berea Apollonia Amphipodis Neapolis Troas Assos Mitylene Cenchreae Patara Myra Lystra Derbe Salamis Sidon Tyre Ptolemais Seleucia SAMOTHRACE MYSIA PHRYGIA Attalia Chios Samos Salmone Cauda CosCnidus Nicopolis Colossae A.D * Paul’s Final Travels Companions: 2 Timothy Titus 1 Timothy *All details on this map are uncertain ? ? Home 1 Tim. 1:3 Timothy Tit. 1:5 Tit. 3:12 2 Tim. 4:13 2 Tim. 4:11 Titus Luke S Spain Rom 15:24,28 2 Tim. 4:20 Phm. 1:22 Phil. 2: Tim. 1:3 2 Tim. 1: Tim. 4:20

10 Lasea/Fair Havens Three Taverns Forum of Appius Berea Apollonia Amphipodis Neapolis Troas Assos Mitylene Cenchreae Patara Myra Lystra Derbe Salamis Sidon Tyre Ptolemais Seleucia SAMOTHRACE MYSIA PHRYGIA Attalia Chios Samos Salmone Cauda CosCnidus Nicopolis Colossae Acts 15:40 Acts 16:1 Acts 16:4 Acts 16:6 Acts 16:7-8 Acts 16:11 Acts 16:12 Acts 17:1 Acts 17:14-15 Acts 18:1 Acts 18:19 Acts 18:21-22 Acts 18:22 Acts 17:10 Acts 18:23 Acts 19:1 Acts 20:1 Acts 20:2 Acts 20:5 Acts 20:6 Acts 20:13 Acts 20:14 Acts 20:15 Acts 21:1 Acts 21:3 Acts 21:7 Acts 21:8 Acts 21: Cor. 2:1,3 Rom. 15:19 2 Cor. 9:3-5 2 Cor. 13:2 KEY: Early 1 st MJ 2 nd MJ 3 rd MJ Prison Paul’s Missionary Journeys Combined A.D ? ? Home +MJ1 +MJ2 +MJ3 +Prison SHOW: +Early Acts 9:3 Acts 9:26 Acts 9:8 Gal. 1:17 Acts 11:26 Acts 11:30 Acts 12:25 Acts 9:30 Acts 13:4 Acts 13:5 Acts 13:6 Acts 13:13 Acts 13:14 Acts 13:51 Acts 14:6 Acts 14:20 Acts 14:21 Acts 14:24-25 Acts 14:26 Acts 15:2 Acts 15:30 Acts 15:3 Acts 15:4 Acts 23:31,33 Acts 27:2-3 Acts 27:4-5 Acts 27:7 Acts 27:13-16 Acts 27:39-40 Acts 28:11-12 Acts 28:13 Acts 28:14-15 Acts 27:8 Acts 27:6 Acts 28:16 Galatians 2 Timothy Titus 1 Timothy Ephesians Colossians Philippians Philemon 1 Corinthians 2 Corinthians Romans 1 Thessalonians 2 Thessalonians +Epistles

11 Home 30 AD Paul appears before proconsul Gallio Acts 18:12-17 Paul stays 18m in Corinth Acts 18:11 An inscription found dates Gallio as proconsul from July 51 AD to July 52 AD. It is more likely that the Jews took advantage of a new leader to press charges against Paul, thus early in his term. 2 nd MJ 1 Thessalonians 2 Thessalonians Estimated 2 years for 4,500 km and stops before Corinth. Paul goes to the Jerusalem Council Historical death of Herod Agrippa (Acts 12:19-23). Most probably narrated after the famine relief visit for topical purposes. Famine relief visit Gal. 2:1 It seems better to assume that the 3 years in Gal. 1:18 and the 14 years in Gal. 2:1 are both counted from Paul’s prominent conversion rather than sequentially. This better fits the rest of the chronology. One of the difficulties with the chronology is fitting the events from conversion to the famine into 14 (or 17) years. Note that ‘inclusive’ reckoning which was common in the ancient world would include even part of a year which allows for shorter periods. Paul’s conversion Josephus mentions a severe AD st MJ The date of the crucifixion and Paul’s conversion is uncertain. Crucifixion probably AD30 (assumed) or 33. There was probably at least a year in between to account for Acts 1-8. Timeline of Paul’s Life (AD 30-50) Acts 9:1-22 Gal. 1:15 Paul’s escape from Damascus and first visit to Jerusalem Gal. 1:17 3 years Paul’s lives in Arabia (Nabataean kingdom northeast of dead sea) 2 Cor. 11:32-33 Acts 9:23-28 Gal. 1:18-19 Gal. 1:21 Acts 9:29-30 Paul lives and ministers in Tarsus [36-45] Acts 11:25-26 Paul lives with Barnabas in Antioch for 1y Acts 11: Cor. 11:22-27? Estimated 1-5 years for 2,200 km and stops. 14 years Galatians Paul stays in Antioch Acts 14:26-28 Gal. 2:11-14 Acts 15:1-34 Acts 15:36-18:22Acts 13:1-14:26 1 Thes. 2:2; 3:1 Phil 4: Cor AD Edict of Claudius [AD 41-54] (Acts 18:2) probably AD 49. Seasons Spring SummerWinter Autumn Winter Note: Largely uncertain dates for periods are shown with dashed brackets + Details SHOW: + Events + Verses + Epistles ? ?

