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Classical Greece Chapter Objective: Study the history and culture of classical Greece and analyze its impact On the modern world.

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Presentation on theme: "Classical Greece Chapter Objective: Study the history and culture of classical Greece and analyze its impact On the modern world."— Presentation transcript:

1 Classical Greece Chapter Objective: Study the history and culture of classical Greece and analyze its impact On the modern world.

2 Section 1 Objectives Identify the ways geography and climate shaped Greek Life. Explain the rise and development of Mycenaean civilization. Describe how Homer and Greek myths contributed to early Greek culture.

3 Setting the Stage Greece was not always a unified country but was rather a collection of separate societies. The largest society was that of the Minoans who lived on the large island of Crete- until people from all around the Mediterranean began to migrate and settle in mainland Greece (inland).

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5 Geography of Greece It’s a mountainous peninsula {piece of land that juts out onto a body of water} surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea Also Includes 2,000 islands in the Aegean and Ionian Seas Also included lands on the eastern edge of the Aegean Sea

6 How did the Sea shape Greek Culture Sea Greeks rarely had to travel more than 85 miles to reach the coastline Greeks lacked natural resources like timber, metal, and usable farmland that was found on their own land What do you think then is the EFFECT of each of these causes? CAUSES

7 How did the Sea shape Greek Culture Sea Greeks rarely had to travel more than 85 miles to reach the coastline Greeks became skilled sailors Greeks lacked natural resources like timber, metal, and usable farmland that was found on their own land The sea became a link to other societies and allowed them to trade for the resources they needed What do you think then is the EFFECT of each of these causes? CAUSES

8 How did the land shape Greek Culture Land Rugged mountains covered 3/4 th of Greece and divided the land into different regions Only a small part, 1/4 th of the land was arable, or fertile for farming. What do you think then is the EFFECT of each of these causes? CAUSES Uneven terrain made land transportation difficult. Difficulties of the land made it hard to support a life of luxury

9 How did the land shape Greek Culture Land Rugged mountains covered 3/4 th of Greece and divided the land into different regions Could not support large populations Only a small part, 1/4 th of the land was arable, or fertile for farming. Motivated Greeks to seek new sites for colonies. What do you think then is the EFFECT of each of these causes? CAUSES Uneven terrain made land transportation difficult. Difficulties of the land made it hard to support a life of luxury Instead of a single government, they developed small independent communities. Little roads existed hat could connect different communities. Made them isolated.

10 How did the climate shape Greek Culture Climate Greece had a varied climate from winter to summer What do you think then is the EFFECT of each of these causes? CAUSES

11 How did the climate shape Greek Culture Climate Greece had a varied climate from winter to summer What do you think then is the EFFECT of each of these causes? CAUSES Allowed for an outdoor life and men spent much of their time at outdoor public event

12 Mycenaean Civilization Develop Mycenaeans were Indo- European immigrants who settled on the Greek mainland around 2000 B.C. that comes from the name of their leading city Mycenae. Mycenae was located in Southern-Greece on a rocky ridge with a protective wall 20 feet thick. A warrior-king to rule the surrounding villages and farms. These kings dominated from about 1600 to 1100 B.C.

13 Contact with Minoans Either through trade or war the Mycenaean’s came into with the Minoans. What did they learn from them? They showed the Mycenaean’s the value of seaborne trade. They started to sail through the eastern Mediterranean making stops at the Algerian islands, costal Anatolia and the ports of Syria, Egypt, Italy, and Crete. They adapted the Minoan writing system to the Greek language Decorated vases with Minoan designs Formed core of Greek religious practice

14 The Trojan War During the 1200’s B.C. the Mycenaean’s fought a ten-year war against Troy, a trading city located in Anatolia known as the Trojan Wars They did so by sneaking in a giant wooden horse and attacking the city while they were asleep. This story was believed to be completely fictional until a new archaeological discovery in the 1870’s found evidence that these stories may have been based off of real battles and people. Legend says that a Greek army besieged and attacked Troy because a Trojan prince had kidnapped Helen, the beautiful wife of a Greek king.

15 Dorians Enter! Around 1200 B.C. the Mycenaean civilization collapsed when sea raiders attacked and burned it down…a new group called the Dorians moved into the area and they spoke a dialect of Greek They were not as advanced Economy and trade collapsed under their rule Temporarily lost the art of writing : no written record exists from 1150 to 750 B.C. (400 years)

16 Epics of Homer Because they lacked written records, they turned towards learning history through the spoken word that was passed on from generation to generation According to Greek tradition the greatest story teller was a blind man named Homer. Little is known about his personal life Historians believe that he wrote his epics, or narrative poems celebrating heroic deeds, between 750 and 700 B.C. Ex: One of his greatest epic poems is called the Iliad that is based on the Trojan War Heroes are the fierce Greek Achilles and courageous Hector of Troy who seeks to find the Greek ideal of arête meaning virtue or excellence. A Greek could display this ideal on the battle field as well as the athletic field.

