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I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) www.imkeng.wordpress.com Diploma Engineering Sem I English (3300002) Diploma Engineering Sem I English-3300002 Grammar.

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Presentation on theme: "I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) www.imkeng.wordpress.com Diploma Engineering Sem I English (3300002) Diploma Engineering Sem I English-3300002 Grammar."— Presentation transcript:

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2 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Diploma Engineering Sem I English Grammar Types of Sentence

3 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) What is Sentence?

4 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) What is Sentence? A set of words that is complete in itself, typically containing a subject and predicate, conveying a statement, question, exclamation, or command, and consisting of a main clause and sometimes one or more subordinate clauses. From:

5 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) (English) Sentence Structure Assertive Subject + Verb + Object

6 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) What is Verb? A word used to describe an action, state, or occurrence, and forming the main part of the predicate of a sentence, such as hear, become, happen. From:

7 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) What is Verb? Subject + Verb + Object / Complement I am a teacher I have a book I teach English

8 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) What is Verb? A verb is a word that shows position (being), possession or action.

9 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Types of Sentences Simple: Compound: Complex:

10 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Verb is a word that shows Action (to do) State / Position / Existence (to be) Possession / Relation (to have) Sentence Shows I teach English Action I am a teacher State / Position / Existence I have a book Possession / Relation

11 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) (English) Sentence Structure Other than SVO Assertive Subject + Verb + Object (Noun) Subject + Verb + Complément (Noun / Adjective) Subject + Verb + Adverb Subject + Verb + Adjective Subject + Verb + Adverbial / s

12 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) (English) Sentence Structure Other than SVO He is a teacher (subject + Complement) He teaches (Subject + verb) He teaches English (Subject + object) He teachers well (Subject + adverb) He teaches in the class (Subject + Adv. of Place) He teaches everyday (Subject + Adv. of Frequency) He teaches at 10 o’clock (Subject + Adv. of Time)

13 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Types of Sentences Simple: Compound: Complex:

14 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Types of Sentences Simple: one subject + one predicate Compound: Complex:

15 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Types of Sentences Simple: one subject + one predicate Compound: Two simple sentences joined by Conjunction Complex:

16 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Types of Sentences Simple: one subject + one predicate Compound: Two simple sentences joined by Conjunction Complex: Main clause and sub-ordinate clause joined by Connector

17 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Simple Sentences What is Predicate?

18 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Predicate The part of a sentence or clause containing a verb and stating something about the subject (e.g. ‘went home’ in “John went home”) From: Predicate is statement about the subject or it is a part of sentence except the subject

19 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Simple Sentences Simple: one subject + one predicate I am a teacher

20 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Simple Sentences Simple: one subject + one predicate Subject I am a teacher Predicate

21 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Mostly subjects are in one word SubjectPredicate Iam a teacher Weare friends Youare my cousin Theyhave gone to Mumbai Heis preparing for exam Sheis a sincere student Itcan run fast

22 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Subjects containing more than one word SubjectPredicate The girl in a read sareeis my sister The books on that tableare mine The plants with yellow flowersare beautiful The book he boughtis very costly The news I heardwas very surprising

23 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Subject The plants with yellow flowers Predicate are beautiful.

24 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Compound Sentences Compound: two simple sentences joined with conjunction such as and, but, so, therefore, yet, etc….

25 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) ‘So’ So : This connector is used to indicate the consequences a well as the reason. Ex. She has lot of pending so she is not able to come I was very tired so I could not go out with my friend The machine is out of order so the production is delayed The students did not complete the work so the teacher punished him

26 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Compound Sentences with ‘so’ Simple Sentence no. 1 Clause showing reasonClause showing result

27 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Compound Sentences with ‘so’ Ex. She has lot of work pending so she is not able to come I was very tired so I could not go out with my friend The machine is out of order so the production is delayed The students did not complete the work so the teacher punished him SubPredicateconjunctionSubPredicate Shehas lot of work pendingsosheis not able to come IWas very tiredsoIcould not go out with my friend The machine is out of ordersothe productionis delayed The students did not complete the worksothe teacherpunished him

28 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Complex Sentences Complex: main clause and sub-ordinate clause Connected by Connector such as Who Whom Whose Which Where When and Why Sub-ordinate clause depends on the main clause

29 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Formulation

30 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Main Clause Formulation

31 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Main Clause + Formulation

32 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Main Clause + Subordinate Clause Formulation

33 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) What do we mean by Main Clause and Subordinate Clause? Formulation

34 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Main Clause: Formulation

35 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Main Clause: Main Clause has its own individual meaning therefore it can stand on its own. Formulation

36 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Subordinate Clause: Subordinate Clause depends on the main clause as it does not have its own individual meaning. Formulation

37 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Formulation Main Clause: Main Clause has its own individual meaning therefore it can stand on its own. Subordinate Clause: Subordinate Clause depends on the main clause as it does not have its own individual meaning.