12 Timeline of Paul’s Life (AD 50-70) AD AD Paul appears before proconsul Gallio An inscription found dates Gallio as proconsul from July 51 AD to July 52 AD. It is more likely that the Jews took advantage of a new leader to press charges against Paul, thus early in his term. Paul stays 18m in Corinth Acts 18:12-17 Acts 18:11 Paul in prison in Rome for 2y Consensus is that Festus replaced Felix as governor of Judea in AD 59. Paul in prison in Caesarea for 2y Sailing was in Autumn as it had become dangerous because it was after the Day of Atonement (Acts 27:9) with arrival in the Spring (Acts 28:11). Further travels in Macedonia and Achaia 3 rd MJ 2 nd MJ Ephesians Philippians Philemon Colossians 1 Timothy Titus Paul is re-arrested and executed under Nero 2 Timothy Acts 15:36-18:22 1 Cor. 16:8 Acts 18:12-17 Paul ministers in Ephesus for 2-3 years Time in Ephesus based on 3 months in Acts 19:8 added to 2 years on 19:10 and summarised as 3 years in 20:31. This could be inclusive reckoning. Acts 18:23-21:17 Paul spends 3m in Greece Romans 2 Corinthians Acts 20:2-3 Estimated 3-5 years for 4,300 km and stops. Paul returns in the Spring because the Feast of Unleavened Bread took place on the trip (Acts 20:6). Acts 21:27-24:27 Acts 21:18-28:30 Paul spends 3m in Malta after shipwreck Acts 28:1-11 Acts 28:30-31 Testimony to Paul’s (and Peter’s ) later death somewhere between AD 64 (height of persecution) to AD 67 (Eusebius), probably AD 65, and the evidence of the pastoral letters suggest that he was released from Rome and travelled for some time afterwards. Some of these destinations and people may also have fitted into previous travels. Home Destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem 1 Thessalonians 2 Thessalonians Great fire of Rome in AD 64. begins Nero’s [AD 54-68] persecution of Christians. Phil. 1:25 Phm. 22 Galatians Imprisonment J Seasons Spring SummerWinter Autumn Winter Note: Largely uncertain dates for periods are shown with dashed brackets + Details SHOW: + Events + Verses + Epistles ? ? ACTS 1 Corinthians Nero commits suicide Martyrdom of James in Jerusalem in AD 62.

13 Paul’s Companions (AD 33-48) DATE: Acts 4:36Acts 9:11Acts 9:27 Acts 11:22,25 Acts 11:30Acts 12:12Acts 12:25 Acts 13:1,2,4, 7,43,46,50;14:12,14,20 Acts 13:5,13 Gal. 2:1,9,13 Gal. 2:1,3,9,13 Acts 15:2,12 Acts 15:22,25,27,32,35 BarnabasX XXX XX X XX John Mark XX X Titus X Silas (Silvanus) X Judas ? X Timothy Luke Jason Aquila Priscilla Crispus Gaius Erastus Aristarchus Tychicus Trophimus So(si)pater Secundus Epaphras Demas Artemas Crescens Home AD ? ?