17 The Odyssey Is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Home. It is, in part, a sequel to the Iliad. The poem mainly centers on the Greek hero Odysseus and his journey home after the fall of Troy in the Trojan Wars. It takes Odysseus ten years to reach his home of Ithaca. In his absence, it is assumed he has died, and his wife Penelope and son Telemachus must deal with a group of unruly suitors, the Mnesteres who compete for Penelope's hand in marriage and overtake her home. Find & Watch the 1997 version of the movie!

18 In-depth look at The Odyssey: Talking to the Text Step One: Hover over the text and just look over it entirely. Use a highlighter to highlight ALL the words that are new to you, you don’t understand, or seem hard or cool to you. Step Two: share out the words from your list that you think you would absolutely need to know to understand the text Must know words Cool to know words Step Three: How do you talk to a text? Can you understand a piece of reading without understanding all the words?

19 Greeks Create Myths Greeks developed myths, or traditional stories about their Gods Used them to make sense of the mysteries of nature (i.e. changing seasons) and the power of human passions Attributed human qualities (i.e. love, hate) to Gods Fought with each other constantly Lived forever Zeus was ruler of the Gods along with his wife Hera Had a daughter named Athena who was goddess of wisdom and guardian of cities (city of Athens was named after her)

20 Section 2 Objectives Identify the different political systems that developed in the Greek city-states. Describe the government of Athens. Explain how Athenian and Spartan governments differed. Summarize the battles and results of the Persian wars.

21 Setting the Stage During the Dorian Period, two things started to change: 1.Dorians and Mycenaeans began to identify less with the culture of their ancestors but with the local area they lived in 2.Method of governing changed from tribal/clan control to more formal governments called city-states

22 Rule and Order in Greek City- States By 750 B.C. the city-state, or polis was the fundamental political unit in ancient Greece. It was made up of a city and its surrounding countryside which included numerous villages controlled between 50 and 500 square miles of territory contained fewer than 10,000 residents. Citizens gathered at the acropolis (i.e. agora, marketplace, or fortified hilltop)to discuss matters of city politics.

23 Greek Political Structures MonarchyAristocracyOligarchy State ruled by a single person, called a king Rule is hereditary Some rulers claim divine right Practiced in Mycenae by 2000 BC State rules by a small group of noble, landowning families Rule is hereditary and based on family ties, social rank, or wealth Social status and wealth support rulers’ authority Practiced in Athens prior to 594 BC A government ruled by a few powerful people Started when trade allowed for a new class of wealthy merchants and artisans to emerge; they became unhappy with the nobility so they took power or shared it with people Ruling group controls military Practiced in Sparta by 500 BC

24 On page ___ of the IWHN, create the following table and take notes on Athens and Sparta using the book on pages AthensSparta Take notes on: -How their government was organized; who was the leader, how were they chosen, who could participate in government -How citizens received their education: who was allowed, what were they taught, at what age -The basis of their economy -Their social life: literature, religion, arts, sports -How people spent their daily lives -Whether they had social classes or not Page heading: Athens v. Sparta

25 Double Bubble: Athens vs. Sparta Compare and contrast the two Greek city-states You are expected to do MORE THAN three per side ATHENS SPARTA SIMILARITIES

26 The Persian Wars: Read the following pages of the book As you read pay special attention to words in blue (vocabulary words) Paragraph headings: help to organize thinking Maps and pictures on the sides: help to visualize information Answer guided questions: Do not have to be in complete sentences Answers do have to be thorough: meaning with LOTS of details and explanations Consider presenting your answers as graphic organizers [thinking maps] and lists [bullet points] Consider using different color pens and highlighters Page _____ of IWHN

27 Section 3 Objectives Identify the three goals of Pericles. Describe Greek art and architecture. Summarize the work of Greek dramatists and historians. Explain the major conflicts in the Peloponnesian Wars. Identify Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.

28 Setting the Stage For about 50 years from 477 to 431 B.C., Athens experienced a growth in intellectual and artistic learning called the Golden Age of Athens.

29 Divide and Conquer Section 3 has been divided into eight topics: 1.Pericles’ Plan for Athens 2.Glorious Art and Architecture 3.Drama and History 4.Athenians and Spartans go to War 5.Philosophers Search for Truth 6.Socrates 7.Plato 8.Aristotle Depending on your table # will determine what topic you have You must summarize your topic according to the guidelines given to you. ONE person from your table must come up and present your topic to the class As each team is presenting, you are all filling out your notes Page _____ of IWHN

30 Section 4 Objectives Describe Philip’s conquest of Greece. Explain how Alexander the Great defeated the Persian Empire. Summarize Alexander’s conquests and their impact on future cultures.

