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  Natural Resources - resources that Earth provides. Ex. Air, water and land, all living things, rocks and minerals. Natural resources are changed through.

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Presentation on theme: "  Natural Resources - resources that Earth provides. Ex. Air, water and land, all living things, rocks and minerals. Natural resources are changed through."— Presentation transcript:

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2   Natural Resources - resources that Earth provides. Ex. Air, water and land, all living things, rocks and minerals. Natural resources are changed through cycling.  Renewable Resources - natural resources that it is possible to use indefinitely without causing a reduction in the available supply. Ex. Fresh air; fresh surface water in lakes, rivers and streams; nitrogen, carbon and phosphorous.  Living organisms - reproduce. Sun - because it will last over 5 billion years, but not provided by earth. Natural Resources

3  Renewable Resource

4    Nonrenewable Resources - a resource that exists in a fixed amount in various places in earth’s crust and can be replaced only by geological, physical, and chemical processes that take hundreds of millions of years. Ex. Fossil fuels, copper, silver, and gold.  Some areas are rich in other natural resources. Surinam and Guyana in South America are rich in bauxite.  Saudi Arabia and Kuwait are rich in oil.  The United States has the highest standard of living and it consumes 30% of earth’s mineral and energy resources each year, even though it has only 6% of the world’s population. NonRenewable Resources

5  Gold/Bauxite/Silver

6  Energy

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10  LOCATION OF OIL REFINERIES

11   Underneath the topsoil is a layer of soil consisting of inorganic matter including broken down rocks, sand, silt, clay and gravel.  Slabs of Bedrock are cut from quarries and used in construction. Bed Rock

12   Aggregates - mixture of gravel, sand and crushed stone. Used for a base for highways.  Found in floodplains of river valleys.  Other aggregates were deposited by glaciers.  Aggregates are used to form concrete or mortar. Provides volume and stability to the mixture, and it also makes the finished surface more resistant to erosion and weathering.  Ores - Natural resource Aggregates

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14    Ores - Natural resource that is mined as long as the value is greater than the cost.  Hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) is an iron ore because it contains 70% of the weight.  · Settling of Crystals - ores associated with igneous rocks may contain iron, chromium, and platinum - form when minerals crystallize and settle to the bottom of a cooling body of magma.  Ex., One of the largest deposits of chromium and platinum in the world is the Bushveldt Complex in South America. Ores

15  Copper ore

16  Land Resources The United States has 42% Certified as public land. Consists of forests, parks and wild- lifrefuges. 73% 22% Located in Alaska Western States National Park systems preserves scenic and unique natural landscapes. About 49% of the land in the national park systems is designated as wilderness.

17   · Hydrothermal Fluids - source of metallic ore deposits.  Hot water and other fluids may be part of the magma that is injected into surrounding rock during the last stages of magma crystallization.  Copper and gold become concentrated in magma, solution fills veins, known as hydrothermal veins. Hydrothermal Fluids

18   · Chemical Precipitation - Ores of manganese and iron most commonly originate from chemical precipitation in layers.  Iron ores are found in bands make up of alternating layer of iron-bearing minerals and chert. Chemical Precipitation

19   · Placer Deposits - Gold and Silver are heavy metals.  The velocity and volume of water in a stream or river carries the grains of gold and silver.  A decrease in volume and bends slows down and grains are deposited. Ex. Gold nuggets, gold dust, diamonds, and gemstones. Placer Deposits

20  Placer deposit of GOLD

21   Aluminum forms in bauxite through weathering in tropical climates.  Other metals that become more concentrated as rocks weather include nickel,  copper, silver, lead, tin, mercury, uranium, and manganese. · Concentration by Weathering

22   The topsoil is the fertile part of soil. Land with not lot of vegetation will result in erosion and the loss of topsoil. Today, topsoil is eroding faster that it forms on about 1/3 of Earth’s croplands. Every 10 years, Earth loses about 7% of its topsoil. In arid and semi-arid areas of the world, loss of topsoil leads to desertification.  Productive land becomes desert. Desertification is a growing problem in cattle-producing areas in North Africa south of the Sahara, Middle East, western half of the United States, and in Australia. Desertification is prevented by planting trees and shrubs to anchor soils and retain water. Soil

