5Jaws evolved from gill supports. Jaws developed from gill arches located around the pharynx.craniummouthgill archesJaws gave vertebrates a huge advantage as predators.
6Only two groups of jawed fish still exist. Cartilaginous fish and bony fish are still in existence.Cartilaginous fish have skeletons made of cartilage.
7Cartilaginous fish include the Holocephali and Elasmobranchs Holocephali include ratfish, a small group of deep-sea fish.Elasmobranchs include sharks, rays, and skates.
8Class Chondrichthyes- cartilaginous fish: sharks and rayscartilaginous skeleton2-chambered heart5+ pharyngeal slitswell developed lower jawbony teethplacoid (tooth-like) scalesventral mouth and nostrilsnostrils do not open into mouth
16Class Osteichthyes- bony fishossified skeleton2-chambered heartpharyngeal slits covered by single bony operculum (gill cover)membranous fins strengthened with rayspresence of a swim bladder (teleost)lateral line sensory receptor
22Fish are vertebrates with gills and paired fins. Fish use specialized organs called gills to breathe underwater.sheets of thick, frilly tissue filled with capillariestake in dissolved oxygen from water, release carbon dioxidewaterflow
23Countercurrent flow is the opposite movement of water against the flow of blood in the fish’s gills.
30Dorsal & anal fins – act as rudders to steer & provide Dorsal & anal fins – act as rudders to steer & provide stability (unpaired)Pelvic fins – to turn, balance, & “brake” (paired)Pectoral fins – steering (paired)
40General Life Style Categories Fish Adaptations and Life StylesGeneral Life Style Categoriesa. pelagic cruisersoccurring in water column far away from the bottom (benthic) environmentoften referred to as "blue water"includes tuna, billfish, blue sharks, mackerel sharks (great whites and mako sharks)
41b. demersalbottom-associated fishes, but not usually sitting on the bottomrely on the benthic environment as a source of food, place to reproduce, and/or place of refuge, etc.includes most reef fishes (e.g., butterfly fishes, surgeon fishes, wrasses, parrot fishes, etc.)
42c. benthicbottom-dwelling fishes that spend the majority of time sitting on the bottomincludes flatfishes, lizard fishes, many scorpion fishes, many hawkfishes, gobies, etc.
43Body shapetuna1) fusiform a) = torpedo-shaped b) allows minimal drag while swimming c) best shape for a pelagic cruise
452) compressedlaterally flattened (e.g., butterflyfishes & surgeonfishes)allows for maneuverability in surge environmentsuseful for demersal fishes that hover above the reefexception seen in flatfishes that lie on one side of the body as benthic fishes
483) elongated or attenuated long body (e.g., trumpetfish, cornetfish, eels)seen in demersal fish that either hover motionless in the water)seen also in benthic fishes (e.g., eels) that hide in holes in the reef
494) depresseddorso-ventrally flattened (e.g., frogfishes, scorpionfishes & gobies)broad ventral surface facilitates resting on the bottomseen in many benthic fishes
50Body Coloration 1) source of color pigment color - chromatophores for yellows, reds, oranges, browns, & blacksstructural color - iridophores (reflection) & light refraction for blues, silvers, & rainbows
512) patternsa) countershadingdark blue or black dorsally, white or silvery ventrallyresults in blue water "camouflage“observed most frequently in pelagic cruisers
52b) camouflagematching the background colorationusually involves having irregular dark blotches and spotstypically seen in benthic fishes, especially benthic ambush predators (e.g., frogfishes, gobies, & many scorpionfishes)some fishes (e.g., flatfishes) may exhibit rapid color changes in response to different backgrounds
55c) disruptive coloration 1) color pattern breaks up the silhouette of the fish2) may involve dark bars across the eye and tail region3) seen in many demersal fishes such as butterfly fishes
56d) bars and stripes1) bars are vertical (e.g., manini)2) stripes are horizontal (e.g., ta'ape)3) seen frequently in schooling demersal fishes4) may confuse potential predators by making it difficult to select individualprey from the school
57e) misdirection1) false eye spots, etc.2) observed in many demersal butterfly fishes
58f) advertising coloration 1) bright, obvious color patterns 2) possible functionsa) advertising a cleaning station (e.g., cleaner wrasses)b) advertising a warning (e.g., nohu)c) advertising for mates (e.g., male parrotfishes)Hawaiian cleanerwrasseNohu
591) imitating other creatures g) mimicry1) imitating other creatures2) seen in a few demersal and benthic fishes3) examplesa) blenny (Aspidontus taeniatus) mimicscleaner wrassesb) shortnose wrasse mimics Potter's angel which sports a defensive spine
66Distribution - Anatomy - Circulation - Respiration Chondrichthyes (370)Placoderm( )Ostracoderm (510-=350 mybp)(360)Osteichthyes (395)allows. Class Agnatha or Cephalaspidomorphi, the jawless fishes Subclass (or order) Cyclostomata, the lampreys and hagfishes. (In certain classifications, the lampreys and hagfishes are each considered separate superclasses: Cephalaspidomorphi and Pteraspidomorphi, respectively.) Class Chondrichthyes, the cartilaginous-skeleton fishes Subclass Holocephali, the chimaeras, or ratfishes Subclass Elasmobranchii, the sharks, skates, and rays Class Osteichthyes, the bony fishes Subclass (or order) Crossopterygii, the coelacanth Subclass (or order) Dipnoi or Dipneusti, the lungfishes (In some classifications, the above two subclasses are treated as orders of a single subclass, the Choanichthyes or Sarcopterygii, the lobe-finned fishes.) Subclass Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes Infraclass (or superorder) Chondrostei, the primitive ray-finned bony fishes: sturgeons, paddlefish, and bichirs (In some classifications, the bichirs are placed in a subclass of their own, the Brachiopterygii.) Infraclass (or superorder) Holostei or Neopterygii, the intermediate ray-finned fishes: gars and the bowfin (In certain classifications, the gars are treated as a separate superorder, the Ginglymodi. The term Ginglymodi also has been used to designate the gars as an order, but this term has been replaced at the ordinal level by the term Lepisosteiformes; orders are now indicated by the ending -formes.) Infraclass (or superorder) Teleostei or Neopterygii, the advanced bony fishes: herring, salmon, perch.Distribution - Anatomy - Circulation - Respirationlamprey& hagfish