14 Paul’s Companions (AD 48-52) DATE:48-52 Acts 15:36,37,39 Acts 15:37,39 Acts 15:40 Acts 16:1,3 Acts 16:10,11,12,13,15,16,17 Acts 16:19,25,29; 17:4 Acts 17:5,6,7,9 Acts 17:10,14,15; 18:5Acts 17:14,15;18:5 Acts 18:2Acts 18:8 1 Thes. 1:1 1 Thes. 3:2,6 2 Thes. 1:1 Acts 18:18,26 BarnabasXX John Mark X Titus Silas (Silvanus) X X X X X Judas Timothy X X XXX Luke X Jason X Aquila X X Priscilla X X Crispus X Gaius Erastus Aristarchus Tychicus Trophimus So(si)pater Secundus Epaphras Demas Artemas Crescens AD AD ? ?

15 Paul’s Companions (AD 52-57) DATE: Cor. 1:141 Cor. 4:17 1 Cor. 9:6 1 Cor. 16:101 Cor. 16:19 Acts 19:22Acts 19:29 2 Cor. 1:19 2 Cor. 2:13;7:6,13,14; 8:6,16,23; 12:18 Rom. 16:3 Rom. 16:21Rom. 16:23 Acts 20:4 Acts 20:6,7,8,13,14,15; 21:1-8, 10-12,14-18 Barnabas X John Mark Titus X Silas (Silvanus) X Judas Timothy X X X X X X Luke X Jason X Aquila X X Priscilla X X CrispusX GaiusX X XX Erastus X X Aristarchus X X Tychicus X Trophimus X So(si)pater X Secundus X Epaphras Demas Artemas Crescens AD AD ? ?

16 Paul’s Companions (AD 57-67) DATE: Acts 21:29 Acts 27:1-8,15, 16,18,20,27,29;28:1,2,7,10-16 Acts 27:2 Eph. 6:21 Phil. 1:1;2:19 Col. 1:1Col. 1:7Col. 4:7 Col. 4:10Col. 4:12Col. 4:14 Phm. 1:1 Phm. 1:23Phm. 1:24 Tit. 1:4 Tit. 3:12 1 Tim. 1:2,18;6:20 2 Tim. 1:2 2 Tim. 4:102 Tim. 4:112 Tim. 4:122 Tim. 4:192 Tim. 4:20 Barnabas John Mark X X X Titus X X Silas (Silvanus) Judas Timothy XX XX Luke X X X X Jason Aquila X Priscilla X Crispus Gaius Erastus X Aristarchus X X X Tychicus X X X X TrophimusX X So(si)pater Secundus Epaphras X X X Demas X X X Artemas X Crescens X AD Home ? ?

17 Bibliography TIMELINE CARSON, D.A. & MOO, D.J An Introduction to the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. pp , , , , – Very helpful chronology discussion. – Seems to be season-related error top p.367 regarding stay in Corinth. GUNDRY, R.H A Survey of the New Testament (4th Ed.). Grand Rapids: Zondervan. pp – Basic timeline. HEMER, C.J The Book of Acts in the Setting of Hellenistic History (Gempf, C. ed.) Indiana: Eisenbrauns. pp , – Very detailed discussion on dates, events and chronology verse by verse with reference to other scholarship. Where scholars were conflicting,Hemer seemed most conclusive. RAMSAY, W.M St. Paul: The Traveler and Roman Citizen (Wilson, M. ed.). London: Hodder & Stoughton. pp – Simple timeline but agrees more with Hemer. STOTT, J Men with a Message. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. p.93. – Basic timeline. Dates do not line up as well as Hemer. Home Next

18 Bibliography MAPS ESV Study Resources – Background map. NIV Study Bible Grand Rapids: Zondervan. pp – Final travels of Paul. HUMPHREYS, M Timothy and Titus. Cambridge: University Press. pp.40ff. Final travels of Paul. OTHER GUNDRY, R.H A Survey of the New Testament (4th Ed.). Grand Rapids: Zondervan. pp – Dating of Galatians. The title painting is (probably) by Valentin de Boulogne (c ), Saint Paul Writing His Epistles (c ), oil on canvas. All verses are taken from the ESV translation. Home Previous

