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Agence Universitaire pour la Francophonie Programme de Coopération Scientifique International Coopération Mathématique Interuniversitaire Cambodge - France.

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Presentation on theme: "Agence Universitaire pour la Francophonie Programme de Coopération Scientifique International Coopération Mathématique Interuniversitaire Cambodge - France."— Presentation transcript:

1 Agence Universitaire pour la Francophonie Programme de Coopération Scientifique International Coopération Mathématique Interuniversitaire Cambodge - France Michel Waldschmidt Phnom PenhOctober 15, 2005 AUF PCSI

2 Cooperation between Université Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris VI) Responsable du projet: Michel WALDSCHMIDT Institut de Technologie du Cambodge (ITC) co-responsable scientifique: Roath CHAN Institut de Mathématiques de l’Académie des Sciences du Vietnam de Hanoï co-responsable scientifique: Khoai HA-HUY Centre International de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées (CIMPA) de Nice co-responsable scientifique: Michel JAMBU Université de la Méditerranée Aix-Marseille II co-responsable scientifique: Pierre ARNOUX Université de Sfax (Tunisie) co-responsable scientifique: Mohammed MKAOUAR

3 Other supports UNESCO (PISF) Programme International de Sciences Fondamentales (2006-) Abdu Salam Center (ICTP) International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy IMU International Mathematical Union

4 Three courses already given: Michel JAMBU (CIMPA): january/february 2005 Geometry Pierre ARNOUX (Marseille): march/april 2005 Discrete Mathematics Michel WALDSCHMIDT (Paris VI): september/october 2005 Algebra

5 Next courses to be given: Jean BERTOIN (Paris VI): november 14/december 6, 2005 Probability Michel JAMBU (CIMPA): january 2006 Geometry II Robert EYMARD (Marne la Vallée ): january/february 2006 Numerical Analysis Marc LAVIELLE (Paris V): march 2006 Statistics

6 Further projects of courses: Randal DOUC (Polytechnique, Paris): may 2006 Probability and Statistics Mohammed MKAOUAR (Sfax): june 2006 Arithmetic and number theory

7 Later: Michel WALDSCHMIDT (Paris VI): fall 2006 Algebra Pierre ARNOUX (Marseille): fall 2006 Discrete Mathematics

8 Centre International de Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées International Center of Pure and Applied Mathematics CIMPA ICPAM

9 CIMPA CIMPA is a non-profit international organization established in Nice (France) in 1978. Its aim is to promote international cooperation to the benefit of developing countries, with respect to higher education and research in mathematics and related subjects, in particular Computer Science. The missions of CIMPA, as listed in the framework agreement between UNESCO and the French Ministry of Research, are as follows:

10 to hold international workshops relevant to the needs of the developing countries of the region concerned and in partnership with institutions with similar purposes; to provide access to the existing scientific documentation in whatever form and to increase the use of new information technologies; to foster regional networking with a view to increase dialogue and interaction with mathematicians in industrialised countries; to assist in the creation of graduate and post-graduate training courses, as well as basis training, for future researchers or teachers in mathematics and engineers.

11 A CIMPA school is usually a presentation or an introduction to the recent researches in a field of mathematics (Pure and Applied Mathematics as well as related subjects such as computer sciences and theoretical physics) organized on French PhD programme basis. Schools are intended to higher education and research teaching staff. Beginners as well as confirmed scientists who wish to improve or to become initiated to a new field of research can attend the lectures. Usually a CIMPA school lasts two or three weeks (60 or 90 hours). In accordance with CIMPA mission, schools are mainly intended for mathematicians, higher teaching staff, researchers or engineers working in developing countries. Such schools and sessions aim at diffusing scientific knowledge and facilitating scientific contacts between participants and lecturers.

