Social contract between public & police Public relinquishes authority to police...in exchange... Demands that officers be properly guided Span of control: number of subordinates Field sergeants often too few, results in oversight rather than supervision Officers are often not candid Developing expertise Rising through the ranks takes years LAPD: Officer (multiple levels) Sergeant Lieutenant Captain Commander Deputy Chief Asst. Chief To become an executive one must avoid prolonged street-level assignments, limits technical expertise
Sheriffs departments traditionally less professionally-oriented than police Political role Sheriffs have great statutory latitude in selecting their top subordinates Custody role can limit the development of law enforcement skills Policing is a craft learned through practice and experience At each promotion deputies tend to go back to custody Deputies who choose to stay in the field can’t promote ▪ Those least experienced in policing are in charge of policing BUT - in the eastern U.S., sheriff’s departments have separate job classifications and career tracks for custody and patrol deputies
Difficulties of leading a policing organization Everybody likes a fireman (nature of policing) Obtaining and keeping resources Police usually half or more of local budget Must take a hit in recessionary times To get resources and retain their jobs must be politically savvy and influential Reconcile competing interests Community groups, political leaders, private businesses, police unions Assure quality services Controlling policing is very difficult (oversight v. supervision) Must remain bonded to all levels of the organization
Appointed position Under supervision of Mayor or City manager Function makes oversight problematic Job security varies; traditionally tenures are brief ▪ L.A. City Charter was amended following the 1992 riots ▪ LAPD Chiefs now have five year terms, can be reappointed once Selection - California Traditionally from within the ranks or from nearby agencies Calif. does not require that chiefs complete a California academy Disturbances and police-community issues led L.A. to reach outside ▪ 1992-1997: Willie Williams (outsider - denied reappointment) ▪ 1997-2002: Bernard Parks (insider - denied reappointment) ▪ 2002-2009: Bill Bratton (outsider - reappointed 2007) ▪ 2009 - : Charlie Beck (insider) Other States are more open to outside Chiefs
CareerConcerns & EmphasisEnvironment 1950-1966William H. ParkerJoined 1928 Brought in to fight corruption Professionalization Political intelligence Anti-terrorism Radical movements Domestic terrorism 1965 Watts riots 1967-1969Thomas ReddinConsidered an interim Chief Community policing concept Drug & gang violence 1969-1978Edward M. DavisJoined 1948Political intelligence Vice and prostitution Basic car plan Drug & gang violence 1978-1992Daryl F. GatesJoined 1949 Disciple of Parker SWAT, CRASH, DARE Operation Hammer Drugs & gangs 1992 Rodney King Riot 1992-1997Willie L. WilliamsPrior Philadelphia PD Commissioner Denied reappointment Repair relations with minority communities 1996-1998 Rampart scandal 1997-2002Bernard C. ParksCareer LAPD officer Denied reappointment Integrity & disciplineRampart scandal Crime drop begins 2002-2009William J. Bratton1970 - Boston PD ofcr Chief, Boston & NY Compstat Community relations Political climate Crime drop continues MacArthur Park 2009 -Charlie Beck1975 - Joined LAPD as reservist Admired “cop’s cop” Streamline mgmtStreamline mgmt, consolidate special units, return officers to field Crime drop continues City financial crisis LAPD Chiefs, 1950 to present
Elected political position, usually also coroner Lack meaningful supervision California: subject to oversight by County Board of Supervisorssubject to oversight by County Board of Supervisors ▪ But -- Boards are very reluctant to exercise that authority Only real oversight is through the County budget process Sheriffs have wide authority to select and appoint subordinates; can be abused ▪ Example -- Carona’s appointments of Jaramillo and Haidl Historically less professionally skilled than police chiefs Loose experience requirements (need only be a peace officer) No structured hiring process No structured hiring process No significant educational requirements In the East some Sheriffs are now appointed by County administrators
In charge of larger organizational units Geographical operational divisions Administrative components Normally supervise employees who are themselves supervisors Distance from the actual work can promote ignorance Of the workplace environment Of how the job is actually performed Of the qualities and reputations of field employees Everyday tasks may be relatively trivial Dispersed nature of policing affects middle managers’ ability to influence outcomes Middle managers styles may influence supervisor and officer behavior
Caught between management and the field Officer demands Management expectations Limited ability to select or influence subordinates Quality of “raw material” Supervision is really “oversight” ▪ Depends on officers telling the truth & voluntarily complying Exercising control problematic Discipline can threaten bond with employees Managers may not back up potentially expensive or controversial personnel decisions Supervisory styles said to influence officer decisions Pro’s and con’s of “active supervisors” who lead by example
Formal communication Expected, sanctioned interactions Flow three ways: ▪ Down, as policy, directives, supervision, evaluation and training ▪ Laterally, between peers or units ▪ Up, as reports and verbal feedback Informal communication and the “grapevine” Where policy meets the workplace Used for venting Not always accurate; can be malicious Not always lateral: much informal communication between first-level supervisors and subordinates
Authoritarian setting Discourages free exchange of information “line” vs. “staff”; superior -v- subordinate Structure of policing Most critical task is done by those lowest on the totem pole Supervisors seldom in position to observe, depend on being told Situational contingencies Insufficient time for adequate communication Insufficient time for reflection POV - “Point of View” Different environments different pressures and constraints on the actors Individual differences Strained interpersonal relationships
Free, unhindered exchange of accurate information (not just what someone “wants to hear”) is crucial Leads to better, well-informed decisions at all levels Helps bond employees to managers and dept. goals Personal styles of managers and executives are crucial: Bernard Parks - aloof, cerebral, haunted by past slights William Bratton - brusque, preferred to deal with managers, emphasized performance measurement Charlie Beck - warm, oriented to street cops, less enamored of the number-crunching Compstat approach What might be the consequences of these differences? For the organization? For the community?
