Presentation on theme: " Ensuring Effective Co-Teaching: How to prepare educators to work in successful co-teaching pairs. SPED707 Emmy Mlawer."— Presentation transcript:
Ensuring Effective Co-Teaching: How to prepare educators to work in successful co-teaching pairs. SPED707 Emmy Mlawer
Agenda Introduction: What is co-teaching? Why does it work? Problem: Why is co-teaching not implemented properly? How can teachers be better prepared to co-teach? Solution: A one-year Professional Development/mentoring program for co- teachers Goals and Objectives Timeline Budget Funders
Vocabulary IDEA- Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (2004) LRE- Least Restrictive Environment Inclusion Model ICT- Integrated Co-Teaching Co-Teaching/Co-Teachers PD- Professional Development
What is Co-Teaching? Students with disabilities must be educated in the LRE (Kilanowski-Press, Foote & Rinaldo, 2010) “the premier format for inclusive instruction” (Kilanowski-Foote et al., 2010, p.46)
What is Co-Teaching? Cook and Friend explained: “Co-teaching can be defined as two professional educators delivering substantive instruction to a diverse groups of students, including students with disabilities, within a single space- typically a shared classroom.” (as cited in Embury & Kroeger, 2012, p.103)
The 6 Models 1. One Teach/ One Assist (drift) 2. One Teach/ One Observe 3. Station Teaching 4. Alternative Teaching 5. Parallel Teaching 6. Team Teaching (Embury & Kroeger, 2012)
The 6 Models
Teacher Perspective on the 6 Models According to a co-teacher about the model he believed was the most effective: “I cannot say that this or that one was effective since some of them have advantages, and some of them have disadvantages... It changes according to the lesson and program at that time, therefore it cannot be said that the most effective one was this, or the most ineffective one was that...” (Gurgur & Uzuner, 2010, p. 321).
Student Perspectives on the 6 Models “ When teachers’ roles are reduced to that of an assistant or aide in the classroom, the students show an awareness of that power differential and status.“ (Embury & Kroeger, 2012, p. 102) One teach, one assist model should not be used primarily (Hover, Hicks & Saveski, 2012)
Why does Co-Teaching work? Collaborative Educators (Hover, Hicks & Saveski, 2012) Marriage of educators that requires “effort, flexibility, and compromise” (Scruggs, Mastropieri & McDuffle, 2007, p. 405) for success (as cited in Hover et al., 2012).
Strategies for effective co-teaching Talk (Rytivaara & Kershner, 2012 ) Take into account all members of the classroom (Embury & Kroeger, 2012) Time: to create a joint classroom vision (Rytivaara & Kershner, 2012) to plan (Gurgur & Uzuner, 2010) to state expectations (Gurgur & Uzuner, 2010).
Strategies for effective Co-Teaching Quote from a teacher about the importance of planning meetings in a co-teaching environment: “Of course, if there are two teachers in the class, they must have a plan to follow. I do not think that the success will be achieved in a class where the teachers have no plan. Teachers should know what to do so that they can enter into this class and teach the lesson.” (Gurgur & Uzuner, 2010, p. 317)
Student Opinions on Co-Teaching “Students were positive about having two adults in the classroom, however, willingness to ask for assistance varied across environments.” (Embury & Kroeger, 2012, p. 102)
The Problem: Co-teaching sounds great! So, why is it not implemented as much or as effectively as it should be?
Common Pitfalls of Co-Teaching Top-Down Approach (Rytivaara & Kershner, 2012 Inexperienced Teachers (Rytivaara & Kershner, 2012) Conflict in Teaching Styles (Rytivaara & Kershner, 2012) Insufficient Planning Time (Gurgur & Uzuner, 2010) Lack of Respect for One Another (Gurgur & Uzuner, 2010) Difficulties Sharing Classroom Responsibilities (Gurgur & Uzuner, 2010) Disharmony Among Co-Teachers (Gurgur & Uzuner, 2010)
Lack of Teacher Preparedness Need for professional development programs (Rytivaara & Kershner, 2012) “General education and special education teachers must receive training on issues such as inclusion, special education support services and cooperative skills.” (Gurgur & Uzuner, 2010, p. 326)
Underutilization of Co-Teaching Although co-teaching is the “most beneficial model of inclusive practice” (p. 43) it is underutilized The focus of many teachers may be on individual needs instead of whole-class inclusive practices, such as co-teaching (Kilanowski-Foote et al., 2010)
The Solution: Professional Development Teachers must feel comfortable and knowledgeable about implementing new classroom practices (Musanti & Pence, 2010) Borko (2004) and Darling-Hammond (2000) have stated: “Research has shown that quality professional development can change teachers’ practices and positively affect student learning.” (as cited in Musanti & Pence, 2010, p. 73)
The Solution: Professional Development PDs focusing on increasing teachers’ efficacy aided teachers in feeling more confident in planning, implementing and assessing a wider range of students in their classrooms (Ross & Bruce, 2007) Relationship between enacting whole-school PD and increased student achievement in science (Johnson, Kahle & Fargo, 2007)
Grant Proposal There needs to be better teacher preparation prior to engaging in a co-teaching environment in order for co-teaching to be a successful service for students in ICT classroom settings.