12 Organization of CIMPA President: Mario Wschebor Vice President: Michel Waldschmidt Secretary: Laurent Guillopé Treasurer: Bernard Rousselet Administrative board Scientific council Director: Michel Jambu President of the Scientific Council: Jürgen Jost

13 Budget of CIMPA 250 000 € /year not including salaries Including salaries: 600 000 € UNESCO French Ministry of Research Ministry of Foreign Affairs Region, Nice University

14 CIMPA : since 1978, 124 schools and 55 Seminars, workshops in the field of Pure and Applied Mathematics and Computer Science In 41 south countries including 15 in Africa 5 in South East Asia and India 10 in Latine America and Caraïbean 6 in Middle East 3 in East Europa 6 451 trainees, 700 lecturers (110 from south countries

15 UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization


17 Although CIMPA is mainly supported by the French Ministry of Research, CIMPA conducts its scientific activities with a complete independence and does not represent the French scientific policy. CIMPA is an international institution, with an international scientific committee.


19 Tous les détails se trouvent sur le site du CIMPA All information are available on the ICPAM web site ( Michel Waldschmidt Phnom Penh, October 15, 2005

20 The role of mathematics in the real life, in the development and in developing countries

21 An example where mathematical modelisation is useful International Conference at St Louis du Senegal « Mathematics and applications to the problems of development in Sahel » Supported by CIMPA december 15-20, 2003

22 The river Senegal Barrage to stop salted water 30 km 6 km Cutting the tongue Barbarie Tongue TOWN SAINT-LOUIS RIVER


24 Opening barbarie tongue river Senegal, St Louis

25 Applications of researches in physics Computers (microprocessors, optic lecteurs) Telephones (transmission between fixed dialers, optic cables) Television (emission and reception of waves) New materials Study of the sand and its properties.

26 Applications of researches in mathematics Credit cards (cryptography) Internet (data compression) Medecine (reconstruction of images, scanner, medical images) Building (simulation of the deformation of bridges and sky-scrappers related to winds and earth quakes)

27 Mathematics as a tool Nuclear Physics Synthesis of chemical molecules Automatic recognition of forms, data processing, error correcting codes (telecommunications) Conception of mobile robots (work in hostile surrounding) Automatic driving systems (landing under any weather condition) Oil extraction: Computer Commutative Algebra (Gröbner bases, Zanjan, Iran - CIMPA School)

28 L’explosiondesMathématiques

29 « Mr Fourier thought that the main aim of mathematics was public utility and explanation of natural phenomenons. A philosopher like him should have known that the unic goal of Science is the honor of human spirit, and therefore a question of number has the same value as a question of the world system. » Carl Gustav Jacobi Joseph Fourier Gustav Jacobi

30 Henri Poincaré « Mathematics deserve to be studied for themselves, the theory which can be applied to physics should be developed as well as others.»

31 « Mathematics have always progressed under a double stimulation, one from inside coming from studying the problems arising from mathematics itself, the other coming from outside arising from other sciences, from engineering, services and from the society in general. » Jean Pierre Bourguignon, director of IHÉS (Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques, France)

32 Mathematics as a cultural component Mathematics are a universal language, it provides a structure to thinking, enables to treat the problems in a scientific, rational way. It is a necessary step to access basic culture. Helps to create an intellectual elite Historical development of mathematics « Free» (not finalized) research Regional centers of excellence

33 Hidden face of mathematics If we consider either art or mathematics, we are in the world of ideas and imagination Roger Rotmann, Director of National Center for Contemporary Art Georges Pompidou, 18/03/2004

34 Usefulness of cooperation (Re)constitution of an intellectual elite in developing countries To create a network of academic people of high level who are indispensable for economic development (able to collaborate with industrials) Avoid brain drain (sandwich theses - cotutelle) Reciprocal benefit of exchanges Francophony

35 To enable countries from south to acquire the necessary expertise for their development Teaching: preparation to the formation of technicians, engineers, scientifics - education is a preliminary basis for development Technology Computer science Banks, insurances (actuariat),… (jobs in mathematics and in physics)

36 Reduction of communication costs increases the agglomeration of richness rather that its dispersion. A consequence of polarisation is a concentration of expertise in the centers to the detriment of periphery. Poor countries should find means for their prosperity which do not come from rich countries.

