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Unit 11 vocabulary words. Attitudinal view of representation.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 11 vocabulary words. Attitudinal view of representation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 11 vocabulary words

2 Attitudinal view of representation

3 The view which states that a congressmen vote in alignment with their ideologies

4 Bicameral legislature

5 A legislature that comprises of two chambers

6 Caucus (congressional)

7 A meeting held by the House or Senate or both to discuss and possibly to perform legislative research and policy planning for its members

8 Christmas tree bill

9 A bill on the Senate floor that attracts many, often unrelated, floor amendments

10 Closed rule

11 A rule granted by the House Rules Committee that prohibits amendments to a particular bill during House floor action. Under a "closed rule" the House must either accept or reject the bill as recommended by the sponsoring committee.

12 Committee of the whole

13 A committee of all members of a legislature that meets to discuss a certain issue or bill

14 Concurrent resolution

15 Legislation adopted by both Chambers to express the position of Congress. As such a resolution does not have the signature of the President; it does not have the force of law.

16 Conference committee

17 A temporary panel of House and Senate negotiators. A conference committee is created to resolve differences between versions of similar House and Senate bills. Congress

18 The legislature of the United States government, comprised of the House of Representatives and the Senate.

19 Congressional budget office

20 Provides Congress with objective, timely, non-partisan analysis needed for economic and budget decisions and to provide the information and estimates required for the Congressional budget process.

21 Congressional research service

22 A term for the Library of Congress’s response to requests for general information and issue analysis from Members, Committees, or staff.

23 Conservative coalition

24 A coalition in American politics bringing together Republicans (most of whom were conservatives ) and the minority of conservative Democrats, most of them from the South. The coalition largely controlled Congress from 1937 to 1964 and continued as a potent force until the mid-1980s, when reforms designed at strengthening the Democratic party leadership in the United States House of Representatives came to fruition. American Republicans conservatives Democrats Congress United States House of Representatives

25 Descriptive representation

26 Descriptive representation, sometimes called passive representation or symbolic representation, is the idea that candidates in democratic elections should be elected to represent ethnic and gender constituencies, as well as other minority interest groups, rather than the population at large. According to this idea, an elected body should resemble a representative sample of the voters they are meant to represent concerning outward characteristics - a constituency of 50% women and 20% blacks, for example, should have 50% female and 20% black legislators. democratic ethnic gender minority interest groups representative sample women

27 Discharge petition

28 A petition to force a bill out of committee. Requires a majority vote.

29 Division vote

30 Requires members of the House or Senate to stand or raise their hand to be counted, the chair counts the ayes then the nays, names are not recorded. A division vote is used when the results of a voice vote are in doubt.

31 Double-tracking

32 A method to keep the Senate going during a filibuster, whereby a disputed bill is temporarily shelved so that the Senate can go on with other business.

33 Filibuster

34 An extended debate in the Senate which has the effect of preventing a vote.

35 Franking privileges

36 A privilege allowing members to send official mail using his/her signature instead of a stamp.

37 General accounting office

38 The GAO audits federal agencies and programs for Congress

39 Gerrymandering

40 A process in which a voting district is broken up or the physical boundaries of a voting district are changed in order to make it easier for one political party to win future elections. The term gerrymander was coined in 1812 when a county in Massachusetts was redistricted into a salamander- like shape by Gov. Elbridge Gerry for political purposes. His last name was combined with the word salamander to get "gerrymander."

41 Honoraria

42 Payments to an individual in recognition of a special service or distinguished achievement for which custom or propriety forbids any fixed price to be set.

43 Joint committee

44 A committee comprised of both members of the House and Senate. There are joint committees on the library, on printing, on taxation, and the joint economic committee

45 Joint resolution

46 JOINT RESOLUTIONS are used to pose constitutional amendments, to fix technical errors, or to appropriate. They become public law if adopted by both the House and Senate and, where relevant, approved by the president. In terms of Constitutional amendments, they must be approved by 3/4 of the states.

