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New Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome in NICU Dr. Darshan Shah Asst. Professor of Pediatrics Quillen College of Pediatrics.

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Presentation on theme: "New Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome in NICU Dr. Darshan Shah Asst. Professor of Pediatrics Quillen College of Pediatrics."— Presentation transcript:

1 New Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome in NICU Dr. Darshan Shah Asst. Professor of Pediatrics Quillen College of Pediatrics

2 New Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome in NICU Drug use in general population How Common or Uncommon it is? Prescribed/Illicit/Not intended

3 New Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome in NICU 2010 Data of National Drug Survey: High School Senior : 1 in 3 used medical prescription or OTC drug for Non-Medical reason #### 33%% Pregnant women 18-25 years 23% Vs 13% Non pregnant

4 New Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome in NICU Why rise in narcotic prescription? What it takes to get prescription? What it makes easy or difficult in pregnancy?

5 New Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome in NICU MMT shifted from FDA to Center of Substance Abuse and Addiction in 2001 Standard for Methadone prescription not well defined and not uniformly followed More philosophy to “treat and better outcome” Rise in number of ‘Pain Clinics” last decade

6 Pain Clinics

7 Pain clinics in TN DC RecoveryMemphisTN(901) 375-1050 Atenley Drug CenterGreenvilleTN(423) 639-5255 DRD Knoxville Medical Clinic KnoxvilleTN(865) 522-0161 DRD Knoxville Medical Clinic CentralKnoxvilleTN(865) 522- 0661 Jackson Professional AssociatesJacksonTN(731) 660-0880 Memphis Treatment Center for Research and Addiction Treatment MemphisTN(901) 722-9420 Middle Tennessee Treatment CenterNashvilleTN(615) 321- 2575x104 Midsouth Treatment CenterDyersburgTN(731) 285- 6535 Raleigh Professional AssociatesMemphisTN(901) 372-7878 Solutions of SavannahSavannahTN(731) 925-2767x2760 The Mustard SeedNewportTN Volunteer Treatment Center IncChattanoogaTN(423) 265- 3122

8 Pain clinics in NC Western Carolina Treatment CenterAshville NC(828) 251-1478 ADS Alcohol and Drug ServicesBurlingtonNC(336) 532-0500 Alcohol and Drug Abuse Treatment CtrButnerNC(919) 575-7928 McLeod Addictive Disease CenterCharlotteNC(704) 332-9001 Metro Treatment of North Carolina LP Charlotte Treatment CenterCharlotteNC(704) 697-0044 Mountain Area Recovery Center WestClydeNC(828) 454-0560 BAART Community HealthcareDurhamNC(925) 726-1063 Durham Treatment CenterDurhamNC(919) 286-1509 Carolina Treatment Center (CTC)FayettevilleNC(910) 864-8739 Metro Treatment of North Carolina LP Fayetteville Treatment CenterFayettevilleNC(910) 483-0958 McLeod Addictive Disease CenterGastoniaNC(704) 865-1558 Alcohol and Drug Services ADS EastGreensboroNC(336) 333-6860 Greensboro Metro Treatment CenterGreensboroNC(336) 273-9611 PORT Human Services Methadone/IV ProgramsGreenvilleNC(252) 353-5346 Walter B Jones Alcohol and Drug Abuse Treatment CtrGreenvilleNC(252) 830-3426 McLeod Addictive Disease Center HickoryHickoryNC(828) 464-1172 Alcohol and Drug Services ADS WestHigh PointNC(336) 882-2125 Jacksonville Treatment CenterJacksonvilleNC(910) 347-2205 McLeod Addictive Disease Center MarionMarionNC(828) 659-3966 McLeod Addictive Disease CenterMonroeNC(704) 332-9001 Carolina Treatment Center of PinehurstPinehurstNC(910) 235-9090 Raleigh Methadone Treatment Center (RMTC)RaleighNC(919) 781-5507 Rocky Mount Treatment CenterRocky MountNC(252) 972-4357 Sanford Treatment Center LLCSanfordNC(919) 776-0711 McLeod Addictive Disease Center StatesvilleStatesvilleNC(704) 871-2992 New Hanover Metro Treatment CenterWilmingtonNC(910) 251-6644 Wilmington Treatment CenterWilmingtonNC(800) 992-3671 Insight Human Services Winston SalemNC(336) 725-8389

