Presentation on theme: "Gender stereotyping in schools – Young people and career choices"— Presentation transcript:
1Gender stereotyping in schools – Young people and career choices Ronald McQuaid and Sue BondEmployment Research InstituteNapier University, EdinburghWES Conference, Aberdeen, September 2007
2Background Sex Discrimination Act 1975 Pay differentials persist (usual suggestions – flexibility, caring responsibilities, productivity etc.)Causes and consequences of occupational segregation e.g. Miller et al. (2004) Occupational segregation, gender gaps and skill gaps; Thomson et al. (2005) Jobs for the boys and the girls: promoting a smart, successful and equal Scotland, EOC.Women and Work Commission (2006) Shaping a Fairer FutureCareers education should give “young people a real understanding of the pay, rewards and challenges of occupations, particularly those not traditionally taken up by their gender”
3Background Are females attracted to low pay occupations or are predominantly female occupations low paid?Opposite for males?In any case, career choice is important.So what influences career choice among yearschool pupils?
4Outline 1. Methodology 2. Pupil’s views on: Gender Stereotyping of Careers,Perceptions of their Own Suitability for Jobs,Links Between Pupil’s Gender Stereotyping andJob Suitability,Job Characteristics and Sectors of Work,Career and Job Choices, and3. Conclusions
5Research Methodology Stage One: Background Stage Two: Survey (2148 pupils)Stage Three: Case Study Interviews(82 pupils in 4 schools)Stage One: Background – completed May 2003Literature ReviewSecondary Analysis of surveysStage Two: Survey – fieldwork completed July 2003Self-completion survey of over 2000 S2/S3 pupils in state schools in West Lothian and Edinburgh7 schools in West Lothian (Total response: 676= Response Rate 27% of all pupils in these schools)8 schools in Edinburgh (total response: 1472= Response Rate 67% of all pupils in these schools)Stage Three: Case Studies – most of fieldwork complete December 20032 school in West Lothian and 2 schools in EdinburghInterviews with over 80 pupils in total – first completed survey and then an interview schedule administered by a careers advisorInterviews with teachers, careers advisors and employers
8Gender Stereotyping of Jobs (survey) % of boys and girls saying ‘Both’ men and women suited for these jobsBoys Girls TotalArmed Forces 41% 63% 51%Care Asst. 39% 49% 44%Clerk/Office Asst. 74% 78% 76%Computer/Software Dsr 65% 75% 70%Hairdresser/Barber 63% 78% 70%Labourer 34% 47% 41%Lawyer/Solicitor 84% 92% 88%Manager 75% 91% 83%Nurse 42% 56% 49%Shop Worker 83% 90% 87%Teacher 81% 88% 85%Waiter/Waitress 83% 87% 85%GP/Doctor 79% 90% 83%Police Officer 80% 91% 86%Engineer 21% 34% 27%Lorry Driver 20% 29% 25%Gender StereotypingList of 17 jobs, asked ‘Who do you think is best suited to these jobs?’Options: ‘Women’, ‘Men’, ‘Both’How list of 17 jobs selectedTable: % of pupils who thought ‘Both’ men and women suited to selected jobs – indicating ‘Both’ suggests less stereotypingFindingsThere were 7 jobs where over 80% of pupils thought ‘Both’ were suited: Lawyer/Solicitor; Manager; Shop Worker; Teacher; and Waiter/Waitress.Among the more persistently stereotyped jobs also included: Plumber/Electrician; Labourer; Armed Forces; Nurse and Care Assistant.
