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ROBOTIC AIRCRAFT FOR PUBLIC SAFETY (RAPS) OVERVIEW Kirk Kloeppel 20 March 2014.

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Presentation on theme: "ROBOTIC AIRCRAFT FOR PUBLIC SAFETY (RAPS) OVERVIEW Kirk Kloeppel 20 March 2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 ROBOTIC AIRCRAFT FOR PUBLIC SAFETY (RAPS) OVERVIEW Kirk Kloeppel 20 March 2014

2 UAS or “DRONE” 2

3 RAPS Purpose, Approach, Scope Test Range Process ̶Manufacturer Participation ̶Performance Goals ̶Test Plan ̶Test Reports Schedule, Lessons Learned, Future Outlook Web Links Back Up Information Contents 3

4 To evaluate performance and utility of SUAS-sensor combinations using: Primary focus: Capability gaps of public, first responder organizations ̶All levels of government, including DHS operational components, especially Customs and Border Protection Office of Border Patrol; U.S. Coast Guard; USSS; FEMA; other –Many other stakeholders/partners: FAA; DOJ/FBI, DJP; DOS/AVC-VTT; DOC/NOAA, NIST; NASA; DOD; DOI/NFS, NPS, USGS; CAL FIRE; other Purpose/Test Approach 4 ̶Key capability measures ̶One test – ours – applied uniformly to all systems to be tested ̶Realistic operational test scenarios and environments ̶Test reports produced for each system tested

5 Test categories ̶Scripted operational scenarios –Search and rescue (SAR) –Fire/HAZMAT/disaster –Law enforcement (LE) ̶Operational utility assessments ̶Use in National Airspace System (NAS) RAPS Scope 5  Technical scope, requirements ̶Restricted airspace (COAs are not feasible) ̶Fixed- and rotary-winged aircraft, < 25 lb MTOW, and modular, available sensors (already integrated) that address our test objectives ̶Day-time flight testing at altitudes < 400 ft (AGL)

6 Other research and development activities ̶RAMPS is a new S&T-USCG Research and Development Center (RDC) partnership for SUAS Maritime testing ̶Technology foraging and field testing –Severe storm modeling and simulation –Airborne collision avoidance –Counter-spoofing/jamming ̶Ongoing support to DHS’s Working Group on Privacy and Civil Rights and Civil Liberties ̶U.S. border security demonstration √ ̶Ultra-quiet SUAS prototype √ Air-based Tech R&D 6

7 Border Security Benefits 7 7 –Rapid response ̶Improved situational awareness and agent safety ̶High-value assets in remote, inaccessible, dangerous AORs –Relatively low unit costs could provide ̶Many more air assets for target identification and tracking ̶Eventually, complete aerial coverage of the U.S. border

8 Oklahoma Training Center – Unmanned Systems (OTC-US) Location: Elgin, OK, adjacent to Ft. Sill U.S. Army Post and within Ft. Sill restricted airspace RAPS Test Range 8 OTC-US site (red outline) “Liberty City” site (urban scenarios) OTC-US is a test facility of the Oklahoma State University’s University Multispectral Laboratory

9 We developed 21 SUAS Performance Goals ̶Based on notional user scenarios created by senior LE, fire, SAR, and border security operators ̶Scenarios were vetted with operational communities Our Goals encompass: Vendor Participation 9 ̶Areas noted: User applications; operational utility; transition to NAS ̶RAPS PM priority to seek mature SUAS solutions that could support near-term transition of good (not necessarily the best) capabilities  September 2012 RFI invited manufacturer participation (“Cycle 1”): 72 white papers were received ̶White paper screening and selection process:  Compliance check vs. RAPS Performance Goals  Results: Near-term testing; Later testing; Rejected (non-compliant)