23   Clay - is a sediment, and a group of minerals, made up of tiny particles. Used in ceramics, china, tiles, and pottery.  Salt - or sodium chloride, occurs in deposits on surface and underground.  Ex. One of the most famous salt mines in the world is the Wieliczka Salt Mine in Poland.  Other mineral resources found on the land are gypsum used for making plaster; talc used in cosmetics; and graphite which is used as a lubricant. Other Land Resources

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25  Salt Mine

26  Detroit Mi Salt Mines

27  Salt Mining

28  Detroit Salt Corridor

29   Mining causes destruction to the contours of the land.  Open pits leave waste rock and pollutants.  Gangue is material left after the ore is extracted. Using Land Resources

30  Open Pit Mining

31   Oxygen make up 21% of the air.  Water vapor can make up as much as 5% of air by volume. Air Resources

32  Oxygen has not always been a part of Earth’s atmosphere. Ancient atmosphere was comprised of CO 2, N 2, and water vapor 4.6 to 4.5 billion years ago. As Earth cooled, rains washed most of the CO 2 out of the atmosphere and into the oceans. Early life forms used this CO 2 during photosynthesis and released oxygen. Origins of Oxygen

33   Human activities are disrupting Earth’s delicate balance. Humans burn fossil fuels to produce electricity and burn forests to clear land.  These activities release sulfur and nitrogen into the atmosphere. The sulfur is converted into SO 2 and H 2 SO 4 (sulfuric acid) which returns as ACID RAIN.  Nitrogen oxides are converted into to NO 2 (nitric acid) which also returns as acid rain. Both the excess nitrogen oxides and sulfur are pollutants.  Air pollution is when pollutants in the air occur in quantities that become harmful to human health and the health of the environment. Disrupting Earth’s Cycles

34   The exhaust from motor vehicles - 90% of CO (carbon monoxide) pollution in cities.  CO is a colorless, odorless gas which interferes with the body’s ability to absorb oxygen and causes headaches, chest pains, dry throat, and nausea. Largest air Pollution Source –U.S.

35   Human activities are disrupting Earth’s delicate balance.  Human burn fossil fuels to produce electricity and burn forests to clear land.  These activities release sulfur and nitrogen into the atmosphere. S+ H S0 2 H 2 S0 4 sulfuric acid returns as acid rain Disrupting Earth’s cycles

36  Acid Rain

37  Acid Rain Forest

38   Nitrogen oxides are converted to HN0 3  Air pollutants are substances that occur at levels that are harmful to humans and the environment.

39  NOx

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42   Origins are both human and natural.  Natural: volcanic eruptions, forest fires  Human: gases, smoke, and dust.  Largest source : Burning fossil fuels  Single largest source in U.S. – motor vehicles 90% of CO carbon monoxide Sources of Air Pollution

43   It is a colorless, odorless gas that interferes with the body’s ability to absorb oxygen and causes headaches, chest pain, dry throat and nausea. CO

44   Transport and Dilution- Pollution knows no boundaries Depends on wind direction and speed, topographical features and buildings interrupt the flow of winds and transport of the pollutants. Sources Cont…..

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46   Transformation and Removal: Photochemical changes are triggered by UV Radiation. Photochemical smog- forms when a mixture of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds interact under the influence of sunlight. Pollutants are removed by snow, mist, fog and rain. Source Cont…

47  Smog

48   Certain products offered in stores contain chemical to prevent damage to them.  Indoor Pollutants Stylene Asbestos Tetrachloroethylene Carbon Monoxide Cholorform Formaldehyde Nitrogen Oxides Tobacco smoke Indoor Air Pollution

49  Indoor Pollution

50   Lack proper air circulation  Chemical odors are concentrated Symptoms: headaches, coughing sneezing, burning eyes, nausea, chronic fatigue and flu-like symptoms. Symptoms disappear when people leave the building. Sick Building