38 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Examples English Connectors Complex SentenceMain Clause with individual meaning Subordinate Clause that depends on main clause I get up when it is 7 o’clockI get upwhen it is 7 o’clock She knows the boy whom you are asking about She knows the boywhom you are asking about The engineer whose work you like is my brother The engineer is my brotherwhose work you like I know the place which you talked about I know the placewhich you talked about This is the school where my father is working as a clerk This is the schoolwhere my father is working as a clerk What was the date when Gandhiji was assassinated? What was the datewhen Gandhiji was assassinated? I don’t know why he is absent today I don’t knowwhy he is absent today

39 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) A dependent clause may refer to a noun or pronoun in the main clause and may be joined with the main clause by such connectors as Who Which Whose Whom Complex Sentences

40 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Connectors and their usage ConnectorsRefers to… Who human being (noun or pronoun) Whomhuman being (noun or pronoun) Whose human being (noun or pronoun) WhichObject, bird, animal, insect (noun or pronoun) WherePlace WhenTime WhyReason

41 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Connectors (in sub- ordinate clause) Refers toExamples Who human being here: Rabindranath Tagore Clause 1The Gitanjali was written by Rabindranath Tagore Clause 2He was a great painter. The Gitanjali was written by Rabindranath Tagore who was a great painter

42 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Connectors (in sub- ordinate clause) Refers toExamples Who human being here: The girl Clause 1The girl is my neighbor. Clause 2She is in a red saree. The girl who is in a red saree is my neighbor

43 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Connectors (in sub- ordinate clause) Refers toExamples Whom human being here: Rabindranath Tagore – the object of the main clause Clause 1The Gitanjali was written by Rabindranath Tagore. Clause 2Gandhiji called him ‘gurudev’. The Gitanjali was written by Rabindranath Tagore whom Gandhiji called ‘gurudev’.

44 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Connectors (in sub- ordinate clause) Refers toExamples Whom human being Here: person Clause 1I know the person Clause 2The principal was scolding him I know the person whom the principal was scolding

45 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Connectors (in sub- ordinate clause) Refers toExamples Whose human being here: Rabindranath Tagore Clause 1Rabindranath Tagore was a great poet. Clause 2His Gitanjali was awarded the Noble Price. Rabindranath Tagore was a great poet whose Gitanjali was awarded the Noble Price.

46 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Connectors (in sub- ordinate clause) Refers toExamples Whose human being Here: Mr. Aanand Clause 1Mr. Aanand is my friend. Clause 2His photographs are nominated for the National award. Mr. Aanand whose photographs are nominated for the National award is my friend

47 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Connectors (in sub- ordinate clause) Refers toExamples Which Object, bird, animal, insect (noun or pronoun) here: Gitanjali Clause 1Rabindranath Tagore wrote the Gitanjali. Clause 2It is a collection of poems. Rabindranath Tagore wrote the Gitanjali which is a collection of poems.

48 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Connectors (in sub- ordinate clause) Refers toExamples Which Object, bird, animal, insect (noun or pronoun) Here: Project Clause 1The students are working on a project Clause 2It is going to help them a lot The students are working on a project which is going to help them a lot A project which the students are working on is going to help them a lot

49 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Connectors (in sub- ordinate clause) Refers toExamples Where Place here: Shantiniketan Ashram Clause 1 [ends with place word] This is Shantiniketan Ashram. Clause 2 Gandhiji had come to meet gurudev here This is Shantiniketan Ashram where Gandhiji had come to meet gurudev.

50 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Connectors (in sub- ordinate clause) Refers toExamples Where Place Here: hospital Clause 1 [ends with place word] This is the hospital Clause 2My father is working as a doctor here This is the hospital where my father is working as a doctor

51 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Connectors (in sub- ordinate clause) Refers toExamples When Time here: 1941 (year) Clause 1 [ends with time word] It was 1941 Clause 2Gurudev passed away. It was 1941 when gurudev passed away.

52 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Connectors (in sub- ordinate clause) Refers toExamples When Time here: season Clause 1 [ends with time word] Autumn is the season Clause 2All the trees shed their leaves in it Autumn is the season when all the trees shed their leaves

53 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Connectors (in sub- ordinate clause) Refers toExamples Why Reason here: reason Clause 1 [ends with reason word] Nobody knows the reason Clause 2 He left the job Nobody knows the reason why he left the job (Adjective Clause)

54 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Connectors (in sub- ordinate clause) Refers toExamples Why Reason here: I don’t know Clause 1 [ends with reason word] I don’t know Clause 2She is absent today I don’t know why she is absent today (Adverb Clause of Reason)

55 I M Khan (Asst. Prof. in English) Diploma Engineering Sem I English ( ) Thanks a lot !!! I M Khan Assistant Professor (English) OM Institute of Engineering & Technology, Junagadh


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