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Production of Strawberries in Florida Monica Cooper.

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Presentation on theme: "Production of Strawberries in Florida Monica Cooper."— Presentation transcript:

1 Production of Strawberries in Florida Monica Cooper

2 Field Preparation Clear all debris Clear all debris Construct raised beds Construct raised beds Fumigate Fumigate 2 weeks later, set transplants (15-16 in.) 2 weeks later, set transplants (15-16 in.) Transplant selection  early season yield Transplant selection  early season yield 3 varieties/field 3 varieties/field ‘Sweet Charlie’ & ‘Camarosa’ ‘Sweet Charlie’ & ‘Camarosa’

3 Gulf Coast Research & Education Center Dover, FL

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5 The Pathogens Botrytis cinerea Botrytis cinerea Colletotrichum acutatum Colletotrichum acutatum Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Colletotrichum fragariae Colletotrichum fragariae Xanthomonas fragariae Xanthomonas fragariae Sphaerotheca macularis Sphaerotheca macularis

6 Gray mold Botrytis cinerea Botrytis cinerea Small, firm, light brown spots Small, firm, light brown spots Fruit eventually covered with gray mass of mycelium Fruit eventually covered with gray mass of mycelium Invades blossoms, then infects maturing fruit Invades blossoms, then infects maturing fruit Postharvest Postharvest

7 Management Leaf sanitation & plant spacing Leaf sanitation & plant spacing Cultivars with smaller calyxes Cultivars with smaller calyxes Partially resistant cultivars Partially resistant cultivars Biological controls Biological controls Treat transplants Treat transplants Broad spectrum fungicide on weekly basis Broad spectrum fungicide on weekly basis Iprodione during peak bloom periods Iprodione during peak bloom periods

8 Postharvest: Avoid overripe or damaged fruit Avoid injury Cool fruit Maintain in CO 2 rich atmosphere

9 Anthracnose fruit rot Colletotrichum acutatum Colletotrichum acutatum Round, firm, sunken lesions on fruit Round, firm, sunken lesions on fruit Pink, orange, salmon- colored spore masses Pink, orange, salmon- colored spore masses Favored by warm temperatures & rainfall Favored by warm temperatures & rainfall May cause serious losses in nursery May cause serious losses in nursery

10 Management practices Avoidance Avoidance Resistance Resistance Use minimal amounts of Nitrogen Use minimal amounts of Nitrogen Remove infected fruit from field Remove infected fruit from field Captan or Thiram (protectant) Captan or Thiram (protectant) Quadris (azoxystrobin) Quadris (azoxystrobin)

11 Anthracnose crown rot Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Colletotrichum fragariae Colletotrichum fragariae Wilting & death Wilting & death Temperature dependent Temperature dependent Warm weather & frequent rainfall Warm weather & frequent rainfall Reddish brown rot or streaking in the tissue of the crown Reddish brown rot or streaking in the tissue of the crown

12 Management Preventative End of season removal of inoculum Resistant cultivars Benlate (benomyl) Topsin M (thiophanate-methyl)

13 Angular leaf spot Angular leaf spot Xanthomonas fragariae Angular, water soaked leaf spots Translucent lesions Very resistant to desiccation May become systemic

14 Angular leaf spot Prevention Prevention No resistant commercial cultivars No resistant commercial cultivars Copper containing bactericides Copper containing bactericides

15 Sphaerotheca macularis Powdery mildew Powdery mildew White, web-like growth White, web-like growth Undersides of leaves Undersides of leaves Cool Cool High humidity High humidity Severe in glasshouses & tunnels Severe in glasshouses & tunnels

16 Management Clean stock Clean stock Destroy leaves on which pathogen overseasons Destroy leaves on which pathogen overseasons Protectant fungicide Protectant fungicide Resistant varieties (‘Sweet Charlie’) Resistant varieties (‘Sweet Charlie’)

17 The Arthropod Pests Twospotted spider mite Twospotted spider mite Armyworms Armyworms Thrips Thrips Field cricket Field cricket Sap beetle Sap beetle

18 Tetranychus urticae 88% of growers Warm, spring weather Reduce yield Blooms and developing fruit

19 Spider mite Clean transplants Clean transplants Beneficial mites (30% of growers) Beneficial mites (30% of growers) Miticides Miticides undersides of leaves undersides of leaves

20 Fall & Southern Armyworms Spodoptera fruqiperda Spodoptera fruqiperda Spodoptera eridania Spodoptera eridania Larvae feed on fruit & leaves Larvae feed on fruit & leaves Prefer young, developing leaves Prefer young, developing leaves Nocturnal Nocturnal

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22 Management practices Monitoring  Sept. through Dec. Monitoring  Sept. through Dec. Bacillus thuringiensis Bacillus thuringiensis Methomyl Methomyl

23 Flower thrips Frankliniella cephalica Wind-borne Rasp flowers Mistaken for powdery mildew, spray burn damage

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25 Field cricket Gryllus firmus & G. rubens 2-5 months after beds covered Nymphs & adults feed on crowns & scrape seeds from green fruits

