Presentation on theme: "Gender stereotyping in schools – Young people and career choices Ronald McQuaid and Sue Bond Employment Research Institute Napier University, Edinburgh."— Presentation transcript:
Gender stereotyping in schools – Young people and career choices Ronald McQuaid and Sue Bond Employment Research Institute Napier University, Edinburgh WES Conference, Aberdeen, September 2007
Background Sex Discrimination Act 1975 Pay differentials persist (usual suggestions – flexibility, caring responsibilities, productivity etc.) Causes and consequences of occupational segregation e.g. Miller et al. (2004) Occupational segregation, gender gaps and skill gaps; Thomson et al. (2005) Jobs for the boys and the girls: promoting a smart, successful and equal Scotland, EOC. Women and Work Commission (2006) Shaping a Fairer Future Careers education should give “young people a real understanding of the pay, rewards and challenges of occupations, particularly those not traditionally taken up by their gender”
Background Are females attracted to low pay occupations or are predominantly female occupations low paid? Opposite for males? In any case, career choice is important. So what influences career choice among year schoolpupils?
Outline 1. Methodology 2. Pupil’s views on: Gender Stereotyping of Careers, Perceptions of their Own Suitability for Jobs, Links Between Pupil’s Gender Stereotyping and Job Suitability, Job Characteristics and Sectors of Work, Career and Job Choices, and 3. Conclusions
Research Methodology Stage One: Background Stage Two: Survey (2148 pupils) Stage Three: Case Study Interviews (82 pupils in 4 schools)
Gender Stereotyping of careers
Gender Stereotyping of Jobs (survey) % of boys and girls saying ‘Both’ men and women suited for these jobs BoysGirlsTotal Armed Forces41%63%51% Care Asst.39%49%44% Clerk/Office Asst.74%78%76% Computer/Software Dsr65%75%70% Hairdresser/Barber63%78%70% Labourer34%47%41% Lawyer/Solicitor84%92%88% Manager75%91%83% Nurse42%56%49% Shop Worker83%90%87% Teacher81%88%85% Waiter/Waitress83%87%85% GP/Doctor79%90%83% Police Officer80%91%86% Engineer21%34%27% Lorry Driver20%29%25%
Gender Stereotyping of Jobs (survey) 80% of pupils thought ‘both’ men and women suited to: GP/Doctor; Police Officer; Lawyer/Solicitor; Manager; Shop Worker; Teacher; Waiter/Waitress Less than 50% of pupils thought ‘both’ suited to: Engineer; Nurse; Care Assistant; Labourer; Lorry Driver; Plumber/Electrician
Who were less stereotyping? Linear Regression Model (Forward Selection Method) Independent variables that were significant in the model Standardised Coefficient B) Sig. Demographic characteristic: Sex (female) (dummy) Achievement and Aspirations: Achievement in English (F/E/Credit) Achievement and Aspirations: Chemistry chosen to study (dummy) Attitude: ‘Man’s job to earn money…’ Job Characteristic: ‘Earn a lot of money’ Adjusted R Square=.18 Model significance =.000 (i.e. highly significant) Variables that were 5% significant were entered into the model. Independent variables excluded from the model: Demographic Characteristics: Ethnicity (non-white); Year (S3); Achievement and Aspirations: Achievement in Maths (F/E/Credit); ‘Want to go to University’; Physics chosen to study; Biology chosen to study; Computing chosen to study; Socio-economic and family characteristics: Single Parent Household; Not Owner Occupier; Father Unemployed; Social Inclusion Partnership Area; Area (Edinburgh); Careers Advice: Would use Careers for Advice; Would use Parents for Advice; Job Characteristics: ‘Helping others’; ‘Dealing with the public’; ‘Involves interests’; ‘Working with technology’; ‘Involves a lot of travel’; ‘Working outdoors’; ‘Being Creative’; ‘Good promotion prospects’; ‘Plenty of opportunities for further training’; ‘Means you can live in Edinburgh and the Lothians’; ‘Will fit in well with having a family’; ‘Allows you to work flexible hours’.