Computerized pin-map Frequent meetings to evaluate impact Shift resources quickly in response to changes in local crime trends Short-term fluctuations can deceive “Rapid focused deployment” unrealistic without surplus personnel Claimed effects highly questionable Crime declines have been experienced everywhere since the mid-1990’s Reductions in crime influenced by social and economic factors Pressures of Compstat might distort reporting Using Compstat to evaluate subordinates “Relentless follow-up and assessment” creates heavy pressure to demonstrate quantifiable results Is quality easily measured? Is one rewarding “yes-men” or the most competent? Police Issues: Liars FigureLiars Figure
Police Issues: Not All Cops Are BlueNot All Cops Are Blue The original suit, filed in May 2009 by a Hispanic lieutenant and four officers – a female Hispanic, a male Hispanic, an Armenian and a Black – characterized the department as “an insider’s club where if you aren’t white, male and heterosexual you had better keep your mouth shut and play along with the bigots or suffer the consequences.” The original suit, White cops and the former chief are accused of subjecting minority officers to slurs and slights, passing them over for desirable assignments and promotions and unfairly disciplining them. According to the lieutenant he was harassed for hiring a qualified, openly gay female and was busted back to patrolman for reporting officer misconduct, with the chief going so far as to arrange his demotion with the police union. A sixth officer filed a separate but nearly identical suit four months later. Excepting one of the original plaintiffs, whose cause of action was recently dismissed on technical grounds, the cases remain on track. A sixth officercause of action was recently dismissed
Police Issues: Not All Cops Are BlueNot All Cops Are Blue Lawsuit filed in January 2010 on behalf of four current and one former Glendale officers of Armenian ancestry, including two sergeants. Alleges a pattern of hostile treatment and discrimination.pattern of hostile treatment and discrimination Examples of bias include the removal of a plaintiff from his position as GPD’s chief spokesperson, allegedly because he testified for another plaintiff, who was fired and was suing for reinstatement. There are also examples of derogatory comments and of failed attempts to gain transfers and promotions. And if Glendale really doesn’t discriminate, why do they have so few Armenian cops? City argues that few Armenians apply to join the force and there are few vacancies. Glendale insists it’s trying to do more, posting an announcement for an Armenian- fluent officer several months before the lawsuit.posting an announcement In February 2011 six Glendale cops were placed on paid leave over complaints including alleged off-duty road rage and taking a police car to Vegas. Then in March two more were taken off the street, one for harassing a colleague to join an ongoing lawsuit, another for soliciting sex. It’s supposedly part of a new “zero tolerance policy” by Chief Ron de Pompa.six Glendale cops were placed on paid leave Then in March two more were taken off the street In April 2011 the officers who took the car to Las Vegas were fired.the officers who took the car to Las Vegas
Newport Beach Daily Pilot Newport Beach Daily Pilot In September 2010 two retired NBPD lieutenants filed a claim against the city saying they were harassed, reassigned and not promoted because they didn’t go along with violations of personnel rules. Apparently the former chief and city manager had agreed to let officers retire, then return to fill their prior positions under contract. Six retired officers came back this way, saving money (the city didn’t have to pay benefits or contribute to retirement) but denied opportunities to others. The city attorney later ruled that the agreements were illegal. There were other problems A retired officer was brought back as chief without being subject to outside competition, which was also supposedly illegal. A lieutenant won a lawsuit claiming that he had been passed over for promotions because of false rumors he was gay An Irvine PD commander hired to investigate concluded that although integrity had been “marginalized,” favoritism hadn’t figured in promotions.