9Gender Stereotyping of Jobs (survey) 80% of pupils thought ‘both’ men and women suited to:GP/Doctor; Police Officer; Lawyer/Solicitor; Manager;Shop Worker; Teacher; Waiter/WaitressLess than 50% of pupils thought ‘both’ suited to:Engineer; Nurse; Care Assistant; Labourer; Lorry Driver;Plumber/Electrician
10Who were less stereotyping Who were less stereotyping? Linear Regression Model (Forward Selection Method)Independent variables that were significant in the model Standardised CoefficientB) Sig.Demographic characteristic: Sex (female) (dummy)Achievement and Aspirations: Achievement in English (F/E/Credit)Achievement and Aspirations: Chemistry chosen to study (dummy)Attitude: ‘Man’s job to earn money…’Job Characteristic: ‘Earn a lot of money’ Adjusted R Square=.18 Model significance = .000 (i.e. highly significant)Variables that were 5% significant were entered into the model. Independent variables excluded from the model:Demographic Characteristics: Ethnicity (non-white); Year (S3); Achievement and Aspirations: Achievement in Maths (F/E/Credit); ‘Want to go to University’; Physics chosen to study; Biology chosen to study; Computing chosen to study; Socio-economic and family characteristics: Single Parent Household; Not Owner Occupier; Father Unemployed; Social Inclusion Partnership Area; Area (Edinburgh); Careers Advice: Would use Careers for Advice; Would use Parents for Advice; Job Characteristics: ‘Helping others’; ‘Dealing with the public’; ‘Involves interests’; ‘Working with technology’; ‘Involves a lot of travel’; ‘Working outdoors’; ‘Being Creative’; ‘Good promotion prospects’; ‘Plenty of opportunities for further training’; ‘Means you can live in Edinburgh and the Lothians’; ‘Will fit in well with having a family’; ‘Allows you to work flexible hours’.
11Gender Stereotyping of Jobs (Survey) ExplanationsGenderLevel of AchievementGender StereotypingInvestigated factors associated with gender stereotypingGenderLevels of AchievementHigher levels of achievement associated with less gender stereotyping of jobs and occupations to some extent (less so in regression models)However, no obvious link with:Ethnicitysocio-economic characteristics (eg. single parent; parent unemployed; owner occupation; SIP area).NOTE: imperfect measures of deprivation and social class - doesn’t mean there isn’t a relationship necessarily, but these measures didn’t show it.West Lothian and Edinburgh
12Gender Stereotyping of Jobs (Interviews) Gender Characteristic/AptitudeInterestMostly men/women do these jobs‘Man’s’ job/’woman’s’ jobUnsureIf pupils had responded that any of the jobs is best suited to ‘men’ or ‘women’ in the survey, they were then asked ‘why are men/women best suited?’ and ‘why aren’t men/women suited?’Answers generally fell into one of five categoriesMajority of responses involved character/aptitudeNote: difficult to quantify precisely since pupils could give a number of reasons and these overlapped.Next slide going to look specifically at characteristics/aptitudes mentioned
13Why women are well suited Why men are not as well suited NURSEGender Characteristics/aptitudesWhy women are well suited“More caring, better at talking to people” (boy)“More patient than men. Better at caring for others” (boy)“As mothers, women are naturally more caring and understanding” (girl)Why men are not as well suited“Men have little patience and can’t be bothered to look after others” (boy)“Men are not as caring” (girl)NurseWhy women well suited revolved around: caring; communication; helpingWhy men not well suited revolved around: not as caring, not as good at helping
