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Chapter 4 Environments and Life Sir David Ochieng www.davidochieng.net.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 Environments and Life Sir David Ochieng www.davidochieng.net."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter 4 Environments and Life Sir David Ochieng

3 What is your current classification? A. Freshman B.Sophomore C.Junior D.Senior

4 Guiding Questions What factors determine the ecological niches of species, and by what means do species obtain nutrition? What factors govern the geographic distribution of species? What factors govern the distribution of aquatic life?

5 Environmental Differences Tropical vs Polar - Terrestrial and Marine Low vs High Elevation Shallow vs Deep Wet vs Dry

6 Hypsometric Curve Curve showing the proportions of the Earth’s surface above and below sea level

7 Hypsometric Curve

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9 Climate –Controls distribution of species globally –Has changed through time Plate tectonics and other changes affect climate

10 Ecology –Study of the factors that govern the distribution and abundance of organisms in natural environments Habitats –Environments on or close to Earth’s surface inhabited by life Terrestrial Aquatic –Marine –Freshwater

11 Ecology Ecologic niche –The way a species relates to its environment, including food, nutrients, physical and chemical conditions Life habit –The way a species lives within its niche Limiting factors –Naturally occurring, restricting condition (physical and chemical) –Competition Shared drive for limited resources –Predation

12 Competition Arises because organisms share space Predation also comes in here by possibly limiting or preventing another species from inhabiting a particular environment.

13 Ecosystem –Organisms of a community and the physical environment they occupy Population –Group of individuals that belong to a single species and live together in a particular area

14 Ecosystem Ecologic community –Populations of several species living in a habitat Producers –Photosynthesizing organisms; foundation of community Consumers –Herbivores: feed on producers –Carnivores: feed on other consumers

15 Ecosystem Biota –Fauna: animals and protozoans of an ecosystem –Flora: plants and plantlike protists Food chain –Sequence of consumption for producers to consumers

16 Food Web Food web –More complex than simple food chain More common –Several species occupy each level

17 Ecosystem Parasites –Feed on living organisms Scavengers –Feed on organisms that are already dead

18 Ecology The movement of materials through an ecosystem. Components within ovals are consumers.

19 Figure 4-35 (p. 134) Interdependence of photosynthesis and respiration.

20 Figure 4-38 (p. 136) Simple pyramid of ocean life.

21 Biogeography The distribution and abundance of organisms on a broad geographic scale.

22 Biogeography Temperature Moisture Nutrients

23 Ecosystem Diversity –The variety of species that live together within a community Lower in more difficult habitats Predation influences diversity –Heavy can reduce diversity –Moderate can increase diversity by reducing competition Opportunistic species –Species that specialize in invading newly vacated habitats

24 Biogeography Distribution and abundance of organisms on a broad geographic scale Limiting factors –Diversity increases toward equator –Barriers can affect dispersal

25 Life Habitats The mode by which an organism lives, feeds in an environment 1. Tropical vs. Polar 2. Low vs high altitude 3. Shallow vs deep 4. Benthic vs. Planktonic

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28 Atmosphere Regulates Earth’s temperature (-18°C w/o atmosphere) Composition –N 2, O 2, CO 2 Tilt of the Earth affects solar insulation, temperature, and climate

29 In our present atmosphere, concentrations of O 2 and CO 2 are: A.O 2 > CO 2 B.O 2 < CO 2 C.O 2 = CO 2

30 The Atmosphere Nitrogen -78% Oxygen - 21% Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) % or 370 ppm Methane (CH 4 ) % or 1800 ppb

31 Solar Radiation Daylight Which receives more hours of daylight? Equator vs Poles The amount of daylight (# of hours) averaged over a year is the same at the poles as at the equator

32 Solar Radiation

33 Temperature difference is due to the angle of the sunlight and the albedo In the high latitudes, the sun hits at a low angle and therefore the unit energy of sunlight is spread over a large cross- sectional area of the earth’s surface. In the tropics, the sun hits directly and therefore is much more concentrated

34 Solar Radiation

35 Albedo refers to the reflectivity of the Earth’s surface 1. Snow and ice is very reflective - much of the solar radiation is reflected by to the solar system 2. Water has a low albedo and absorbs a lot of the solar radiation