10 SUAS Performance Goals 10 Common Requirements: ThresholdObjective Lost Link ProceduresRally PointRally Point, after time return to launch Airframe Accumulated Flight Time> 200 hr (rotary); > 500 hr (fixed)> 400 hr (rotary); > 1,000 hr (fixed) SensorsElectro-optical and infraredChemical/biological/radiological Sensors (EO/IR)FixedGimbaled Laser DesignationNoneLaser spotter integrated Training (operator)One weekOne day DeploymentBungee/catapult launchHand launched RecoveryLine/net captureDeep stall/hover Assembly< 5 min< 1 min Ready to launch (after assembly)< 5 min< 1 min Mean time between lost link> 100 hr flight time> 250 hr flight time Airworthiness–Operator’s ManualProvide written Operator’s Manual Airworthiness–Maintenance ManualProvide written Maintenance Manual Weight (MTO)< 25 pounds Rotary-winged UAS: ThresholdObjective Endurance30 min1 hr Range0.25 mi1 mi Speed (dash)10 mph30 mph Speed (endurance)0 mph20 mph Altitude400 ft AGL1000 ft AGL Service Ceiling6,000 ft MSL10,000 ft MSL Acoustic signature (400 ft AGL)70 dBA40 dBA Fixed-winged UAS: ThresholdObjective Endurance30 min2 hr Range1 mi3 mi Speed (dash)20 mph40 mph Speed (endurance)15 mph30 mph Altitude400 ft AGL1000 ft AGL Service Ceiling6,000 ft MSL10,000 ft MSL Acoustic signature (400 ft AGL)70 dBA40 dBA

11 Test Plan uses standard methodologies for operational evaluation ̶54 Performance Measures (PMs) ̶Approved for public release in 2012 ̶A living document that considers ongoing consideration of stakeholder suggestions for improvements “Cycle 1” is the current test program ̶Future, “Cycle 2” testing (FY2015+), if approved, may or will encompass: Expanded fire, SAR, disaster response scenarios Specialized sensor testing More complex test scenarios (example: marine, riverine testing) Airworthiness criteria Test Plan 11

12 Operational capabilities ̶Does SUAS support routine operations by improving situational awareness? Operational utility ̶Is SUAS easy and efficient to assemble, launch, operate, recover, and pack up? ̶Is video output seen effectively at multiple remote terminals? Technology transition ̶Is FAA authorization permitting SUAS operation in the NAS likely? Key Test Factors 12

13 Reports ̶Created by S&T RAPS team for users ̶Vendors: (i) Perform fact checks of final draft; (ii) identify proprietary information; and (iii) clear Executive Summary for public release ̶Approved for release by DHS S&T ̶Posted and archived online Websites ̶Government employees and government-sponsored stakeholders access the Reports via the gateway to S&T’s First Responder Communities of Practice site, https://communities.firstresponder.gov, which is the gateway to the RAPS Community of Practice site. https://communities.firstresponder.gov ̶Access controlled by S&T and RAPS PM­ Test Reports 13

14 Test Reports ̶Content: Complete test results, including scoring summary tables; general SUAS information; company-proprietary cost and other information ̶Audience: Restricted to government employees and government-sponsored stakeholders interested in RAPS (potential users) ̶Access to Test Reports: Available upon request to RAPS Program Manager Available online at Robotic Aircraft for Public Safety (RAPS) Secure Community of Practice website Executive Summaries of Test Reports ̶Content: Highlights of test results ̶Audience: Approved for public release (goal: to reach a wide readership) ̶Access to Executive Summaries: Available upon request to RAPS Program Manager Available online at Robotic Aircraft for Public Safety (RAPS) Community of Practice website Test Reports, cont’d 14

15 To facilitate SUAS comparisons, each Report contains Rating Summaries of results in our 54 Performance Measures in 5 Assessment categories: A1. Law Enforcement; A2. Search and Rescue; A3. Fire Response; A4. Operational Utility; A5. Operation in NAS Rating Summaries 15 Above: Sample Rating summary information Scoring Keys for Qualitative and Quantitative Ratings Performance Measure (PM)Unit, Rating (bar-graph), T & O markersQual., Quant. Rating