Gender Stereotyping of Jobs (Survey) Gender Level of Achievement Explanations
Gender Stereotyping of Jobs (Interviews) Gender Characteristic/Aptitude Interest Mostly men/women do these jobs ‘Man’s’ job/’woman’s’ job Unsure
Why women are well suited “More caring, better at talking to people” (boy) “More patient than men. Better at caring for others” (boy) “As mothers, women are naturally more caring and understanding” (girl) Why men are not as well suited “Men have little patience and can’t be bothered to look after others” (boy) “Men are not as caring” (girl) NURSE Gender Characteristics/aptitudes
ENGINEER Why Men are well suited “Need to be strong…and men are stronger” (girl) “Better at more technical things” (girl) “Men don’t mind getting their hands dirty and working with tools” (boy) [“Men are mechanics” (boy)] Why women are not as well suited “Jobs would be too hard for them physically” (boy) “Don’t like to get dirty” (girl) “Some women do not know a lot about cars” (boy) Gender Characteristics/aptitudes
Own Suitability for Jobs
Own Suitability for Jobs (Survey) Gender Level of Achievement Ethnicity Explanations
Pupil Perceptions of their own suitability for Jobs **significant to 99% level *significant to 95% level
Outline Pupil Perceptions of their suitability for Jobs by Ethnic Background
Linking Gender Stereotyping of Jobs With Job Suitability (Survey) Within Gender Correlations GIRLS who thought ‘both’ genders were suited for specific jobs and also felt they were more personally suited to that job: Armed Forces; Computer/Software Designer; Engineer; Labourer; Manager; Lorry Driver; Plumber/Electrician; Police Officer BOYS who thought ‘both’ genders were suited for specific jobs and also felt they were more personally suited to that job: Care Assistant; Clerk/Office Asst; Hairdresser/Barber; Nurse; Waiter/Waitress
Model Dependent variable is: pupils’ rating of how suited they were to do each job (17 jobs) using binary logistic regression Dichotomous variable (‘Very suitable’ or ‘suitable’) or (‘Neither’ suitable nor unsuitable, ‘Not very suitable’, or ‘Not suitable at all’).
Demographic Characteristics; Achievement and Aspirations; Socio-economic and family characteristics; Careers Advice; Attitudes; Job Characteristics. s i = βX i + γY i + δZ i ……+ i
Link between gender stereotyping and own job suitability
Correlations: How Suitable Boys and Girls (Separately) thought they were by: if they thought ‘Both’ Men And Women Suitable for Each Occupation (** = 99% sig. * = 95% sig.).
Attractiveness of Job/Industrial Characteristics
BoysGirlsTotal Mother28%51%40% Father30%9%20% Careers Advisor23%23%23% Internet6%5%5% Guidance Teacher3%3%3% Friends3%3%3% Other Teacher0.2%0.6%0.4% First Choice for Advice about Careers (Survey)
Gender Stereotyping of Career Choice Summing Up Key Findings Continuity and Change Differences between groups (gender/achievement) Pupils’ lack of knowledge Types of Stereotyping Link between stereotyping and perceptions of suitability Importance of Parents
Recommendations -Focus on job characteristics as well as occupations. -Identify and focus on occupations where stereotyping remains great. -Highlight the changing nature of gender stereotyping in some jobs. -Target lower achievement pupils. -Target boys and girls in separate ways. -Continue challenge of gender roles.
Gender Stereotyping in Career Choice
Gender Stereotyping of Jobs Suitable for male and female Male only Teacher Lorry Driver Waiter/Waitress Armed Forces Lawyer/Solicitor Engineer Police Officer Labourer ManagerPlumber/Electrician GP/Doctor Shop Worker Female only Care Assistant Mixed Nurse Hairdresser/Barber Clerk/Office Assistant Computer/Software Designer
Linking Gender Stereotyping of Jobs With Job Suitability (Survey) Suitability for Jobs: % of Girls who say they are ‘suitable’ or ‘very suitable’ BoysGirls Engineering63%10% Armed Forces58%19% Plumber/Electrician50%5%
Suitability for Jobs (Survey) % of Boys and Girls who say they are ‘suitable’ or ‘very suitable’ BoysGirls Armed Forces58%19% Care Asst.15%62% Clerk/Office Asst.31%52% Computer/Software Dsn59%30% Hairdresser/Barber10%63% Labourer29%8% Lorry Driver36%9% Manager71%69% Plumber/Electrician50%5% Police Officer52%40% Shop Worker37%56% Teacher28%59% Waiter/Waitress28%64%
Gender Stereotyping of Jobs (survey) % of boys and girls saying ‘Both’ men and women suited for these jobs BoysGirlsTotal GP/Doctor79%90%83% Police Officer80%91%86% Engineer21%34%27% Lorry Driver20%29%25%