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LECTURE 11 [HANDOUT 11] Outline: -Zoning -Parks -Recreational facilities Asst. Prof. Rehan Masood ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING – CE 4702 PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR REHAN MASOOD © DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING - THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE (UOL) - RAIWIND ROAD – LAHORE - PAKISTAN
ZONING Definition Zoning is a device of land use regulation used by local governments in most developed countries According to G. K. Hiraskar the zoning is defined as “process of making sections or division of city areas in different zones, to control the incompatible land uses, & prevent the misuse of land & buildings heights and densities of population at the initial stages”. According to W.PAUL Farmer and Julie A. Gibb, the “Zoning is the division of land according to building Design & use”. ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING – CE 4702 © DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING - THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE (UOL) - RAIWIND ROAD – LAHORE - PAKISTAN PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR REHAN MASOOD
ZONING OBJECTIVES OF ZONING: 1.conserving the value of its properties, 2.assuring orderly community growth 3.safeguarding general public welfare. 4.“Establish regulations which provides locations for all essential uses of land & buildings and to ensure that each use is located at most appropriate place”. PURPOSE OF ZONING: Use of land & buildings, their height & volumes, proportions with the open spaces and density of population in each particular zone. ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING – CE 4702 © DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING - THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE (UOL) - RAIWIND ROAD – LAHORE - PAKISTAN PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR REHAN MASOOD
ZONING WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE AND NEED OF ZONING? The zoning is important aspect of town planning because without zoning regulation, incompatible land uses occurs which causes problems of health & hygiene, environmental pollution’s congestion public safety & security etc. For example, industrial zone is mostly away from residential zone so as the residential areas should be secured from dangerous gases and smoke pollution, the business & commercial zone is also made away from residential zone so as the residential areas should be free from noise & road traffic. Simultaneously the population is also distributed in different zones differently so as the population should not be concentrated in one zone & situation of congestion or comity problems emerges i.e. utilities pressure etc. in addition the building heights are also controlled by zoning so as high- rise should not develop with low height housing because the high-rise cutoff the sun shine, & breeze which makes the life of residents uncomfortable i.e. in Chicago, New York, Bombay etc building cast long shadow. The zoning is important because it secures the orderly growth of town; promote heath & safety, increase utility, beauty and efficiency of town. Infect it is the very soul of successful Town Planning. ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING – CE 4702 © DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING - THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE (UOL) - RAIWIND ROAD – LAHORE - PAKISTAN PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR REHAN MASOOD
ZONING ZONING CLASSIFICATION: Use Zoning, Height Zoning and Density Zoning A.USE ZONING: zoning city 1.RESIDENTIAL ZONE: It is the zone for housing of large number of people. The buildings developed in this zone are, detached single family houses, semidetached houses or duplexes, group housing, chawl, low, medium and high-rise flats or apartments and residential sky scrapers. This zone covers the area 40 to 50% of total away from business or Industrial zones. It needs privacy & use of green belt parks & fast communication facilities. 2.COMMERCIAL ZONE: This covers area of 2% to 5%, having market, warehousing, storage spaces, go-downs, business offices, banks & residential spaces for employees. They should be located near traffic, transport & roadside. ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING – CE 4702 © DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING - THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE (UOL) - RAIWIND ROAD – LAHORE - PAKISTAN PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR REHAN MASOOD
ZONING ZONING CLASSIFICATION: Use Zoning, Height Zoning and Density Zoning A.USE ZONING: zoning city 3.Industrial ZONE: This covers area of % to 20%. This is most important zone after residential zone. This is located leeward of the town so that dangerous gases should not affect town population. This zone further divided in four categories i.e. Minor Industries, Light Industries, Medium Industries and Heavy Industries. MINOR INDUSTRIES: These are small industries, such as, bakeries, dairies & laundries these can be located near residential zone for the benefit of people; LIGHT INDUSTRIES: These are small factories such as glass, porcelain or Ice which only use electric power not solid fuel it’s not much real nuisance, so they can be located at the periphery of town; MEDIUM INDUSTRIES: These are large factories or industrial units such as cotton mills, oil mills, sugar mills which produce noisy environment & residential & commercial zone; HEAVY INDUSTRIES: These are large manufacturing industries or large heavy duty industrial units such as cement factory, steel factories and fertilizer plants that produce fumes & gases. Therefore these should be located in outskirts away forms town in leeward position. ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING – CE 4702 © DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING - THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE (UOL) - RAIWIND ROAD – LAHORE - PAKISTAN PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR REHAN MASOOD