14Why women are not as well suited ENGINEERGender Characteristics/aptitudesWhy Men are well suited“Need to be strong…and men are stronger” (girl)“Better at more technical things” (girl)“Men don’t mind getting their hands dirty and working with tools” (boy)[“Men are mechanics” (boy)]Why women are not as well suited“Jobs would be too hard for them physically” (boy)“Don’t like to get dirty” (girl)“Some women do not know a lot about cars” (boy)EngineerWhy men well suited: strength; technical/working with hands; dirtyWhy women not well suited: lack of strength; don’t like dirt; less knowledgeable/technical.Misunderstanding about the job apparent:Confusion with mechanicPerception of dirt
16Own Suitability for Jobs (Survey) ExplanationsGenderLevel of AchievementEthnicityJob SuitabilityInvestigated what factors were associated with pupils perceptions of their suitability for jobsGenderLevels of Achievement in Maths and EnglishHigher levels of achievement – associated with higher SOC jobs: professionals, associate profesional etc.Ethnicity- white v non-white (note: small numbers in survey, could not disaggregate)Non-whites more suited to: Computer/Software Designer; Engineer; GP/Doctor; Lawyer/SolicitorNon-whites less suited to: Waiter/WaitressSocio-economic characteristicsRelatively little impact in regression models.AreaNo differences between West Lothian and Edinburgh when other factors taken into account
17Pupil Perceptions of their own suitability for Jobs **significant to 99% level*significant to 95% level
18Pupil Perceptions of their suitability for Jobs by Ethnic Background Outline
19Linking Gender Stereotyping of Jobs With Job Suitability (Survey) Within Gender CorrelationsGIRLS who thought ‘both’ genders were suited for specific jobs andalso felt they were more personally suited to that job:Armed Forces; Computer/Software Designer; Engineer;Labourer; Manager; Lorry Driver; Plumber/Electrician; Police OfficerCorrelations show if one variable is related to another (in a linear relationship).Note: Used ‘both’ because for many jobs those who don’t say ‘both’ invariably say the gender that is most associated with that job. Only for a small number of jobs, eg. GP/doctor, lawyer/solicitor, do you get a mix of pupils saying most suited to ‘men’ and ‘women.Problem: can’t tell whether gender stereotyping of jobs impacts on perceptions of suitability or the other way around.Findings: show girls who responded that both men and women suited to ‘male’ jobs, were more likely to perceive themselves to be more suited to these jobs. Boys who responded that both suited to ‘female’ jobs were more likely to perceived themselves to be more suited to these jobs.BOYS who thought ‘both’ genders were suited for specific jobs andalso felt they were more personally suited to that job:Care Assistant; Clerk/Office Asst; Hairdresser/Barber; Nurse;Waiter/Waitress
20ModelDependent variable is: pupils’ rating of how suited they were to do each job (17 jobs) using binary logistic regressionDichotomous variable (‘Very suitable’ or ‘suitable’) or (‘Neither’ suitable nor unsuitable, ‘Not very suitable’, or ‘Not suitable at all’).
21Demographic Characteristics; Achievement and Aspirations; Socio-economic and family characteristics;Careers Advice;Attitudes;Job Characteristics.si = βXi + γYi + δZi ……+ i
31First Choice for Advice about Careers (Survey)Boys Girls TotalMother 28% 51% 40%Father 30% 9% 20%Careers Advisor 23% 23% 23%Internet 6% 5% 5%Guidance Teacher 3% 3% 3%Friends 3% 3% 3%Other Teacher 0.2% 0.6% 0.4%Advice About Careers - first choice for adviceParents most popular, particularly mothers (and especially by girls)Careers next most popularOther sources marginally popular
32Sources of Careers Advice (Interviews)% Used % UsefulMother 84% 92%Father 78% 84%Guidance Teacher 67% 87%Internet 64% 86%Friends 59% 58%Careers Advisor 44% 94%Advice about Careers - actual usePupils using a variety of sourcesParents most used; Careers Advisor only used by 44%Most sources were rated at least useful, with Careers coming top, shortly followed by Mother.Rise in use of internet and high proportion finding this usefulAlthough nearly 60% used friends, only 58% found it useful (lower than other sources).
