Presentation on theme: "The Continuing Cold War"— Presentation transcript:
1The Continuing Cold War Chapter 26 Section 4The Continuing Cold War
2Joseph McCarthy Senator from Wisconsin Warned of a Communist infestation in the U.S. GovernmentClaimed that as many as 205 communist spies were working for the Secretary of StateSparked anti-communist hysteriaAccused of being opportunistic, a bully, and a liarSenate formally condemns him for being recklessVilllianizedTextbooks destroy him, but remember… Alger Hiss was a communist spy…working for the state department… The Rosenbergs were just found guilty of spying The Soviets just built the atomic and hydrogen bombs with information obtained by spies Is it possible he was on to something? Note: Letters released by the former Soviet Union in 1995 support many of McCarthy’s claims
3Joseph McCarthy Something else to keep in mind… McCarthy was a member of the Senate Permanent Subcommittee on InvestigationsTheir job was to investigate the federal government
4Venona Project Alger Hiss-State department Harry Dexter White- Asst. Sec of TreaturyLauchin Currie-Personal assistant to FDRLaurence Duggan-head of the Latin American desk at the State DepartmentFrank Coe- U.S. representative on the IMFSolomon Adler- Senior Treasury department officialKlaus Fuchs- Top atomic scientistDuncan Lee- Senior aid to the head of the OSSReleased in 1995Top secret document that exposed Communist spies in the U.S.Made public after the collapse of the Soviet Union
5McCarthyismMaking accusations against others that can not be proven or supportedIt is said McCarthy never found any spiesT.A. BissonMary Jane KeeneyCedric BelfrageSolomon AdlerFranz NeumannLeonard MinsGustavo DuranWilliam Remington
6Cold War in Asia 1953- Eisenhower brings the Korean War to an end With Stalin dead, and new, more moderate leaders in the Soviet Union, a solution was more easily achievedU.S. begins to aid France in recovering their lost colony in VietnamVietnam eventually separated, and the U.S. aids the non-communist South
7Cold War in The Middle East Israel created in 1948 in Palestine with help of the UNArab assaulted the new nation and their UN alliesSaw the territory as theirsThe U.S. supported Israel, while the Soviets generally supported the Arabs
8Cold War in the Middle East U.S. backed groups that overthrew a nationalistic, communist-sympathizing leader in Iran in exchange for a pro-American Shah of Iran
9Cold War in the Middle East Suez CrisisU.S. wanted to help Egypt build a large dam along the Nile RiverTurns out the Egyptian President, Gamal Nasser was also seeking Soviet SupportU.S. cut off aidEgypt closes British-owned Suez Cana as a responseVital for tradeBritain, France, and Egypt attack Egypt to open canalSoviets threaten Western EuropeEisenhower urges NATO allies to withdraw from EgyptCanal opened back upBut under Egyptian control
10Eisenhower DoctrineThe United States would aid any Middle eastern nation being threatened by Communism.
11Cold War in Latin America Supported pro-American governments in Latin AmericaSuppressed Communist influences1947 Rio Pact with 18 Western Hemisphere nations as a regional defense alliance1948- Formed Organization of American States to increase cooperation in the hemisphere1954- U.S. backed rebels overthrow govmt. of Guatemala due to perceived Communistic sympathies
12Arms Race Struggle to gain weapons superiority Most dangerous aspect of the Cold War
13DeterrenceThe policy of making the military power of the U.S. and its allies so strong that no enemy would dare attack for fear of retaliationU.S. conducted 19 hydrogen bomb tests between 1954 and 1958
14BrinkmanshipThe willingness to go to the edge of war for the purpose of maintaining peace.Used a great deal by the Eisenhower Administration
15How did the policy of deterrence influence U. S How did the policy of deterrence influence U.S. actions during the Cold War?It allowed U.S. Secretary of State John Foster Dulles to use brinkmanship as a strategyPut the U.S. in diplomatic positions where threatening to apply military force presented the danger of starting a war
16ICBM Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Long range rockets Mastered by the SovietsThe U.S. initially lagged behind in their development
17Sputnik The world’s first artificial satellite in Earth’s orbit The realization that the rocket used to launch Sputnik could carry a hydrogen bomb to American shores added to American shock and fear.
18U-2 Incident American spy plane shot down in Soviet territory. Eisenhower lied about what it actually was…but the Soviets had the wreckage…and the pilot…alive…whoopsEnds Eisenhower’s effectiveness as a peacemaker by angering new Soviet Leader Nikita Khrushchev
19How did Sputnik and the U-2 incident affect American public opinion and policy?