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Research Project: “ The Off Season Dyeing Process for Environmental Friendly and Organic Thai Silk in the Northeast for Export Market ” By: Asst. Prof.

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Presentation on theme: "Research Project: “ The Off Season Dyeing Process for Environmental Friendly and Organic Thai Silk in the Northeast for Export Market ” By: Asst. Prof."— Presentation transcript:

1 Research Project: “ The Off Season Dyeing Process for Environmental Friendly and Organic Thai Silk in the Northeast for Export Market ” By: Asst. Prof. Dr. Sitthichai Smanchat, THAILAND

2 Research Areas Natural Dye in Ubon Ratchathani province, THAILAND Natural Dye in Khonkhen province, THAILAND The Off Season Dyeing Process for Environmental Friendly and Organic Thai Silk in the Northeast for Export Market

3 The Purpose of Research 1) to develop production process for environmental friendly and organic Thai silk. 2) to promote Thai natural dye silk of off season dyeing. 3) to get a new record of intellectual property in Thailand. Question of Research The natural dyed Thai silk production is increasingly demanded for export market. However, Thai weavers and dyers could not get natural dye materials every season.

4 Research Activity 1. Meeting Research Team 2. Training Research Team 3. Meeting with Community 4. Survey information 5. Investigate information

5 Natural Dye in Ubon Ratchathani province, THAILAND Ubonratchathani, the easternmost province of Thailand, is used to be the biggest province and located about 629 kilometers northeast of Bangkok. The splendid silk of Ubonratchathani use to be mentioned by the King Rama V (King Chulalongkorn, reigned ) as the super fine quality for color and pattern. As the author works here from 2008 to the present, I travel extensively through the province and admire deeply the art of natural dyeing and weaving of village women. There are two interesting places where I work closely with dyers and weavers. They usually attend several workshops and seminars of government programs.

6 Natural Dye in Ubon Ratchathani province, THAILAND One of these places is ‘Ban Sompornrat’ village in Boontharik district, some 85 kilometers far from Ubonratchathani city. Their super fine silk yarn productions of craftswomen always win awards of silk reeling technique. This village is famous for natural dye of organic Thai silk. Mr. Kai-nakorn Pheng-jam is the head of natural dyeing and silk weaving production here. He has practiced natural dye with pure natural mordant for several years. Mr. Kai-nakorn and his members also grow the natural dyestuffs and natural-mordant plants in community forest, i.e. ‘Kam-saed’ seed (Bixa Orellana Linn), ‘Ma-yom’ bark (Phyllanthus acidus Skeels), ‘Mead-ayr’ (Memecylon scutellatum Naud.), ‘Chong-Ko’ (Bauhinia purpurea Linn.), ‘Ma- Kham’ (Tamarindus indica Linn.), ‘Kluay-Nam-Wa’ (Musa sapientum Linn.), etc. at ‘Ban Sompornrat’ village, Boontharik district

7 Natural Dye in Ubon Ratchathani province, THAILAND Another place is ‘Ban Pa-aow’ village in Muang district, some 25 kilometers from Ubonratchathani city. This village is generally renowned for traditional brass works. The craftswomen of this village also win awards of silk weaving from sericulture center. Mrs. Jo is in charge of dyeing section of the silk weaving center of the village, and she told us that the dye-plants are getting less than in the past. The number of weavers also decreases every year, as young generations seek for other jobs in the city. She told us that some dyestuffs have been purchased from other places. She and her members tried to revive their knowledge about natural dyeing for several years. Their dye plants are ‘A-Rang’ bark (Peltophorum Pterocarpum Back. Ex Heyne), ‘Yo-Pa’ wood (Morinda Citrifolia), ‘Kha-nun’ wood (Artocarpus Heterophyllus Lamk), etc. They used to get orders from export markets but they could not respond to those orders. One of their problems is that they could not get natural dyestuffs during off-season. They informed us that Thai urban people also prefer organic and natural dyed Thai silk to chemical color dyed silk. at ‘Ban Pa-aow’ village, Muang district

8 Natural Dye in Khonkhen province, THAILAND Khon Kaen is another large province in the upper Northeastern of Thailand, some 629 kilometers northeast of Bangkok. The elaborate silk ‘Mudmee’ (Thai ikat) of this province got an winner award of Asian textiles competition from UNESCO several years ago. This province is renowned for ikat technique (resisted dye) and its weaving skill. I have traveled to this province during the last 2 years for my previous projects about ‘textile evidences as depicted on Isan mural paintings’ and ‘natural dyes’. It made me known two important centers for natural dyeing and weaving here.

