8 Signs of Improvement: Harris and Hansen (2004), N=4,724 “After 15 years 76% of sex offenders are not charged with another sex offence.”
9 Why? Economic prosperity More detectives and social workers Longer sentences Better community supervision, i.e., more offender specific Psychotropic medications More willing offenders
10 And Sex Offender treatment works Hansen, Gordon, Harris, Murphy, Quinsey, and Seto, 2002 17% of the untreated offenders reoffended 10% of those sex offenders in sex offender treatment reoffended Effect Size =.40 Meaning the treated offenders were 40% better Good results, but not great
11 But let us compare other Effect Sizes: Chemotherapy for breast cancer is 8% Anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin) are at 14% By pass surgery for artery blockage is 15% Nicotine Patches are at 18% Clozapine (schizophrenia medication) is at 20% Viagra is at 38% From: Marshall & McGuire 2003, Meyer, Finn, Gyde, Kay,Dies, Gismdn, Kubiszyn, & Reed, 2001
13 Bureau of Justice Statistics National Crime Victims Survey, 2005 Substantiated a decline of 51% in sexual abuse reports between 1991 & 2005
14 And in May, 2011 Tabachnick & Klein published a report for ATSA: “A Reasonable Approach: Reshaping Sex Offender Policy to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse”
15 100 Incidents of Child Sexual Abuse (100%) 10-18 Incidents reported to Authorities (10-18%) 6 Perpetrators Go to Trial 6% 3 Perpetrators Convicted(3%) Adapted from Tabachnick & Klein, 2011
16 The vast majority of sexual assault goes unreported. Why?
17 Hypothesis: Our laws are not driven by science.
18 The vast majority of sex offender laws: Lengthen incarceration Add electronic monitoring Require community notification Restrict where offenders can live
19 Other Variables: Charges are pled down to lesser crimes Some folks distrust our law enforcement officers & our criminal justice system & believe not all are treated fairly. Some victims are fearful and/or ashamed at not having been able to stop someone they love from offending them.
20 The uninteded consequences: Victims do not report crimes to the police Perpetrators are unable to return to the home they own New housing is both distant from services & remote from support Ancillary services are decreased or hard to access Offenders are less connected to support people Larger numbers of homeless sex offenders
21 What Works? Stability a. Housing b. Employment c. Pro-social associates Matching our response to risk & not treating all offenders alike Specialized treatment for sex offenders