36 Solar Radiation

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38 When do we have summers? True or False Summers on Earth occur when it passes closest to the Sun

39 Solar Radiation Obliquity or Tilt (23.5°) of the to Earth’s rotational axis This tilt gives us seasons. Summer is when the northern or southern hemisphere is point towards the Sun

40 Atmosphere Regulates Earth’s temperature Composition –N 2, O 2, CO 2 Tilt of the Earth affects solar insulation, temperature, and climate

41 Solar Radiation Heat Capacity

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43 Movement of Air mass Rises at Eq. and sinks near Poles The high solar radiation at the equator heats the air masses, causing them to rise (buoyant). As the air rises, the temperature of the air mass decreases

44 Atmospheric Circulation Net transport –Air sinks at the poles, rises at the equator –Simplified model No tilt No Coriolis effect

45 Rising Air As the air rises, the temperature of the air mass decreases (adiabatic lapse rate 5°C/km) Cold air holds less water vapor. Voila, rain and the tropical rainforest. Low pressure systems usually have rain because the rising air drop water as the air ascends and cools

46 Rising Air

47 Atmospheric Circulation Coriolis effect Earth’s rotation causes air and water masses to be defected to the right (clockwise) in the northern hemisphere –Counterclockwise for southern hemisphere

48 Atmospheric Circulation If we reverse the direction and launch a rocket from Panama towards Washington DC, which way will it curve? A = Right B = Left C = Not at all because Panama is close to the Eq.

49 Coriolis force Deflection of moving objects to the right in the No. Hemisphere and left in the So. Hemisphere

50 Coriolis Force

51 Atmospheric Circulation Actual pattern is more complex –Three circulation cells –Trade winds, westerlies, easterlies Intertropical convergence zone –Northern, southern trade winds converge near equator Changes seasonally

52 Temperature Variations Atmosphere retains heat Solar radiation –Absorbed and turned into heat energy –Reflected 6-10% ocean 5-30% forest 45-95% ice and snow

53 Trade winds As the dry air descending around 30° begins to flow back towards the Eq. it is deflected to the right.

54 Trade winds As the dry air descending around 30° begins to flow back towards the Eq. it is deflected to the right.

55 Trade winds The NE and SE trades converge on the latitude where the maximum in convection (rising air) is occurring. This is the warmest location. Today, this is between 4 and 10°N and is termed the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ)

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57 The Terrestrial Realm Latitudinal Zones and Vegetation Rain forests Deserts Savannah Grasslands Temperate Forest Conifer or Evergreen Forest Tundra

58 Terrestrial Realm Vegetation follows climatic zone –Tropical rain forest –Desert savannahs –Temperate forests –Polar tundra

59 Terrestrial Realm Tropical Climates –18–20° C (64–68° F) –0–30° latitude Tropical Rain Forest –Dense vegetation

60 Rain forests develop under the tropical low pressure systems. Rising air dumps lots of rain. Found within a few degrees near the equator

61 Terrestrial Realm Deserts –Dry trade winds remove moisture –20–30° north and south of the equator –< 25 cm rain/year –Little vegetation Savannah, grasslands –Too dry to support forests

62 Deserts (<10 inches of water per year) develop under the sinking dry air masses and under the dry Trade Winds. Usually found around 30° latitude.

63 Savannah Grasslands found between Rain forest and Desert and receive seasonal rain falls. Not enough rain throughout the year to support woodland

64 Tundra - Arctic ecosystem where layer beneath soil remains frozen throughout the year.

65 Terrestrial Realm Poles –Defined by ice sheets and glaciers today –Absent or reduced at times in the past

66 Terrestrial Realm Glaciers –Ice in motion –Glide and spread –Present at high latitudes and high elevations near equator

67 Terrestrial Realm Tundra –Limited water –Grasses, sedges, lichens, shrubs dominate –Cannot support tall trees Evergreen coniferous forests –South of tundra –Spruce, pine, fir

68 Terrestrial Realm Temperate forests –Longer summers, slightly warmer –Deciduous trees Maples, oaks, beeches Mediterranean climate –Dry summers, wet winters –Common 40° N and S of equator Californian, Mediterranean region