Differences in outlook A “job” or a “calling”? Differences in backgrounds Culture, class, race and ethnicity Education Military and life experience Differences in orientation Craftspersons -v- career minded Clashes between patrol and specialized units Competition for influence Promotion issues Lack of opportunities in smaller agencies Subjectivity of the process Cliques and friendships
Federal Criminal investigators (GS-1811) cannot join “unions”. Can join associations but no right to bargain collectively. No Federal employee can strike or engage in a work action. State Police unions OK, can collectively bargain Cannot strike or engage in work actions Los Angeles Police Protective League (LAPPL) Powerful political force Traditional foe of LAPD chiefs on matters of pay and discipline Decisive factor in denying Parks a second term Helped pass California bill that makes police disciplinary hearings private Suing LAPD for prohibition on wearing helmets during a demonstration on 1/10/09. An officer was hit on the head with a sign and injured.
In the Presidential race (election 11/09) Bratton endorsed Hillary Clinton in the primaries, then Obama: “Democrats are much more supportive on policing issues. Republicans are just not good on local policing...” Bratton comes from New York City, where there is strict gun control In the L.A. County 2 nd. District Board of Supervisors race (election 11/09) endorsed Mark Ridley-Thomas over ex-police chief Bernard Parks: “I endorse [Thomas] not because I consider him to be my friend – I support Mark Ridley- Thomas because I respect him and what he has accomplished...” In the L.A. City Attorney race (election 3/3/09) endorsed Councilman Jack Weiss: “Nobody has worked harder...on issues of gangs, terrorism and forensics testing....It is important to have somebody who doesn't need to have on-the-job training and has a good relationship with other law enforcement agencies and works well with them...” In the L.A. Mayoral race (election 3/3/09) Bratton endorsed Villaraigosa Meanwhile, L.A. County Sheriff Lee Baca earned the moniker “The Full Baca” for endorsing two in the same race: Weiss and Carmen Trutanich (a guy)
L.A. Times commentary L.A. Times commentary In 1991 the Christopher Commission was formed to make a thorough review of the LAPD in wake of the Rodney King beating. Its chairman was Warren Christopher, later U.S. Secretary of State.Christopher Commission One of its conclusions: “The Independent Commission recommends that the Chief of Police not endorse candidates for public office...Because the chief's office is inherently powerful, it is unseemly for the Chief to use that position to influence the political process...It is particularly ironic to create a system to insulate the Chief from improper political pressure, and then have the Chief use that protected position to campaign on behalf of politicians who thereby become indebted to him. Such activity politicizes the Chief, and ultimately the Department.”
L.A. County Sheriff Lee Baca issued official-looking “Homeland Security Support Unit” photo ID cards to political donors. Baca defended the practice by saying that it could save lives. Riverside County Sheriff Bob Doyle issued badges to members of an “Executive Council” – actually, 17 persons who contributed to his re-election campaign. He said that members of the group had translated Arabic documents on two occasions. Two members of the group flashed the badges at law enforcement officers – one to get through airport security and onto the tarmac, another when police served a search warrant at his business on unrelated matters. California law prohibits issuing realistic-looking police-type badges and ID cards to non-peace officers.
March 6, 2012: According to the Los Angeles Times L.A. County Sheriff Lee Baca’s political chums didn’t just get reserve badges – a few also got take-home carsLos Angeles Times Sheriff Capt. Patrick Maxwell said he personally saw one well-heeled contributor park his LASD car by his businesses for years. Sheriff’s Captain Phillip Hansen is in charge of the reserves. He was brought in to “clean up” the program after charges that politically-connected persons were getting badges by taking pretend classes at resorts. When Capt. Hansen heard that some reserves were getting cars he worried that the program would get ridiculed. But when he called area commanders to find out he was told that who got the cars was confidential – even from him: “I basically got nicely told I really wasn't authorized to have that information.” In 2011 the LASD refused to release information about take-home cars of four reserves who had supported Baca’s campaign. The reserves refused to talk to the paper. Baca then pulled the cars.
