Presentation on theme: "Using Verbs By Ellyn Ball and Lilly Jenkins. Using Verbs Using refers to the way a word or expression is used in a sentence. Verb usage is an area that."— Presentation transcript:
Using Verbs Using refers to the way a word or expression is used in a sentence. Verb usage is an area that can cause many problems.
Four Principal Parts of Verbs A verb has four principal parts: the present, the present participle, the past and the past participle. The Four Principal Parts of Walk PresentPresent ParticiplePastPast Participle Walk(am) walkingWalked(have walked)
Principal Parts : Present The first principal part, called the present, is the form of the verb that is listed in a dictionary. Notice also the helping verbs in parentheses before the second and fourth principal parts. These two principal parts must be combined with helping verbs before they can be used as verbs in sentences. The result will always be a verb phrase. The way the past and past participle of a verb are formed shows whether the verb is regular or irregular.
Using Regular Verbs Most verbs are regular, which means that their past and past participle forms follow a standard, predictable pattern. The past and past participle of a regular verb are formed by adding –ed or-d to the present form. To form the past and past participle of a regular verb such as; chirp or hover, you simply add –ed. With regular verbs that already end in e-verbs such as; move and charge-you simply add-d to the present.
Using Regular Verbs Principal Parts of Regular Verbs PresentPresent ParticiplePastPast Participle Chirp Hover Move Charge (am) chirping (am) hovering (am) moving (am) charging Chirped Hovered Moved charged (have) chirped (have) hovered (have) moved (have) charged
Using Irregular Verbs While most verbs are regular, many very common verbs are irregular-their past and past participle forms do not follow a participle pattern. These are the verbs that cause the most problems. The past and past participle of an irregular verb are not formed by adding –ed or-d to the present form. *** Check a dictionary whenever you are in doubt about the correct form of an irregular verb. Example: present: bring past: brought *** refer to handouts on irregular verbs in your interactive notebook
The Tense and Forms of Verbs In English verbs have six tenses. Each of these tenses has a basic form and a progressive form. A tense is a form of a verb that shows when something happens or when something exists. The chart below shows the basic forms of the six tenses, using begin as an example.
The Tense and Forms of Verbs Basic Forms of the Six Tenses TenseBasic FormPrincipal Part Present Past Future Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect I begin I begun I will begin I have begun I had begun I will have begun Present Past Present Past Participle
Conjugating the Basic Forms of Verbs Conjugating verbs can help you become familiar with the many forms of verbs. A conjugation is a list of the singular and plural forms of a verb in a particular tense. Each tense in a conjugation has six forms that fit the first-,second-, and third-person forms of the personal pronouns. To conjugate any verb, begin by listing its principal parts. For example: the principal parts of the verb hide are hide hiding, hid and hidden. The following conjugation of hide shows all of the basic forms of this verb in the six tenses.
Conjugating the Basic Forms of Verbs Conjugation of the Basic Forms of Hide SingularPlural PresentI hide, you hide he, she, it hides we hide, you hide they hide PastI hid, you hid, he, she it hid we hid, you hid, they hid FutureI will hide, you will hide, he, she, it hide We will hide, you will hide, they will hide Present PerfectI have hiddenWe have hidden Past Perfect I had hiddenWe had hidden Future PerfectI will have hiddenWe will have hidden
The Six Progressive Forms of Verbs Each of the six tenses introduced above also has a progressive form, which indicates continuing action. The present participle and a form of the verb be are used to make all six progressive forms. The following chart, using sing as an example, shows the progressive forms of the six tenses.
The Six Progressive Forms of Verbs Progressive Forms of the Six Tenses of Sing TensesProgressive FormPrincipal Part Present Past Future Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect I am singing I was singing I will be singing I have been singing I had been singing I will have been singing Present Participle
Troublesome Verbs Many people have problem with certain verbs. Some of the problem arises when the wrong principal is used. Other problems are caused when the meanings of certain parts of the verbs are confused. Ain’t is not correct English. Avoid using it in speaking and in writing. Example: This ain’t the Statue of Liberty. incorrect This isn’t the Statue of Liberty. correct This is not the Statue of liberty. The best
Troublesome Verbs Did and Done Done is a past participle and can be used as a verb only with a helping verb such as; have or has. If you find you are using done without a helping verb, try using did instead. Otherwise add the helping verb before done. I done all my studying in Florida. (incorrect) I did all my studying in Florida. (correct) I have done all my studying in Florida. (correct)
Troublesome Verbs Gone and went Gone is the past participle of go and can be used as a verb only with a helping verb such as have or has. Went is the past of go and is never used with a helping verb. The Martins gone on vacation to Florida. (incorrect) Niva has went along with them. (incorrect) The Martins went on vacation to Florida. (correct) The Martins has gone on vacation to Florida. (correct) Niva has gone along with them. (correct) Niva went along with them. (correct)
Troublesome Verbs Have and of In conversation, the words have and of sound very much alike. Be careful not to write of when you really mean the helping verb have or its contraction ‘ve. He should of apologized. (incorrect) He should have apologized. (correct) He should’ve apologized. (correct)
Troublesome Verbs Lay and lie These verbs cause many problems because some of their forms are alike and have similar meanings. The first step in learning to distinguish between lay and lie is to memorize their principal parts. Principal Parts: lay laying laid laid lie lying lay lain
Troublesome Verbs Next, compare the meanings and use the two verbs. Lay usually means “ to put (something) down” or “to place (something).” This verb is almost always followed by a direct object. Lie usually means “to rest in a reclining position” or “to be situated.” Lie is never followed by a direct object. When using lay and lie, pay special attention to one particular area of confusion. Lay is the present tense of lay and lay is also the past tense of lie. Present tense of lay: The settlers always lay their clothes out in the sun to dry. Past tense of lay: Because she was tired, my mother lay down for a nap after dinner.
Troublesome Verbs Raise and Rise Raise has several common meanings “to lift or increase (something) upward”, “to build (something)”, “to build or grow (something)”. Raise the colonial flag higher. Rise on the other hand is usually not followed by a direct object, but usually followed by an adverb or prepositional phrase. Rise means to “get up,” “to go up,” or “to be increased.” The waves have risen steadily.
Troublesome Verbs Saw and seen Seen is a past participle and can be used as a verb only with a helping verb such as have or has. We seen important changes in colonial rule.(incorrect) The governor seen how the colonist responded. (incorrect) We saw important changes in colonial rule. (correct) We have seen important changes in colonial rule. (correct) The governor saw how the colonist responded. (correct) The governor had seen how the colonist responded. (correct)
Troublesome Verbs Set and sit These verbs are often confused. The first step is learning to distinguish between set and sit id to learn their principal parts. Set : set, setting, set, set Sit: sit, sitting, sat, sat Set usually means “to put (something) in a certain place.” it is usually followed by a direct object. Set the candle on the top of the mantel. Sit usually means “to be seated or to rest.” Sit is never followed by a direct object. The duke’s castle sits high up on a mountain.
You do Questions? On the left side of your interactive notebook, list one of each kind of verb learned today (do not use any examples given today). Make sure to illustrate and color code.