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National Security Decision Making Structure. Pre-1947 Structure President Department of State Department of War (Army) Department of the Navy.

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Presentation on theme: "National Security Decision Making Structure. Pre-1947 Structure President Department of State Department of War (Army) Department of the Navy."— Presentation transcript:

1 National Security Decision Making Structure

2 Pre-1947 Structure President Department of State Department of War (Army) Department of the Navy

3 National Security Act of 1947 Department of Defense US Air Force Joint Chiefs of Staff Central Intelligence Agency National Security Council

4 State Department (1789 – no change) State Dept home page State Dept home page Organization Embassies Careers Nations (includes Nations background notes)

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6 Department of Defense (1947) The Pentagon

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9 Civilian Control of the Military Chain of Command President SecDef Combatant Commander

10 DoD Structure DoD Organization The Department of Defense The Office of the Secretary of Defense Joint Chiefs of Staff – JCS Structure JCS Structure United States ArmyArmy United States NavyNavy – Navy Structure Navy Structure United States Marine CorpsMarine Corps United States Air ForceAir Force Unified Command Plan Defense Intelligence Agency National Security Agency (NSA) Defense Science Board publications Defense Science Board

11 Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman of the Joint Chiefs Chief of Staff of the Army Chief of Naval Operations Chief of Staff of the Air Force Commandant of the Marine Corps Joint Staff (Purple Suited)

12 Goldwater-Nichols Act (1986) Chairman of the Joint Chiefs Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs Chief of Staff of the Army Chief of Naval Operations Chief of Staff of the Air Force Commandant of the Marine Corps Joint Staff

13 Central Intelligence Agency (1947)

14 Intelligence Failures Intelligence Reform and Terrorist Prevention Act of 2004

15 Intelligence Community

16 Intelligence Community Links Director of National Intelligence (2005) Director of National Intelligence – ODNI Structure ODNI Structure – DNI National Intelligence Strategy (2005) DNI National Intelligence Strategy – National Intelligence Council National Intelligence Council National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) President’s Intelligence Advisory Board (PIAB).(PIAB). Central Intelligence Agency (1947) Central Intelligence Agency – World Factbook World Factbook – CIA list of World Leaders and Cabinet Members of Foreign GovernmentsWorld Leaders – CIA-sponsored page of links on intelligence issueslinks on intelligence issues – Freedom of Information Act details for CIA documents Freedom of Information Act details for CIA documents

17 Department of Homeland Security 2003 Secretary of Homeland SecurityHomeland Security Structure

18 Congressional Oversight – House Armed Services Committee House Armed Services Committee – House Committee on Foreign Afairs House Committee on Foreign Afairs – House Select Committee on Homeland Security House Select Committee on Homeland Security – House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence – Senate Committee on Armed Services Senate Committee on Armed Services – Senate Committee on Foreign Relations Senate Committee on Foreign Relations – Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Government Affairs – Senate Select Committee on Intelligence Senate Select Committee on Intelligence – Congressional Budget Office (CBO)(CBO) – Government Accountability Office (GAO)(GAO) – CRS Reports through the Federation of American Scientists CRS Reports through the Federation of American Scientists

19 Decision Making Coordination among agencies/departments Interagency Process

20 National Security CouncilNational Security Council, 1947 ( have been modifications ) Members of NSC President Vice President Secretary of State Secretary of Defense Secretary of Energy (added 2007) Any others the President wishes to add Advisors to NSC Chair JCS DNI

21 Evolution of NSC Staff (now called NS Staff) NSC Staff as President’s personal foreign policy staff Professionals National Security Adviser as the President’s number one adviser Began with JFK

22 Presidential Management of National Security Decisions Premises 1.Advisers compete 2.Organizations compete 1.$, power, turf 3.Presidents want to manage the process 1.Coordination and control 2.trust

23 How President’s Manage Decision Making 1.Standard Model 2.Nixon centralization 3.Standard Model with Management Problems 4.Standard Model with Strong Management

24 1. Standard NSC Committee Structure (Based on Ike Model and Bush 41) NSC NSC Principals Committee NSC Deputies Committee NSC Interagency Policy Comm. (Asst. Sec) NSC Interagency Policy Comm. (Asst. Sec) NSC Interagency Policy Comm (Asst. Sec) NSC Interagency Policy Comm (Asst. Sec) Staff