16 RAPS Schedule (Cycle 1) 16 Test Week Test Date CompanyPlatform(s) Fixed Rotary Report Online 1 Dec , 2012 Lockheed Martin ADP Stalker (Blk 15), Stalker XE (Blk 10) √√ 2 Jan.14-18, 2013 AeroVironment Puma AE, Raven B, Wasp AE (Blk IV) √√ 3 Mar , 2013 HoneywellT-Hawk (Blk II) √√ 4 Apr , 2013 Leptron (Tactical Electronics) Avenger; R.A.P.T.R. √√ 5 May 13-17, 2013 Aeryon LabsScout V1, SkyRanger √√ 6 June 10-14, 2013 UAS DynamicsSkylark √ 7 June 17-21, 2013 Lockheed Martin MS2 Desert Hawk III, Desert Hawk-EER, Indago √√ 8 July 15-19, 2013 Mission Technology Systems, LLC Buster √ 9 Aug , 2013 AeroVironment Qube, Shrike √

17 17 Test Week Test Date CompanyPlatform(s) Fixed Rotary Report Online 10 Sept. 9-13, 2013 AirRobotAR100B, AR100C, AR200 √ 11 Oct , 2013 PrioriaMaverick, VMAV √√ 12 Dec. 9-13, 2013 Falcon UASFalcon √ 13 Jan , 2014 Applied Research Assoc.Nighthawk √ 14 Jan , 2014 AirCover/Lockheed MartinQR425 √ N/A April 14-25, 2014 CBP (PSI Tactical)InstantEye √ 15 May 12-16, 2014 UAV SolutionsTalon, Allerion, Phoenix30 √ 16 May 19-23, 2014 Stark AerospaceBirdEye 400, Mini-Panther √√ 17 June 16-20, 2014 AuroraSkate √ RAPS Schedule (Cycle 1)

18 No one platform performs well in all scenarios Fixed-wing aircraft: ̶Very good in search and rescue (SAR), fire monitoring ̶Some fixed wing SUAS need operating areas > 200 ft radius Launch and recovery zones Deep stall landings affected by winds Rotary-winged aircraft: ̶Perform well in crime, accident, and arson scene investigation, and in SWAT ̶Hover ability is very beneficial ̶Some systems are relatively quiet, providing stealth, and can “perch” ̶Up to 50-min endurance was tested/verified – winds are not a limiting factor (flying in winds up to 30 mph) ̶In winds, maintain commanded flight profiles better than fixed wing aircraft Lessons Learned – To Date 18

19 Essential capabilities for effective, high-use operations: ̶Integrated EO and IR sensors on a stabilized, gimbaled platform SAR aided by ability to switch between two modes to validate Targets of Interest (TOI) Dual sensors are valuable in urban scenarios where shadows are prevalent ̶Geo-referenced EO and IR full motion video Needed for chain of custody and TOI location accuracy Collision avoidance: ̶For some systems, the best way to avoid oncoming traffic may be to initiate immediate landing – but climb and descend speeds may not be sufficient to avoid collision Other findings: ̶Quiet systems developed by DOD may need audible augmentation during SAR ̶The fuel cell SUAS we tested is a significant new capability: > 8 hr endurance Note to potential users: It requires > 12 min for warm-up prior to launch Lessons Learned, cont’d 19

20 2012 –Range selection; advocacy –Define program scope and set key partnerships –RFI; Test Plan; contracting Stand up: –Processes to work with manufacturers, create and disseminate reports –Liaison to DHS privacy working group Conduct 19 flight test weeks Analyze and disseminate results from Cycle 1 testing New RFI; new Test Plan Expanded test scope (goals): –Fire/HAZMAT/disaster, SAR response –Specialized SUAS sensors –Larger, more complex operational scenarios –Counter-spoofing and anti- jamming capabilities –Airworthiness Severe storm response pilot –RAMPS new start: Maritime testing, USCG RDC-led collaboration –Transition Plan for future funding and management structure Future Outlook 20 Cycle 1, FY Cycle 2, FY