26 Scouting Insecticides

27 Sap beetle Lobiopa insularis Lobiopa insularis Minor concern Minor concern Overripe, damaged berries Overripe, damaged berries Disseminate fruit rot pathogens Disseminate fruit rot pathogens Warm weather Warm weather

28 Management Maintain sound fruit Maintain sound fruit Don’t leave overripe fruit in field Don’t leave overripe fruit in field Harvest all areas of field Harvest all areas of field Scout Scout Insecticides, only in case of population explosion Insecticides, only in case of population explosion

29 Beneficial Arthropods Predaceous mite Predaceous mite Sixspotted thrips Sixspotted thrips Lady beetle larva Lady beetle larva Minute pirate bug larva Minute pirate bug larva Hover fly Hover fly

30 Phytoseiulus persimilis Orange, shiny Faster than spider mites Specialized predator of webspinning spider mites Careful in choice of insecticides

31 Sixspotted thrips Feeds on mites, other small arthropods 3 dark spots on each forewing

32 Minute pirate bug larva Orius insidiosus Thrips, mites, mite eggs, aphids

33 Hover fly Flower fly, syrphid fly Flower fly, syrphid fly Mistaken for fruit fly Mistaken for fruit fly Distinguished by ability to hover & fly backwards Distinguished by ability to hover & fly backwards Adult  pollinators Adult  pollinators Larvae  predaceous on aphid Larvae  predaceous on aphid

34 Insecticides & Miticides Methyl bromide Methyl bromide Methomyl (Lannate) Methomyl (Lannate) Armyworm Armyworm 65-80% acreage 65-80% acreage times/season times/season Fenbutatin-oxide Fenbutatin-oxide Vendex Vendex Mite Mite 31-61% acreage 31-61% acreage times/season times/season Abamectin (Agri-Mek) Mite 68-83% of acreage times/season Diazinon Armyworm 24-35% of acreage times/season Naled (Dibrom) 15% acreage times/season

35 More chemicals Carbaryl (Sevin) Carbaryl (Sevin) 11% of acreage 11% of acreage 2.6 times/season 2.6 times/season Bacillus thuringiensis Bacillus thuringiensis When populations of worms low When populations of worms low 57-65% of acreage 57-65% of acreage times/season times/season

36 Weeds Several grasses & broadleaf weeds Several grasses & broadleaf weeds Managed mainly by fumigation & plastic mulch Managed mainly by fumigation & plastic mulch Weeds problem in: Weeds problem in: Row middles Row middles Planting holes Planting holes Perimeter of field Perimeter of field Nutsedge: Most troublesome Not managed by plastic mulch

37 Weed management Cultivation of row middles Cultivation of row middles Hand weeding Hand weeding Plastic mulches Plastic mulches Cover crops, sods, living mulches Cover crops, sods, living mulches Fallowing Fallowing Herbicides Herbicides Applied to row middles Applied to row middles Rotate herbicides due to changing weed population over 6-7 month season Rotate herbicides due to changing weed population over 6-7 month season

38 Herbicides Paraquat (Gramoxone) Paraquat (Gramoxone) Postemergence Postemergence Annual broadleaf & grasses Annual broadleaf & grasses Top kill of perennials Top kill of perennials Non-selective, need shield to protect berries Non-selective, need shield to protect berries 82-98% of acreage, applications/season 82-98% of acreage, applications/season Napropamide (Devrinol) Napropamide (Devrinol) Annual grasses & broadleaf weeds Annual grasses & broadleaf weeds Not effective on established weeds Not effective on established weeds Not from bloom to harvest Not from bloom to harvest 25% of acreage, 1.23 applications/season 25% of acreage, 1.23 applications/season

39 Nematodes Sting Sting Belonolaimus longicaudatus Belonolaimus longicaudatus Root knot Root knot Meloidogyne spp. Meloidogyne spp. Foliar Foliar Aphelenchoides sp. Aphelenchoides sp. Make plants more susceptible to: Drought Salt damage Other pathogens Fusarium sp. Pythium sp.

40 Sting nematode Ectoparasite Ectoparasite Most damaging: Most damaging: Nurseries Nurseries Transplants Transplants Sandy soil Sandy soil o C o C

41 Symptoms: Well defined borders Dead transplants Stunting, decline, dormancy Browning of leaf edges On roots: Overall, coarse appearance Tips injured No new growth Lack of feeder roots

42 Nematodes Sampling Sampling At end of growing season At end of growing season When soil damp, not soggy or dry When soil damp, not soggy or dry samples at depth of 6-10 inches samples at depth of 6-10 inches Management practices: Management practices: Preplant or postharvest Preplant or postharvest Clean stock Destroy crop at end of season Fallowing with frequent tillage Cover crop Crop rotation Chemical  most common

43 Methyl bromide January 1, 2005 January 1, 2005 Soil fumigant Soil fumigant Controls Controls Weeds Weeds Nematodes Nematodes soil-borne pathogens & insects soil-borne pathogens & insects Telone C-17 or C-35 with Devrinol Telone C-17 or C-35 with Devrinol Telone EC Telone EC Mulches, cover crops Mulches, cover crops

44 Tunnel system Decrease disease Increase early season yields Where water is limiting factor ‘Sweet Charlie’


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