37 To develop networks in southern countries Unión Matemática de America Latina y el Caribe Southeast Asian Mathematical Society African Mathematical Union

38 French Cooperation MAE (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) Budget of Foreign Affairs in 2000: 9 billions French Francs (1.5 billion Euros) (Ministry of Economy and Finances: 8,3 billions French Francs)

39 A general institut for cooperation IRD (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement) French Institute of scientific research for the development in cooperation ex ORSTOM (Office de recherche scientifique et technique outre -mer) Budget: 180 millions € (1 600 positions, including 1 200 researchers or engeeniers).

40 A specialized institute CIRAD (Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement) Budget: 78 millions € (1 800 people, including 900 staffs).

41 Other french institutions which take part to the cooperation (Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique) (Institut National de Recherche Agronomique) (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

42 COPED Comité pour les pays en développement Committee for developing countries (French Academy of Sciences) Aim: to promote initiatives which will help french scientific research in connection with developing countries January 2002: workshop with CIMPA, SMF and SMAI (the two french mathematical societies) on the subject : Mathematics and developing countries.

43 Learned Societies SMF (Société Mathématique de France = French Mathematical Society) SMAI (Société de Mathématiques Appliquées et Industrielles= Applied and Industrial Mathematical Society ) SFP (Société Française de Physique = French Physical Society)

44 UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

45 ICTP International Center for Theoretical Physics (1964) under IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) Abdu Salam Centre, Trieste 17 Millions € (85% from italian gouvernment) « Associate members » from south countries

46 ISP International Science Program, University Uppsala (Sweeden) Faculty of Science and Technology Born in 1961 3,8 Millions € / an Physic, Chemistry, then Maths.

47 ISP: International Science Program Constitution of networks North/South and South/South, Visits in developed countries of scientifics from developing countries Africa: Cameroun, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambie, Zimbabwe Asia: Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Thaïland Latin America : Colombia, Equador, Perou

48 ICMS Edimburg International Center of Mathematical Sciences (1990) The main aims of the ICMS are To create an environment in which mathematical sciences will develop in new directions. To encourage and exploit those areas of mathematics that are of relevance to other sciences, industry and commerce (trade). To promote international collaboration within these aims and in particular with mathematicians in the developing world.

49 EMS CDC European Mathematical Society Committee for developing countries IMU CDE International Mathematical Union Commission on Development and Exchanges

50 Physics in Developing Countries

51 UNO United Nation Organization FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations helping to build a world without hunger HWO: Health World Organization The United Nations Children's Fund

52 The World Bank is an institution for development Whose aim is to reduce poverty by increasing growth International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)

53 AMMSI The African Mathematics Millennium Science Initiative The Challenge of Strengthening Mathematics in Africa

54 Budget : 1,8 million US$/year

55 Mathematicians in the world World Directory of Mathematicians 2002 (International Mathematical Union) 57 000 mathematicians in 71 countries (53 900 in 1998) CNFM (Comité National Français des Mathématiciens) ~ 3 000 mathematicians in France (2 855 in 1998)


57 ASIA CountryNPBNPB/inhabitant

58 Mathematicians in Asia Source: World Directory of Mathematicians

59 Wuhan Mumbai Chennai Hyderabad

60 Mathematics in China Cultural revolution International Congress of Mathematics in 2002 (Beijing) - science and technology Academia Sinica Peking University (Beida), Tsinghua

61 Cooperation between France and China about mathematics Wuhan: Centre Sino-Français de Mathématiques, 1980-90 Shanghai: Institut Sino-Français de Mathématiques Appliquées. Peking University (Beida), Tsinghua


63 Mathématics in India Institute of Mathematical Sciences (IMSc Chennai) Harish Chandra Research Institute (Allahabad)

64 Indo French Centre for the promotion of advanced research A program of scientific cooperation between France and India, supported by the Indian Department of Science and Technology and the French Ministry of Foreign Affaires(Foreign Office)

65 Indo-french Cooperation in mathematics Fr. Racine (Tiruchirappalli, Madras) Tata Institute (Laurent Schwartz,… ) Cyber University Bangalore/Toulouse IFIM Institut Franco-Indien de Mathématiques = Indo French Institute of Mathematics.