ZONING ZONING CLASSIFICATION: Use Zoning, Height Zoning and Density Zoning A.USE ZONING: zoning city 4. CIVIC ZONE: This zone covers area of 2% to 3%. It contains all public building i.e. town hall, courts, libraries, post office museum, auditoriums, banks etc. & housing for employees working there. These should be located at strategy locations where public access should be easier. 5. INSTITUTIONAL ZONE: This is again located in a quite zone, having an area of 1% to 2%. It contains schools, college, university, & other research institutes etc. 6. RECREATIONAL ZONE: This zone is located / planned with natural elements. This covers 15% to 20%. This provides healthy environment. It includes parks, play grounds, auditoriums, cinemas, theaters etc. ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING – CE 4702 © DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING - THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE (UOL) - RAIWIND ROAD – LAHORE - PAKISTAN PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR REHAN MASOOD
ZONING ZONING CLASSIFICATION: Use Zoning, Height Zoning and Density Zoning B. HEIGHT ZONING: The height zoning is quite important for the purpose of good livable environment with appropriate sun light & Air movement. Simultaneously the control over height & volume of the buildings is also necessary for prevention from social evils and aesthetic beauty of the town that includes the cohesiveness among small & large buildings & to satisfy air / ground traffic rules. Because high-rises need specific considerations regarding movement of aero planes and to avoid narrow streets & traffic congestion. Controlling building height Road widths / Air plain rule. Generally it should be 45o to 63.5o from the center of road to roof top edge of the building. Bulk volume method in which building volume is controlled by making it equal to the volume of prism; where plinth area is considered as base & height equal to width of road. Floor space index (FSI). In this method the total floor area of building is controlled by relating it with the open space in the total plot area. ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING – CE 4702 © DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING - THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE (UOL) - RAIWIND ROAD – LAHORE - PAKISTAN PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR REHAN MASOOD
ZONING ZONING CLASSIFICATION: Use Zoning, Height Zoning and Density Zoning C. DENSITY ZONING: The density zoning is mainly related to population density, Gross density & net density; where the population density is population / unit area or acres of land, gross density is average density of population / unit area of residential zone including open spaces, schools, shops & institutions; Net density is average density / unit area of housing & roads. The objective of density zoning is to control the overcrowding & concentration of population in some particular Area. In density zoning a town planner fix certain standards of gross & net densities for various areas which prohibit the collection of population in any particular zone. Now this control of population is achieved in three ways. – Fixing minimum size of plot for each house. – Specifying nos. of houses per unit area. – Fixing the ratio of total plot area v/s total buildup area. ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING – CE 4702 © DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING - THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE (UOL) - RAIWIND ROAD – LAHORE - PAKISTAN PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR REHAN MASOOD
PARKS A park is a protected area, in its natural or semi-natural state or planted, and set aside for human recreation and enjoyment. It may consist of, rocks, soil, water, flora and fauna and grass areas. Wilderness parks are intact and undeveloped areas used mainly by wild species. The term Park is also used for many other meanings for instance the term park is also used in reference to industrial areas, often termed as industrial parks. Some technology research areas are also called research parks. Small environmental areas, often part of urban renewal plans, are called pocket parks. The word park may also be used in community names, such as Oak Park or College Park. Sometimes the active recreational aspect may be expressed in the extreme of naming as an amusement park, usually privately owned. ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING – CE 4702 © DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING - THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE (UOL) - RAIWIND ROAD – LAHORE - PAKISTAN PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR REHAN MASOOD
TYPES OF PARKS GOVERNMENT-OWNED OR OPERATED PARKS: 1. NATIONAL PARK: A national park is a reserve of land, usually, but not always declared and owned by a national government, protected from most human development and pollution. National parks are protected areas as established by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The largest national park in the world is the Northeast Greenland National Park, (USA) ny other countries. 2. SUB-NATIONAL PARKS: In Federal systems, many parks are managed by the local levels of government, rather than by the central government. In the United States these are called state parks and in Canada provincial or territorial parks, except in Quebec where they are known as National Parks. ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING – CE 4702 © DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING - THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE (UOL) - RAIWIND ROAD – LAHORE - PAKISTAN PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR REHAN MASOOD