19 Help This slideshow is best viewed with a screen size of 20” or greater to see the text clearly. Click on any blue buttons to move between pages. Some pages have animation which is activated with a click. On the menu you can click on each heading to go to that page. The button takes you to a relevant help page which is specific to the section. The button takes you back to the main menu. If you select optional views or animations in any page they cannot be unselected. If you access another page afterwards, when you return the previous page will be reset. ? Home

20 Help The animation is activated with a click or the enter key. You can go forwards and backwards with page up/down keys or a mouse scroll wheel. The button tells you when you are at the end of the journey. Another click will start the next journey. The animation shows the route Paul travelled with the scriptural reference to that route in the small blocks. Larger events are summarised in bigger reference blocks. Some scriptural references are to related verses in the epistles themselves. Travels not specifically identified in Acts are indicated with dashed orange arrows. These are explicit or implied from the epistles as indicated. You can hover the pointer over the text references to see the verse in the ESV. Information buttons take you to detail regarding a specific scholarly issue or debate regarding uncertainty. Chronological issues are resolved on the timeline.timeline The approximate dates are incremented on the bottom right. These are explained on the timeline which is also available from the contents page.timeline The companions who travelled with Paul along each section of a route are listed in the block at the bottom centre and are found in the scriptural references indicated or found in the companion tables which is also available from the contents page.companion tables The Combined Journeys are shown here and are also available from the contents page. Journeys may be selected individually by clicking the relevant buttons.here Home i S

21 Help The timeline is in two pages which can be moved backwards and forwards by clicking the blue buttons at the top. The button takes you back to the main menu. You can add information to the timeline by clicking on the buttons at the bottom of the screen. “EVENTS” lists the major periods or events in Paul’s life. “VERSES” shows the verses from which that information is sourced “EPISTLES” shows the letters in the order in which they were written “DETAIL” shows additional historical information which is used to help estimate the chronology. The seasons block at the bottom shows the northern hemisphere seasons for one year which is relevant to some of the dates as shown on the timeline. Periods indicated with dashed brackets implies that the date is uncertain but probably lies between the indicated range. Verses from books other than Acts are coloured in orange. Home Back

22 Help The companions list has 4 pages which can be moved backwards and forwards chronologically by clicking the blue buttons at the top. The button takes you back to the main menu. This list includes people who are indicated in the text as having been traveling with or sent by Paul. You can hover the pointer over the text references to see the relevant verses in the ESV. The colouring of the dates indicates the different periods of Paul’s life and journeys in the same coding as the combined map. Verses from books other than Acts are coloured in orange. Note that these are placed in the chronology of Acts based on when the epistle was written, not when the events mentioned in the epistle occurred. Luke is considered a companion of Paul from the start of what are called the “we passages” where the author of Acts starts using the first person in describing events. Whether the author is in fact this Luke, and whether these passages necessarily refer to the author’s presence in the narrative, is debated. Home Back

23 There are 2 reasonable possibilities about when Paul wrote the letter to the Galatians. The first is the “South Galatian” theory which says that he wrote it directly after his first missionary journey from The second is the “North Galatian” theory which says that he wrote it during his second missionary journey probably from Support for the North Galatian theory: – The addressees of the letter (1:2) seem to refer to the Galatian territories which were in the North and not visited until the 2 nd missionary journey. – The letter shows an affinity for the Corinthians and Romans suggesting a later date. – It seems that Paul has visited Galatia twice because he preached to them and then saw their deserting the gospel (1:6-9) which must include the 2 nd missionary journey (although he could have heard of this while in Antioch). – This means that the journey to Jerusalem (2:1) was probably for the council meeting of Acts 15. Support for the South Galatian theory: – Acts does not say that he visited the northern territories on the 2 nd missionary journey either (Acts 16:6-7) which refers better to the southern theory. – The Romans added the southern territories when they made Galatia a province. – Paul consistently uses geographical terms in an imperial sense. – Peter’s incorrect behaviour which Paul rebuked (2:11-14) was more likely before the Jerusalem council. – This means that the journey to Jerusalem (2:1) is probably for famine relief in Acts 11. The South Galatian theory is more consistent with the evidence. Home Back 1MJ Back 2MJ The Dating of Galatians


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