21 RAPS Project Support Officer: –Mr. Kevin Spence: (202) RAPS and related Web Links: –http://www.firstresponder.gov is a public-access DHS S&T websitehttp://www.firstresponder.gov –Government employees and government-sponsored stakeholders interested in RAPS may request access to the RAPS Test Reports via which is the gateway to access S&T’s First Responder Communities of Practice site, https://communities.firstresponder.gov, which is the gateway to the RAPS Community of Practice site. Access is controlled by DHS S&T and the RAPS Program Manager.http://www.firstresponder.gov https://communities.firstresponder.gov –RAPS Request for information (RFI), released September 24, 2012: https://www.fbo.gov/spg/DHS/OCPO/DHS-OCPO/DHS13-01/listing.html RAPS Privacy Impact Assessment (PIA), approved Nov. 16, 2012, was the first such document addressing unmanned aircraft ever published – anywhere in the world: raps_nov2012.pdf Project Office, Web Links 21

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23 No one platform performs well in all scenarios Some fixed winged SUAS may need operating areas > 200 ft radius –Launch and recovery zones –Deep stall landings affected by winds Fixed wing aircraft are very good in search and rescue and fire monitoring Rotary winged platforms perform well in crime, accident, and arson scene investigation and in police SWAT applications –Hover ability is very beneficial –Some systems are relatively quiet, providing stealth, and can “perch” at specific locations Quiet systems developed by the Department of Defense may need audible augmentation during search and rescue Fuel cells provide endurance > 8 hours but require > 12 minutes to warm up prior to launch LESSONS LEARNED 23

24 Integrated EO and IR sensors on a gimbaled platform is essential –Search and rescue scenarios are aided by ability to switch between two modes to validate targets of interest –Dual sensors are valuable in urban scenarios where shadows are prevalent Geo-referencing EO and IR full motion video is essential –Needed for chain of custody and target of interest location accuracy For some systems, the best way to avoid traffic may be to initiate immediate landing –Climb and descent speeds may not be sufficient to avoid collision Rotary winged aircraft are nearing the 30-minute endurance level –Winds are not a limiting factor (fly in winds up to 30 mph) –Can maintain commanded flight profiles LESSONS LEARNED (cont’d) 24

25 25 Dr. John Appleby, ChairDHS S&T HSARPA Mr. Bob Griffin, DirectorDHS S&T First Responder Group Mr. Jonathan CantorDHS Chief Privacy Officer (Act.) Ms. Tamara Kessler, Chief (Act.)DHS Office for Civil Rights and Civil Liberties Mr. John Priddy, DirectorDHS Customs and Border Protection (CBP)/ Air Operations Capt Doug Nash, ChiefDHS U.S. Coast Guard/ Office of Aviation Forces Mr. Chris VaughanDHS Federal Emergency Management Admin./ Geospatial Management Office Mr. Jim Williams, DirectorFederal Aviation Administration (FAA)/ UAS Integration Office Mr. David MortonFAA/ UAS Integration Office, Aviation Safety Inspector Mr. Steve PanskyFAA/ UAS Integration Office, Senior ATC Analyst Dr. Steve McKeeverOklahoma State Univ./ VP for Science &Technol. Transfer; UML/ Executive Director Mr. Eric Meyn, DirectorUniversity Multispectral Laboratories (UML)/ Unmanned Systems Division Chief Robert DokeOklahoma State Fire Marshall Chief Jon HansenDirector, Oklahoma Council On Firefighter Training (COFT) LTC Jon GreenhawOklahoma National Guard Mr. Mike O’SheaDepartment of Justice/ Office of Justice Programs Cmdr Bob Osborne (ret.)Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department Chief Donald Shinnamon, Sr. (ret.)Public Safety Aviation Consultant Mr. Andy LacherMITRE Corporation/ UAS Integration Research Strategist RAPS STEERING GROUP

26 26 PRIVACY


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