9 Natural Dye in Khonkhen province, THAILAND The first center is in ‘Ban Nong-Ya-Pong’ village, ‘Man-cha-kee-ree’ district, some 32 kilometers far from Khon Kaen city. The government has helped them to arrange cultural programs and set up a home stay for tourist groups. Mrs. ThongLert Sonjan and her team showed us the natural dyeing corner at their center. They use dye plants such as ‘A-Rang’ bark (Peltophorum Pterocarpum Back. Ex Heyne), ‘Ka-don’ bark (Careya sphaerica Roxb.), ‘Khae’ wood (Maclura Cachinchinensis Corner), etc. They experimented the combination of silk warp and other plant-fibers for the weft. They also used raw silk cocoon as supplementary weft for decorative parts in their organic silk products. at ‘Ban Nong-Ya-Pong’ village, ‘Man-cha-kee-ree’ district

10 Natural Dye in Khonkhen province, THAILAND The second one is in ‘Ban Don-Kha’ village, ‘Chonnaboth’ district, some 50 kilometers from Khon Kaen city. Mr. Thawee Sukkho is the pioneer for reviving the natural dye for organic Thai silk here. He has grown up many plants in community forest, and tries to solve environment issue about the water too. He tried to set up an organic farm and used dyestuffs from local plants such as ‘Khoon’ fruit (Cassia fistula Linn), ‘Ka-don’ bark (Careya sphaerica Roxb.), etc. He also informed us that markets increased the demand of organic Thai silk with natural dye. at ‘Ban Don-Kha’ village, ‘Chonnaboth’ district

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12 Off Season Dyeing Process (Experiment 1) 1) Solar dry technique on hanging bars. This practice is adopted from the method to preserve Thai medical herbs. We made a bar with three levels for hanging trays of dyestuffs. This bar will be covered with plastic or net for protecting dyestuffs from the wind. We have to rotate trays of dyestuffs to let them dry up properly. We can also put high quantity of dyestuffs at one time. This system or method can be practiced easily. The drying bar can also be made by local persons.

13 Off Season Dyeing Process (Experiment 2) 2) Hot air oven in laboratory. The hot air oven machine needs electricity to run the system works, if some village has no electricity, they cannot use this machine. We, however, can make the dyestuffs dried up by hot air oven in a day. But we cannot put high quantity of dyestuffs for dry them at one time. In comparison between ‘solar dry technique on hanging bars’ and ‘hot air oven in laboratory’, we do not need to rotate the trays as the dry dyestuffs will get dry by hot air in the oven. This system or machine, however, cannot make it by local people; it needs to buy from the company. It also needs to be done in the laboratory.

14 Off Season Dyeing Materials Solar Dry Experiment of Drying Methods Preference for the method The Off Season Dyeing Process for Environmental Friendly and Organic Thai Silk in the Northeast for Export Market Community Hot Air Oven Laboratory

15 Conclusion Upon the analysis of the preference of the dyers and weavers for drying technologies of the natural dye materials for off-season in Ubonratchathani, and Khon Kaen Provinces, we have reached a conclusion to select ‘solar dry technique on hanging bars’ as all communities can produce by themselves and its low cost. Furthermore, the good time for collecting dye materials should be done in the dry season (November to April). The development of off season dyeing materials will help us to produce the natural dye silk throughout the seasons and raises more awareness of organic Thai silk production for export markets.

16 Community 1. Dyers can get dye-stuffs for all season 2. Weavers can produce organic silk 3. Raises more awareness of organic Thai silk for export market

17 THANK YOU: “ The Off Season Dyeing Process for Environmental Friendly and Organic Thai Silk in the Northeast for Export Market ” Asst. Prof. Dr. Sitthichai Smanchat, THAILAND


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