9 Pain Clinic What it takes to get prescription for pain? History of Heroine/IV drug use/Morphine History of illicit Hydrocodone/Percocet/other drugs History of chronic pain(?) not relieved by other medicine History of anxiety/nervousness

10 Reason to Use Methadone According to NID Methadone is used to relieve moderate to severe pain that has not been relieved by non-narcotic pain relievers. It also is used to prevent withdrawal symptoms in patients who were addicted to opiate drugs and are enrolled in treatment programs in order to stop taking or continue not taking the drugs. Methadone is in a class of medications called opiate (narcotic) analgesics. Methadone works to treat pain by changing the way the brain and nervous system respond to pain. It also works as a substitute for opiate drugs of abuse by producing similar effects and preventing withdrawal symptoms in people who have stopped using these drugs.

11 Pain Clinics What all these medications use has done?

12 Effects of Illcit/prescribed/Abused medication

13 Effects on Mortality

14 Incidence Across States

15 Data Regarding Maternal Drug Use 2000: 1.7/1000 2003:2.2/1000 2006: 3.1/1000 2009: 5.7/1000

16 NAS rate 2000: 1.5 2003: 1.9 2006: 2.3 2009: 2.9

17 Maternal drug use and NAS

18 Newborn Vs NAS baby

19 Maternal Medication Which is better? ◦Methadone ◦Subutex (Bupronorphine) ◦Suboxone (Bupronorphine and Naloxone)

20 Maternal Medication Methadone: Only recommended treatment for pregnant women till recently (2007-8) Longest experience in pregnancy Full mu-opioid agonist Dose: 40 mg to 120 mg Minimum possible dose

21 Maternal Medication Methadone: Earlier studies shown treatment with methadone better than “street drug; no treatment or detox” during pregnancy regarding preterm birth, infectious complication, neonatal death and maternal morbidity. So it became “standard of care” for IVD and other illicit opioid drug

22 Maternal Medication Problems after Methadone: Higher incidence of NAS It depends on dose, duration and other concomitant drugs Umbilical cord level of EDDP (Ethylene Dimethyl Diphenylpyrolidine) correlates NAS better than Methadone concentration

23 Maternal Medication Subutex (Buprenorphine) Partial-mu-oipiod agonist and kappa- opioid antagonist ◦Less than maximal opioid effect ◦Diminished risk of overdose ◦Minimal risk from abrupt withdrawal ◦Dose: 4 mg to 30 mg

24 Maternal Medication Trial of Methadone Vs Subutex Drugs and Alcohol: only 20 patients combined It showed Subutex not inferior to Methadone NEJM 2010: 131 Neonates were part of study. Drugs 2012: Meta analysis Results

25 Maternal Medication Buprenorphine exposed newborn required significantly less morphine Shorter duration of treatment Shorter hospital stay So what’s problem?

26 Maternal medication Dissatisfaction rate was 71% in Subutex group versus13% in Methadone group in NEJM trial. Main barrier for use of Subutex

27 Maternal Medication Suboxone ( Buprenorphine and naloxone in 4:1 combination) Combination of partial mu Opioid receptor agonist with opioid antagonist When taken by sublingual route no effect of Naloxone only Buprenorphine like Subutex effect but when injected/Parental route it causes withdrawal in opioid dependent subjects

28 Maternal Medication Doses: 4/1, 8/2 and 16/4 No direct comparison with Methadone but essential same as Subutex when taken as a sublingual tablet

29 Newborn

30 Newborn When born to drug exposed mother what to expect and when to expect? How to diagnose Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) or Maternal Medication Withdrawal Syndrome ?

31 NAS NAS: CONSTELLATION OF SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS RESULTING FROM DYSFUNCTION OF Autonomic nervous system Gastrointestinal tract Respiratory system

32 NAS Finnergan Scoring System Most widely used screening method What’s significant score?

33 NAS Treatment: Nonpharmacological Noise/light/distraction free QUITE atmosphere Bundle care Hyper caloric feeding

34 NAS

35 NAS Medication Morphine: 0.1mg/kg q 4 hrs Methadone: 1mgkg q 24 hrs Clonidine: 0.5 -1 by mouth every 6 hrs Phenobarb: 2-5 mg/kg every 12 hrs

36 NAS Future treatment Ondansetron (Zofran) Immunomodulator Vaccine Genetic

37 NAS



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