67 Mathematicians in Middle East Source: World Directory of Mathematicians

68 Basic Sciences in Iran


70 AFRICA CountryNPBNPB/inhabitant

71 Mathematicians in Africa Source: World Directory of Mathematicians

72 Some centers of research in Africa CARIM: Centre Africain de Recherche en Informatique et en Mathématiques = African Research Center in Computer Science and Mathematics (Cameroun) IMSP: Institut de Mathématiques et de Sciences Physique (Porto Novo) National Center for Mathematical Sciences (Accra, Ghana) National Mathematical Center (Abuja, Nigeria) Senegal Benin

73 Two networks CARI (Colloque Africain de Recherche en Informatique = African meeting for research in computer science) Coordinator: INRIA GIRAGA (Groupe Africain de Recherche en Algèbre Géométrie et Applications = African Research Group in Algebra, Geometry and Applications) Supports: CIMPA, ICTP, UNESCO

74 Other networks EDP = PDE (Partial Differential Equations) Contrôle- Modélisation (Saint Louis du Sénégal, Ouagadougou, Nouakchott) 1999 - 3 seminars of 2 weeks every year RAGAAD Réseau Africain de Géométrie et Algèbre Appliquées au Développement = African Network in Geometry and Algebra applied to the development (Niger, Sénégal, Burkina-Faso, Mali) RAMAD Réseau Africain de Mathématiques Appliquées au Développement = African Network in Mathematics Applied to the development (Yaounde + Congo, Centrafrica, Tchad)

75 Bénin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroun, Centrafrique, Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Gabon, Guinée, Madagascar, Mali, Niger, Rwanda, Sénégal, Tchad, Togo. CAMES Comité Africain et Malgache pour l’Enseignement Supérieur (African and Malgache Committee for Higher Education)

76 Mathematic Research in the french langage part of Africa Claude Lobry: Mathematical Research in Africa Is it necessary for the development? L’Harmattan (ed.), 2003

77 SARIMA Soutien aux Activités de Recherche Informatique et Mathématique en Afrique = Support to the Activities of Research in Computer Science and Mathematics in Africa Improve the potential of research of academic research teams in the the region with priority solidarity (ZSP Zone de Solidarité Prioritaire) in Africa and in the Mediterranean Region in fields of mathematics, science and Information Technology. FSP (Fonds de Solidarité Prioritaire) Interministériel - MAE 400 000 € per year for 4 years. Institutions: INRIA, CIMPA Approved in 2002, starts in 2005


79 Latin America CountryNPBNPB/inhabitant

80 Mathematicians en Latin America Source: World Directory of Mathematicians

81 Instituto Nacional de Matemática Pura e Aplicada (Rio, Brésil)

82 Mathematics Modelization Center in Santiago du Chili Franco-Chile laboratory, Centre de modélisation mathématique april 2000 unité mixte de recherche CNRS

83 Other research centers in Latin America IMCA Instituto de Matemática y Ciencias Afine (Lima, Pérou) IVIC Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas (Caracas, Vénezuela) UNAM Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico (Mexique)

84 Main points: Fundamental Research is an essential component of Sustainable Development Basic science is international, without borders, all countries are entitled to participate.

85 Conclusions There is a place for a strong cooperation based on academic structures. A large number of contacts between french scientists and scientists from developing countries already exist, for instance thanks to the scientists who have studied in France. The funds which should be necessary are comparatively not high, but so far they are not sufficient. It is part of the mission of scientists, professors and researchers to participate, and this should be considered as part of their job, not only on a voluntary basis.

86 Conclusions All the efforts which have been devoted in the past by the french scientific and cultural cooperation has given good results. The existing potential will soon disapear if the scientific research is not properly organized. Basic sciences need to be supported in developing countries.

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