25 Typical NSC Membership President Vice President Secretaries of State Defense Energy Attorney General Treasury Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs Deputy Assistant to the Pres. for National Security Affairs Assistant to the Vice President for National Security Affairs “Special Assistant to the President” Advisors to NSC Chair JCS DNI

26 Principals Committee Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (Chair) Secretaries of State Defense Energy Attorney General Treasury Deputy Assistant to the Pres. for National Security Affairs Assistant to the Vice President for National Security Affairs “Special Assistant to the President” Advisors to NSC Chair JCS DNI * GW Bush administration: VP Cheney was a member of the Principals Comm.

27 Deputies Committee Deputy Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (Chair) Deputy Secretaries or Principal Undersecretaries of State Defense Energy Attorney General Treasury Assistant to the Vice President for National Security Affairs “Special Assistant to the President” Advisors to NSC Vice Chair JCS Deputy DNI

28 Assistant Secretary-Level IA Groups Bush 41/43: PCC; Clinton: IWG; Obama: IPC Middle East IPC (an example) Chair: Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for the Middle East (NSC Staff) Undersecretary of State for Political Affairs Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs (NEA) Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (DRL) Assistant Sec of Defense for International Security Affairs Joint Staff Representative (J-5) Director of CIA Office for Near Eastern and South Asian Analysis Under Secretary of Treasury for International Affairs Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for Global Development, Stabilization and Humanitarian Assistance (NSC Staff)

29 IA Process Formal Paper Flow Presidential Review Memos and Directives Presidential Review Memos and Directives NSC NSC PC NSC DC NSC IPC Departments and Agencies

30 2. Nixon-Kissinger Decision Making: Centralization Standard NSC ProcessRN-HAK Process (by 1971) President NSC NSC Committees Deputy/Undersec level and Asst Sec Level NSC Staff Nixon National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger, chairing most NSC Committees; NSC staffers chair Asst Sec level IA Committees NSC Staff Depts. and Agencies

31 3. Standard Model with Management Problems Carter-Reagan-Bush 43: Rivalry Dominates For cabinet Government-style NSC process to work, the President must make it work!

32 4. Standard Model -- Strong Management GHW Bush Formal and Informal System FormalInformal Gang of Eight (Bush, Quayle, Baker, Cheney, Scowcroft, Gates, Powell, Sununu) Breakfast Group (Baker, Cheney, Scowcroft) (Role of DC as the “insulation”) NSC NSC PC NSC DC NSC PCC NSC PCC NSC PCC NSC Staff

33 Evolution Model Standard formal interagency process President or senior adviser perceives that changes are needed in the process Admin begins debate *narrowing of participation about adjustments in the*increase in informal and decision making process ad-hoc decision making *bypassing of the formal IA process

34 Why does the process evolve? Pressure to speed up the pace of decision – (economy principle) political pressure – (principle of political time) learning about advisers and/or the strengths and weaknesses of the process – (learning principle)

35 Three Structures Evolve Formal Interagency Informal Confidence Structure Structure Structure President President President NSC Informal Group First-among-equals that includes the adviser President Cabinet and Sub-cabinet Informal Group Important advisers IA Committees that does not include the president

36 Three Structures in GW Bush Formal Interagency Informal Confidence Structure Structure Structure President President President NSC Bush, Cheney, Cheney, Rice (1 st ) Powell, Rumsfeld, Rice (2 nd ) Rice, Card, Hughes, (Rove, Hughes) Rove, Hadley NSC PC, NSC DC Cheney, Powell, Rumsfeld/Gates NSC PCCs Rumsfeld, Rice lunch Hadley

37 Three Structures in Obama Formal Interagency Informal Confidence Structure Structure Structure President President President NSC Obama, Biden, Donilon, McDonough, Clinton, Gates, Rhodes (1 st ) Jones, Donilon, Rice (2 nd ) McDonough, Rhodes NSC PC, NSC DC Clinton, Gates, Biden, Clinton/Kerry, NSC IPCs Jones lunch Gates/Panetta/Hagel


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