Staffing and Support 1 pair of Co-Teaching Veterans (2 educators with at least 3 years experience co-teaching) 10 pairs of new Co-Teachers (20 educators)
Goals & Objectives Goal: Through the implementation of a three day workshop on the foundations and strategies of co-teaching and by enacting a one year mentoring program for beginning co-teaching pairs, co-teachers will feel more confident and be better able to use co-teaching effectively in their ICT classrooms Objectives: Co-teachers will learn the basic foundations and strategies of co- teaching. Co-teachers will engage in team building activities and co-plan in order to ensure that they are able to conjure a joint classroom vision and work as a collaborative pair. Co-teachers will feel supported throughout their first year of co- teaching by having a mentor co-teaching pair who they meet with on a monthly basis.
Timeline TIMEEVENT June 2013Veteran co-teaching pair is chosen August 2013 – Day 1First day of workshop: An Introduction to Co-Teaching: What is it and Why Does it Work? August Day 2Second day of workshop: The Apprentice Team Building Activity and more about Co- Teaching Strategies August Day 3Final day of workshop: Planning Day with Role Playing September 2013Monthly meetings with co-teaching pairs and mentors begin October 2013Monthly meetings continue
Timeline TIMEEVENT November 2013Monthly meetings continue December 2013Monthly meetings continue January 2014Mid-year conferences and reflections February 2014Monthly meetings continue March 2014Monthly meetings continue April 2014Monthly meetings continue May 2014Last monthly meeting June 2014End of year review and reflections
Budget ITEMAMOUNTCOST Marilyn Friend’s Co-Teach! Building and Sustaining Effectve Classroom Partnerships in Inclusive Schools 20 copies$738 Marilyn Friend’s The Power of 2, Second Edition 1 copy$149 Teacher’s Planning Books20$ One Subject Notebooks20$25.80 Folders20 $ Pens4 packs$4.76
Budget ITEMAMOUNTCOST Space for workshops(provided by school)- Copies of handouts(provided by school)- Projection Screen(provided by school)- Compensation for co- teaching mentors Approximately $60/hr (based on contract) $8,520 ($4,260 each) Food for 3 day workshopFor 22 participants$ Team building activity: “Getting to Know You” The Apprentice For 20 participants$2,500 TOTAL COST: $12,922.56
Funders The Heckscher Foundation for Children - application process has no deadline, once submitted via foundation website, applicants will be notified within 30 days of decision - given to many schools - focus on teacher education and school progress - given to 159 grants in the past year - high $1,200,000 and low $500 (no minimum or maximum amounts given)
Funders The JP Morgan Chase Foundation - “strengthen instructional strategies” - specific focus on NY area - no deadline - apply to regional grants coordinator through sending a letter of inquiry form - Giving activities include: $133,757,626 for 12,687 grants (high: $5,000,000; low: $10) Responsibility/corporate-philanthropy.htm
References Embury, D. C. & Kroeger, S.D. (2012). Let’s Ask the Kids: Consumer Constructions of Co-teaching. International Journal of Special Education, 27(2) Gurgur, H. & Uzuner, Y. (2010). A Phenomenological Analysis of the Views on Co-Teaching Applications in the Inclusion Classroom. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 10(1) Hover, S. V., Hicks, D. & Sayeski, K. (2012). A Case Study of Co-Teaching in an Inclusive Secondary High-Stakes World History I Classroom. Theory & Research in Social Education, Johnson, C. C., Kahle, J. B. & Fargo, J. D. (2007). A Study of the Effect of Sustained, Whole-School Professional Development on Student Achievement in Science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 44(6) Kilanowski-Press, L., Foote, C. J. & Rinaldo, V. J. (2010). Inclusion Classrooms and Teachers: A Survey of Current Practices. International Journal of Special Education, 25(3) Musanti, S. I. & Pence, L. P. (2010). Collaboration and Teacher Development: Unpacking Resistance, Constructing Knowledge, and Navigating Identities. Teacher Education Quarterly, 37(1) Ross, J. & Bruce, C. (2007). Professional Development Effects on Teacher Efficacy: Results of Randomized Field Trial. Journal of Educational Research, 101(1) Rytivaara, A. & Kershner, R. (2012). Co-teaching as a context for teachers’ professional learning and joint knowledge construction. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(7)
Questions & Answers Do you think that this PD and mentoring program would be beneficial and sufficient for beginning co-teachers to feel confident enough to implement co-teaching in their classrooms? If not, how can it be improved?