33Gender Stereotyping of Career Choice Summing Up Key FindingsContinuity and ChangeDifferences between groups (gender/achievement)Pupils’ lack of knowledgeTypes of StereotypingLink between stereotyping and perceptions of suitabilityImportance of ParentsSumming Up FindingsCHANGE AND CONTINUITYChange - (A) More girls than boys feeling suited to job that used to be dominated by men (eg. doctor, lawyer)(B) Also some occupations are not stereotyped a much - doctor, lawyer, manager, police, shop worker, teacher, waiter.Continuity - (A) Still big differences for some occupations as to how suited boys and girls think they are - Engineer, Nurse.(B) Also, some jobs still stereotyped - Engineer, Nurse, lorry driver, Plumber/Electrician, Labourer, Armed Forces and Care Assistant.DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GROUPS Gender - levels of achievementLACK OF KNOWLEDGE About some jobs, tendency to view jobs in particular waysTYPES OF STEREOTYPING Interviews show there are different ways pupils stereotypeLINK BETWEEN STEREOTPYING AND SUITABILITY. There is a link, but not sure of directionIMPORTANCE OF PARENTS As source of careers of advice.
34Recommendations -Focus on job characteristics as well as occupations Recommendations -Focus on job characteristics as well as occupations. -Identify and focus on occupations where stereotyping remains great. -Highlight the changing nature of gender stereotyping in some jobs. -Target lower achievement pupils. -Target boys and girls in separate ways. -Continue challenge of gender roles.
37Gender Stereotyping of Jobs Suitable for male and female Male onlyTeacher Lorry DriverWaiter/Waitress Armed ForcesLawyer/Solicitor EngineerPolice Officer LabourerManager Plumber/ElectricianGP/DoctorShop Worker Female onlyCare AssistantMixed NurseHairdresser/BarberClerk/Office AssistantComputer/Software Designer
38Linking Gender Stereotyping of Jobs With Job Suitability (Survey) Suitability for Jobs: % of Girls who say theyare ‘suitable’ or ‘very suitable’Boys GirlsEngineering 63% 10%Armed Forces 58% 19%Plumber/Electrician 50% 5%Earlier survey findings showed that girls were less likely to stereotype jobs than boys, yet low numbers of girls were still rating themselves as suitable for many ‘male’ jobs.
39Suitability for Jobs (Survey) % of Boys and Girls who say they are ‘suitable’ or ‘very suitable’Boys GirlsArmed Forces 58% 19%Care Asst. 15% 62%Clerk/Office Asst. 31% 52%Computer/Software Dsn 59% 30%Hairdresser/Barber 10% 63%Labourer 29% 8%Lorry Driver 36% 9%Manager 71% 69%Plumber/Electrician 50% 5%Police Officer 52% 40%Shop Worker 37% 56%Teacher 28% 59%Waiter/Waitress 28% 64%Suitability for JobsList of 17 jobs, pupils asked ‘Even if you wouldn’t want to do a particular job, how suitable do you think you would be for each one?’Rate on a 5-point scale from: Very Suitable; Suitable; Neither; Not Very Suitable; Not Suitable at allTable presents % of boys and girls who stated either ‘Very suitable’ or ‘Suitable’ for selected occupations.Findings:In some previously male-dominated professions, more girls than boys rated themselves as suitable: GP/Doctor also Lawyer/Solicitor (51% compared to 47%)Many still on traditional lines: Engineer (63% boys; 10% girls); Nursing (11% boys; 57% girls).
40Gender Stereotyping of Jobs (survey) % of boys and girls saying ‘Both’ men and women suited for these jobsBoys Girls TotalGP/Doctor 79% 90% 83%Police Officer 80% 91% 86%Engineer 21% 34% 27%Lorry Driver 20% 29% 25%Gender StereotypingList of 17 jobs, asked ‘Who do you think is best suited to these jobs?’Options: ‘Women’, ‘Men’, ‘Both’How list of 17 jobs selectedTable: % of pupils who thought ‘Both’ men and women suited to selected jobs – indicating ‘Both’ suggests less stereotypingFindingsThere were 7 jobs where over 80% of pupils thought ‘Both’ were suited: Lawyer/Solicitor; Manager; Shop Worker; Teacher; and Waiter/Waitress.Among the more persistently stereotyped jobs also included: Plumber/Electrician; Labourer; Armed Forces; Nurse and Care Assistant.