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52   Known radon is Radon 222 Colorless,odorless, and tasteless Produced by the decay of Uranium 238 Small amounts of U-238 found in soils and rocks. Radon found in these deposits seeps upwards through the soil into the atmopshere. Radon Gas

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54  Radon

55   Environmental Protection Agency  They advise people to use a Radon test kit in their homes especially the older built ones. EPA

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57   The ocean contains 97% of the planet water. 3% of the total water is freshwater 2.97% is frozen in the polar ice caps 0.003% available for human consumption Water Resources

58  71% of the surface of the earth is covered with water Earth is the Water Planet Ocean regulates climate and provide habitat for marine organisms Organisms that live on Earth are made of mostly of water. 50% to 60% water by weight ex. trees 60% by weight Importance of water

59   Exist in three states of matter gas/liquid/solid Adhesive and Cohesive properties Boils at 100 C Freezes at 0 C High heat capacity Universal solvent Ice is less density than liquid water. It expands as it freezes. Properties of water

60   70% Irrigation  18% croplands 80% of agricultural water used for irrigation evaporates or seeps into the ground, 23 % of freshwater is used for cooling, and production of oil and gas Of the that water drawn off 7% is Domestic and municipal use. Use of Freshwater Resources

61  U.S. Water Usage

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63   Manages water ways.  Used to control flooding.  Collect water for irrigation and municipal use  Hydroelectric power  Recreational activities Currently they controls between 25% and 50% of the total runoff on every continent. Dams and Reservoirs

64  China Largest Dam in The World: Three Gorges

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66  Hoover DAM

67  Water releases from behind the dam

68  Ariel View Of the Colorado River/Hoover Dam

69  By Pass Road

70  Largest Reservoir Lake Meade

71   cXNvNnBqBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDdmlkBHZ0aWQD VjEzMw-- ?p=hoover+dam+story&vid=20eb98b91c84a0fe9f155 4ea6913a036&l=27%3A38&turl=http%3A%2F%2Fts4. mm.bing.net%2Fth%3Fid%3DV % 26pid%3D15.1&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.youtube.com%2Fwatch%3Fv%3Dn4o8NISa4Hs&tit=The+sto ry+of+Hoover+Dam&c=0&sigr=11ajnr9vj&fr=yfp-t- 701&tt=b cXNvNnBqBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsDdmlkBHZ0aWQD VjEzMw-- ?p=hoover+dam+story&vid=20eb98b91c84a0fe9f155 4ea6913a036&l=27%3A38&turl=http%3A%2F%2Fts4. mm.bing.net%2Fth%3Fid%3DV % 26pid%3D15.1&rurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.youtube.com%2Fwatch%3Fv%3Dn4o8NISa4Hs&tit=The+sto ry+of+Hoover+Dam&c=0&sigr=11ajnr9vj&fr=yfp-t- 701&tt=b Hover Dam StoryStory

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73   Romans built the first to transport water.  Today there are tunnels, aqueducts and underground pipes/ Aqueducts

74  Roman Aqueducts

75   A series of aqueducts that carry water for Northern California to Southern California. California Water Project

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78   23% of all freshwater is pumped from aquifers.  ex. Florida, Hawaii, Nebraska – Here 90% of the population depend on ground water from aquifers for drinking water.  Most produce hard water. Tapping Ground Water

79  AQUIFER

80  Largest Aquifer OGALLALA

81   Water contain a high level of Calcium and magnesium ions and does not form suds when soap is added  Ground water moves from points for high elevation and pressure to points of lower elevation and pressure.  Moves at a rate of 1 m/yr. Hard Water

82   If the withdrawn rate of an aquifer exceeds its natural recharge, the water table around the withdrawn point is lowered and is known as draw down.  If too many wells are drawn down too lower than the well will go dry. Hard water/ Aquifers

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84  SOFT WATER

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86   Removal of salt from water.  Desalination – Occurs when salt water is distilled- using a process of evaporation wheh is very expensive.  Most countries use solar energy to evaporate sea water. Desalination

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88   Trickle irrigation Provides water directly to the plants roots Industry uses recycle water Installed low flow toilets Using drought resistant plants Fixing leaking pipes Reducing Freshwater Use

89  Trickle Irrigation


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