69 Climate Altitude –Similar to latitudinal gradient –At base Deciduous forest –On slopes Evergreen forest Tundra above tree-line –At top Glaciers

70 Climate Mountains Rain shadow –Prevailing winds bring moisture Precipitation on windward side Aridity on leeward side –Rain shadows common on east side of North American mountain chains

71 Climate Seasonal Change –High heat capacity of water Less change in ocean temperatures than on land Monsoon Circulation –Summer winds flow onshore; bring rain –Winter winds offshore

72 Plants as Climate Indicators Sensitive indicators of change –Cycads Tropics and subtropics today Fossil distribution allows reconstruction of climate patterns

73 Plants as Climate Indicators Leaf Margins –Tropics Smooth, waxy margins –Temperate climates Jagged margins

74 Marine Realm Ocean currents –Wind driven –Follow atmospheric patterns Trade winds –Push waters west; form equatorial currents –Equatorial countercurrents Return flow Gyres –Clockwise in Northern Hemisphere –Gulf Stream

75 Marine Realm Circumpolar current –Circles Antarctica –Very cold

76 Marine Realm Polar circulation –Sea ice leads to more saline water –Cold, dense waters sink –Antarctic waters Flow north at depth –Arctic waters Flow south at depth

77 Marine Realm Ocean circulation –Waves Surface waves –Wind driven –Break when seafloor interacts at shallow depths –Tides Cause major movement of water in oceans Due to rotation of solid Earth beneath bulges of water produced by gravitational attraction of the moon

78 Marine Realm Continental Shelf –Submarine extension of continental landmass Shelf break –Edge of shelf ~200 m w.d. Continental Slope Continental Rise Abyssal Plain

79 Figure 4-31 (p. 131) Classification of marine environments. (After Hedgspeth, UJ. W., ed Treatise of Marine Ecology and Paleoecology. Geological Society of America Memoirs 67(1): 18.)

80 The Marine Realm The depth of the Sea Moving from the beach seaward, one crosses a consistent pattern of water depth changes. The continental shelf extends from the shoreline to the continental shelf break. Water depths over the shelf vary from 0 to ~200 m. This environment is very important for benthic communities because the photic zone in the ocean extends only down to 200m. Consider the implications for primary production

81 The Marine Realm The Shelf break marks the distal edge of the shelf where seaward of this point, water depths increase at a greater rate (3 to 5°slope) compared with the shelf (1 to 2°slope).

82 The Marine Realm Continental Slope. Typically, the slope extends down to 3000 to 3500 m. Near the base of the slope is the transition from continental to oceanic crust.

83 The Marine Realm The Slope gives way to the Continental Rise. This is a less steep surface that segways to the Abyssal Plain (the ocean floor). The Rise is created as sediments are transported down the slope in turbidity currents.

84 The Marine Realm At the base of the slope and out on the abyssal plain, the slope decreases significantly and the sediments are dropped, forming the Rise

85 Figure 4-31 (p. 131) Classification of marine environments. (After Hedgspeth, UJ. W., ed Treatise of Marine Ecology and Paleoecology. Geological Society of America Memoirs 67(1): 18.)

86 Marine Realm Near shore –Barrier islands –Marshes –Epicontinental seas

87 Marine Realm Photic Zone –Region of ocean where enough light penetrates to permit photosynthesis Pelagic life –Plankton Phytoplankton Zooplankton –Nekton Benthic life –Suspension feeders –Deposit feeders

88 Marine Realm Marine Biogeography –Tropical –Subtropical –Transitional –Subarctic

89 Figure 4-36 (p. 135) Major ocean surface currents.

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92 Marine Realm Corals –Most require warm water –Common in tropics Reef builders –Coral polyp –Builds coral cup –Connected to other polyps Symbiotic relationship with algae

93 Marine Realm Salinity –Limiting factor near shore –Oceanic 35 ppt –Brackish Lower than marine Bays, lagoons –Hypersaline Higher than marine Hot arid climates

94 The portion of the temperature-depth curve in the ocean that shows maximum change is the thermocline.

95 Deep Water Circulation

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98 Atmospheric Circulation If we reverse the direction and launch a rocket from Panama towards Washington DC, which way will it curve? A = Right B = Left C = Not at all because Panama is close to the Eq.


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