31 Setting the Stage Peloponnesian War weakened Greek city-states militarily and economically. King Philip II, of nearby Macedonia [who considered themselves Greek too], wanted to : control Greece use it to invade Persia avenge Persian invasion of Greece in 480 B.C.

32 Macedonia Located north of Greece Rough terrain; cold climate Lived in mountain village not city-states Did not have great philosophers, artists, or writers But had fearless kings!

33 King Philip II Became king in years old Turned peasants into a well- trained and professional army Organized them into phalanxes 16 men across and 16 men deep each armed with an 18 foot pike Won against the Greece in his 338 B.C. invasion at the battle of Chaeronea and ended Greek independence Never got the chance to invade Persia because he was stabbed to death by a former guardsmen at his daughter’s wedding. His son took over.

34 Alexander the Great Took 20 years old Was a student of Aristotle: learned Science, geography, and literature Inspired by Homer’s descriptions of Achilles in the Iliad Learned how to be a soldier at a young age When he became king, Greek city of Thebes revolted: he destroyed it, killed about 6000 and sold the rest to slavery All other city-states gave up any idea of a rebellion

35 Invasion of Persia In 334 B.C, he led 35,000 troops into Anatolia Met an army of 40,000 at the Granicus River Alexander led the first attack and smashed the Persian Persia King Darius III raise an army between 50-75,000 and met them at a place called Issus Alexander broke through a weak point and attacked city of Darius directly King Darius and his army ran away

36 Conquering the Persian Empire Darius tried to make peace: offers all the lands west of the Euphrates River Alexander, after such an easy defeat, rejects and sets out to conquer all of the Persia Marched into Egypt: welcomed as a liberator and crowned Pharaoh, or god-king The moved east into Mesopotamia to meet Darius who had an army of 250,000 Met at Gaugamel: attacked with phalanxes and cavalry Darius fled: ended Persian empire Then conquered Babylon, Sa, and Persepolis: Persia’s royal capital

37 Alexander’s Other Conquests Alexander more interested in expanding his empire than governing it Kept pursuing Darius east until he found him near the Caspian Sea murdered by one of his governors For three years, he kept moving East across central Asia hoping to read the farthest edge of the continent 326 B.C.: reached Indus River; fought off Indian army and marched 200 miles after After 11 years, his soldiers had low morale, tired, and wanted to go home. Alexander agreed

38 323 B.C. Alexander returns to Babylon with plans to organize and unify his empire Wanted to construct new cities, roads, harbors, and conquer Arabia But he became ill with a fever and died a few days later at the age of 32 His general fought for control and divided the empire: Antigonus: became King of Macedonia and Greek-City states Ptolemy: seized Egypt, became pharaoh and made a dynasty Seleucus: took more of old Persian empire and it became the Seleucid Empire. All governed with complete power over their subjects contrary to the democratic traditions of Greece

39 Section 5 Objectives Describe Hellenistic Culture. Identify the achievements of Hellenistic scholars. Summarize the major philosophies and artistic styles of the Hellenistic period.

40 Setting the Stage During his military campaign, Alexander wanted to combined the culture of the Persian to his Greek culture. He adopted Persian dress and customs and married a Persian woman. He started new cities as administrative centers of Greek culture like Alexandria in Egypt. After his death, trade a shared Greek culture, and a common language kept the cities linked.

41 The Spread of Hellenistic Culture: Read the following pages of the book As you read pay special attention to words in blue (vocabulary words) Paragraph headings: help to organize thinking Maps and pictures on the sides: help to visualize information Answer guided questions: Do not have to be in complete sentences Answers do have to be thorough: meaning with LOTS of details and explanations Consider presenting your answers as graphic organizers [thinking maps] and lists [bullet points] Consider using different color pens and highlighters Page _____ of IWHN

42 Draw this out in your notebook ON PAGE ____ OF IWHN and fill it out with everything we learned about the Greek Civilization. Greece Make sure you include notes on all four categories: Construction Projects Advances in the Arts Advances in the Sciences Empire Building Make sure you include notes on all three categories: Government Economy Social Structure Page title: SAD CYCLE: Greece

43 Draw this out in your notebook ON PAGE ____ OF IWHN and fill it out with everything we learned about the Greek Civilization. Racial and Ethnic Conflict 1. Conflict over beliefs and values 1. Territorial and Environmental Conflict 1. Conflict over political power 1. Conflict in Greece Page title: CONFLICT: Greece

44 COMPLETE THE TABLE on page ___ of the IWHN using what we studied Interaction between humans and the Environment Development and Interaction of Cultures State-Building, Expansion, and Conflict Creation, Expansion, and Interaction of Economic Systems Development and Transformation of Social Structures #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 Page title: THEMES: Greece

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