TYPES OF PARKS GOVERNMENT-OWNED OR OPERATED PARKS: 3. URBAN PARKS: An urban park, also known as a municipal park or a public park or open space (United Kingdom), is a park in cities and other incorporated places to offer recreation and green space to residents of and visitors to the municipality. The design, operation and maintenance is usually done by government, typically on the city level, but may occasionally be contracted out to a private sector company. The oldest Urban Park in the world, Phillips Park, is located in the English city of Manchester. Common features of municipal parks include playgrounds, hiking, running and mixed use trails or paths, bridle paths, sports field and courts, public restrooms, boat ramps and/or picnic facilities depending on the budget and natural features available. Park can be divided into active and passive recreation. Active recreation is that which require intensive development and often involves cooperative or team activity, including playgrounds, ball fields and skate parks. Passive recreation is that which emphasizes the open-space aspect of a park and which involves a low level of development, including picnic areas and trails. ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING – CE 4702 © DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING - THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE (UOL) - RAIWIND ROAD – LAHORE - PAKISTAN PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR REHAN MASOOD
TYPES OF PARKS PRIVATE PARKS: Private parks are owned by individuals or businesses and are used at the discretion of the owner. There are a few types of private parks, and some which once were privately maintained and used have now been made open to the public. The most prominent of them may be Hunting Parks. Hunting parks originally referred to an area maintained as open space where residences, industry and farming were not allowed, often originally so that nobility might have a place to hunt such as medieval deer parks. The basic difference between a country house's park and its garden is that the park is grazed by animals, but they are excluded from the garden. Country parks are often located near to urban populations, and provide recreational facilities typical of the countryside rather than the town. ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING – CE 4702 © DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING - THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE (UOL) - RAIWIND ROAD – LAHORE - PAKISTAN PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR REHAN MASOOD
RECREATION FACILITIES WHAT IS RECREATION? Recreation is one (not the only) kind of stress management. Recreation or fun is the expenditure of time in a manner designed for therapeutic refreshment of one's body or mind. While leisure is more likely a form of entertainment or rest, recreation is active for the participant but in a refreshing and diverting manner. TYPES OF RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES: There are various types of recreational activities such as art, computer games, cycling, dancing, Drawing, Eating and drinking, Hobbies, Hunting and fishing, Kite flying Music, Martial arts, Partying, Pet ownership, Reading a book, Recreational drug use, Sexuality and Dating, Sledding, Shopping, Singing, Sports and exercise, Travel and tourism Texting, Using the internet, Video games, Visiting an amusement park, Watching movies, Yoga, Painting. In recent years, more exciting forms of recreation have received more attention, such as skiing, snowboarding, bungee jumping, sky diving, hang gliding, paintball, rock climbing, backpacking, canyoning, caving, BASE jumping, adventure tourism and motor sport. ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING – CE 4702 © DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING - THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE (UOL) - RAIWIND ROAD – LAHORE - PAKISTAN PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR REHAN MASOOD
RECREATION FACILITIES PROVISION OF PARKS AND RECREATIONAL FACILITIES IN TOWN PLANNING: One of the most critical components in maintaining and enhancing a community's quality of life is its system of parks, recreation, and open space. The careful location of parks and open space areas and preservation of the Town's natural resources as a complement to existing development can be a useful tool in guiding the Town's development into a logical, orderly and environmentally sensitive pattern. In addition to recreational and aesthetic benefits, open spaces provide a framework for various land uses. Properly located, they become boundaries and buffers between conflicting uses of land and a nucleus for building neighborhood areas. Natural features can be preserved as valuable scenic and environmental attributes of the Town. A park system and recreational program can also go a long way toward resolving the age-old problem of a community offering nothing for young people to do. In order to provide parks and recreational facilities at first an inventory of existing Town parks and opens space areas is made. ARCHITECTURE AND TOWN PLANNING – CE 4702 © DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING - THE UNIVERSITY OF LAHORE (UOL) - RAIWIND ROAD – LAHORE - PAKISTAN PREPARED BY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR REHAN MASOOD
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