A federal grand jury subpoena seeks records from the Mike Carona Foundation. In connection with an investigation by the Internal Revenue Service, a Federal Grand Jury issued a subpoena for all financial records held by a non-profit charity established by Orange County Sheriff Mike Carona shortly after his election. According to the Los Angeles Times, the foundation supposedly raised only $22,000 between 1999, the year Carona took office, and 2000. But in 2001 it allegedly raised $625,050, giving $15,000 to the Hispanic Education Endowment Fund. In 2002 it reportedly raised $100,000, gave away $199,800 and declared an ending balance of $484,159. Stated benefactors in 2002 include the Hispanic endowment fund, the O.C. Rescue Mission and others. The California Fair Political Practices Commission is investigating allegedly illegal contributions made to Carona in 2002. Evidence suggests that a business associate of Carona’s ex-assistant, George Jaramillo, laundered a $200,000 contribution to Carona by pretending that it came from multiple donors.California Fair Political Practices Commission
In 2004 OCSD Assistant Sheriff George Jaramillo was charged with multiple felonies for conflict of interest and misusing deputies, sheriff’s patrol cars and a helicopter for private gain. While employed as a consultant for CHG Safety Technologies Jaramillo promoted a car immobilizing device, staging demonstrations for the OCSD and other agencies. Sheriff Mike Carona said that he had warned Jaramillo about a potential conflict of interest should he accept a position with CHG. Carona said that Jaramillo never brought it up again. He later fired Jaramillo. Jaramillo eventually pled no contest to a felony and served six months. His sister-in-law, Erica Hill, supposedly was given a job with CHG as part of these shenanigans. George Jaramillo Ex-Garden Grove cop, left under a cloud and was hired by his then-buddy Mike Carona to be his number two man.
In November 2005 Erica Hill went public, charging that she had sex with Jaramillo as a teen-ager. She also said that she had sex with Sheriff Carona four times in exchange for a promise to make her husband a deputy. Carona never hired the husband. For obvious reasons, the husband and Erica Hill separated. Hill’s allegations were revealed when her Grand Jury testimony in the case against Jaramillo was released. Both Hill and Carona asked the California Attorney General to investigate. Hill’s allegations ultimately went nowhere. After all, it was her word against “America’s Sheriff.” Who would you believe?
O.C. Sheriff Mike Carona’s grant of police powers to 86 friends, relatives and campaign supporters was revoked by the State Commission on Peace Officers Standards and Training, which ruled that they were either unqualified, untrained or had not passed necessary background checks. Those who got badges and guns included an assortment of doctors, lawyers and businessmen who hosted fundraisers and contributed funds to Corona’s campaign. Several others were friends and relatives of the person who established the reserve program, former Assistant Sheriff Don Haidl, whose son was recently convicted of rape. Despite an official finding that these reserve “deputies” lacked necessary training, Sheriff Carona tried to get them reinstated. He didn’t succeed.
Carona, the Orange County Marshal, was elected Sheriff in 1998, then re-elected twice. OCSD Lt. Bill Hunt ran against him in 2006 and was demoted after he lost. When he first took office Carona brought in Jaramillo from GGPD as Assistant Sheriff for operations. He also placed Donald Haidl, a businessman with no law enf. experience in a sworn, unpaid position as Asst. Sheriff for the reserves. 2004: Carona fired Jaramillo when the latter got in trouble for conflict of interest. In the same year Haidl resigned when his son was convicted of rape.) In March 2007 Haidl and Jaramillo were secretly indicted on tax charges, Haidl for not declaring business funds he spent on his son’s defense, and Jaramillo for failing to disclose cash and other gifts he got from Haidl. Haidl and Jaramillo ratted on Carona, accusing him of selling his office by accepting cash and gifts from Haidl and doling out badges and gun permits to contributors. In October 2007 a Federal Grand Jury returned a multi-count indictment against Carona, his wife Deborah Carona and his mistress Debra Hoffman. (Charges against the women were later dropped.)
On 1/16/09 Carona was convicted on one count of witness tampering, for coaching Haidl. He was acquitted on one count of conspiracy and three counts of mail fraud by depriving the public of the honest services of a public official. Jurors said they disbelieved the prosecution’s main witness, former Assistant Sheriff Don Haidl, who testified that he gave Carona cash payoffs, but that a secretly taped conversation between the two was enough to convict Carona for trying to get Haidl to lie to the Grand Jury. On 4/27/09 Carona got 5 ½ years. His appeal was eventually rejected and he reported to Federal prison on 1/26/11. On 9/15/09 Jaramillo got 27 months in Federal prison. According to the judge he didn’t accept enough responsibility. Haidl is to be sentenced in March 2010 on his plea to filing a false tax return. No prison time is expected. Police Issues: Carona Five, Feds OneCarona Five, Feds One