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The Six Stages of a Crisis: The importance of stage 6 Post Incident Learning (PIL) Colin Campbell. Asst. Advisory Officer, BST, SEELB Joe Duffy, Senior.

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Presentation on theme: "The Six Stages of a Crisis: The importance of stage 6 Post Incident Learning (PIL) Colin Campbell. Asst. Advisory Officer, BST, SEELB Joe Duffy, Senior."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Six Stages of a Crisis: The importance of stage 6 Post Incident Learning (PIL) Colin Campbell. Asst. Advisory Officer, BST, SEELB Joe Duffy, Senior Ed. Psychologist, SEELB/QUB 22/11/13 Regional VP (Special) Conference: Nov 2013

2 Time Anxiety / Trigger Defensive / Escalation Crisis Recovery Depression Need for diversion, support and reassurance Need for diversion, reassurance, clear limits, boundaries and choices Possible need for Restrictive Physical Intervention appropriate for the service user Need for coordinated letting go. Support, reassurance Need for observation, support and monitoring - recovery and repair Risk Restraint Reduction Follow Up Need for positive listening and learning Six Stages of a Crisis Adapted from Kapler and Wheelan 1980 Six Stages of a Crisis Adapted from Kapler and Wheelan 1980 CORE

3 Stage six of a crisis The objective of Stage 6 of the Stages of a Crisis is for the child to understand that the reason why staff sometimes need to hold them is because they care about them. This will involve staff listening to the child, linking their feelings to their behaviours and giving them the opportunity to learn from what they have done

4 Positive Listening and Learning. Post Incident Support. CORE

5 Staff – Child/Client Relationship Improved Staff – Child/Client Relationship Improved Staff – Child/Client Relationship Unchanged Staff – Child/Client Relationship Unchanged Staff – Child/Client Relationship Damaged Staff – Child/Client Relationship Damaged Outcomes of a Crisis CORE

6 Why Three Ls? LL isten –What happened? LL ink –How did that make you feel? LL earn –The next time you feel that way what could you do? L isten –W–What happened? L ink –H–How did that make you feel? L earn –T–The next time you feel that way what could you do?

7 LL isten –To the child’s view first LL ink –Feelings to behaviours LL earn –Find better ways for next time L isten –T–To the child’s view first L ink –F–Feelings to behaviours L earn –F–Find better ways for next time Why Three Ls? CORE

8 Conflict Spiral Feelings Experiences Reactions Behaviours CONFLICT Listen Link Learn

9 PIL - TELL ime Cannot rush it – only when they are ready nvironment Comfortable and private isten Hear the individual’s view first earn Find better ways for next time

10 PIL - HELP ear To their side of the story first xplain Why staff took the action they did ink To show how feelings drive behaviour lan Together to find better ways

11 Pupils with communication difficulties Ref: Cotton (2012)

12 Three Ls LISTEN LINK LEARN Communication Recognising Learning style feelings style

13 Any info regarding situation e.g. triggers: What we did to rebuild our relationship Pupil: ______________________ Staff: ______________________ Date: ______________________

14 Comic strip Me This happened… I felt… If I feel like this again I will… Pupil: ______________ Staff: ______________ Date: ______________

15 When I was feeling sad or angry I showed this by ____________________ This was because ____________________ If I feel like this again I will _________________________ (strategy to de-escalate) To help others know and to help make me happy Pupil: ______________________ Staff: ______________________ Date: ______________________

16 Behaviour Feelings ExperiencesE Experiences

17 What does the research say? [1] The impact of training staff in special schools in safe handling:  In one study involving 4 schools, all schools saw a reduction in physical interventions post training. One school however witnessed more significant reduction Why? -pupils were given the opportunity for listening & learning following incidents; -the school had a dedicated staff member with overall responsibility for behaviour management; -the entire staff was trained. Source:

18 What does the research say? [2] Perkins & Leadbetter (2002) in an evaluative study of aggression training management in a special school found that, following training, the lack of supporting action by the school was identified as key inhibiting factor. They recommended: -the development of systems for auditing behaviour & assessing its underlying function [see next slide]; -ensuring that IEPs contain a behavioural management component -clear management support & leadership; -supporting staff through formal review of practice ( e.g. debriefing)

19 Assessing the function of behaviour In relation to pupils with SLD functional assessment has been identified as a factor which is able to improve the efficacy of numerous treatments (Hasting & Noone, 2005)

20  After a crisis staff need support during the recovery period.  A member of staff usually requires:- support, space, reassurance & guidance.  As with the child, as soon as possible after the incident.  Support meeting with staff(s) involved & line manager. Module Eight: The Process for Staff Support?

21 Objectives of the Process for Staff  Discuss what happened in a non-blaming, supportive, caring manner.  Use crisis situation to clarify underlying causes, issues and feelings.  Examine what techniques were used to de- escalate and/or physically manage the situation.  Develop a strategy for the next time the child/client begins to lose control.  All items discussed concerning professional practice issues should be documented

22 References Cotton, D. (2012). What communication strategies can be used to support the mental health of children with classical autism? Kidderminster: BILD Perkins, J. & Leadbetter, D. (2002) An evaluation of aggression management training in a special educational setting. Emotional & Behavioural Difficulties, 7, (1), Hastings, R.P. & Noone, S.J. (2005) Self-injurious behaviour & functional analysis: ethics & evidence. Education & Training in Developmental Disabilities, 40, (4),


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