47 Majority leader

48 An official elected by the majority party members in the House or Senate to lead them, to promote passage of the party's issue priorities, and to coordinate legislative efforts with the Minority Leader, the other chamber, and the White House. The Majority Leader also seeks unity among Members on the policy positions taken by the party, and works to put together coalitions to create voting majorities.

49 Majority-minority districts

50 Districts with a majority of residents who are part of an ethnic minority.

51 Malapportionment

52 The creation of congressional districts in a state which are of unequal size. The Supreme Court in 1964 eliminated the practice by requiring that all districts in a state contain about the same number of people.

53 Marginal districts

54 A congressional district in which the winner of the general election gets less than 55 percent of the vote. Such districts could easily switch to the other party in the next election.

55 Mark-up

56 A meeting of a Committee held to review the text of a bill before reporting it out. Committee members offer and vote on proposed changes to the bill's language, known as amendments. Most mark-ups end with a vote to send the new version of the bill to the floor for final approval.

57 Minority leader An official elected by the minority party members in the House or Senate to lead them, to promote passage of the party's issue priorities, and to coordinate legislative efforts with the Minority Leader, the other chamber, and the White House. The Majority Leader also seeks unity among Members on the policy positions taken by the party, and works to put together coalitions to create voting majorities.

58 Multiple referral

59 The process of sending legislation to be considered by more than one committee.

60 Open rule

61 A rule allowing all relevant amendments to be offered to a bill, without any restrictions.

62 Organizational view of representation

63 The theory of congressional voting behavior which assumes that members make voting decisions to please fellow members and obtain their goodwill. Such behavior is possible since constituents seldom know how their representatives vote. Members vote by following cues provided by colleagues.

64 Parliament

65 A legislative assembly.

66 Party unity vote

67 A vote that pits a majority of one party against a majority of the opposite party.

68 Pork-barrel legislation

69 It comes from the plantation practice of distributing rations of salt pork to slaves from wooden barrels. When used to describe a bill, it implies the legislation is loaded with special projects for Members of Congress to distribute to their constituents back home as an act of largesse, courtesy of the federal taxpayer.

70 President pro temporeb

71 The senator who presides over the Senate in the absence of the Vice Preisdent. The position is usually given to the most senior senator of the majority party.

72 Private bill A bill introduced on behalf of an individual citizen for a limited and unique purpose. If enacted by both the House & Senate and approved by the president, they become private, not public, law

73 Public bill

74 A Bill dealing with public general interests. Most legislation passed by the House are public Bills.

75 Quorum

76 The number of members who must be present before business may be conducted. A quorum in the House requires the presence of 218, while 100 are needed in Committee of the Whole. A quorum in the Senate requires the prescence of 51 senators. Unless challenged by a point of order, the Senate conducts daily business without a quorum present.

77 Quorum call

78 A Quorum Call seeks to bring a majority of members to the floor to record their presence.

79 Representational view of representation

80 Representation based on population. States with more citizens receive more votes.

81 Restrictive rule

82 Consent from the Rules Committee of the House of Representatives which permits certain amendments to a piece of legislation but not others.

83 Rider

84 A Rider is an amendment attached to a bill, usually unrelated to the subject of the underlying bill. Its sponsor tries to "ride" it to passage on the strength of the original bill. Riders are permitted in the Senate and are routine. House rules ban riders unless an exception is made.

85 Roll-call vote

86 A vote on the record, noting the name of each member and his voting position

87 Rules committee

88 The Committee on Rules, or (more commonly) Rules Committee, is a committee of the United States House of Representatives. Rather than being responsible for a specific area of policy, as most other committees are, it is in charge of determining under what rule other bills will come to the floor. As such, it is one of the most powerful committees, and often described as "an arm of the leadership".

89 Safe district

90 A congressional district in which the winner of the general election gets a majority of the vote, increasing the chance of reelection.

91 Select committee

92 A Select Committee is formed for a specific purpose and usually for a limited period of time.

93 Senatorial courtesy

94 The practice of consulting home-state senators on a nomination. The Senate rarely confirms presidential appointments if the nominee's own senators disapprove.

95 Sequential referral

96 The practice of sending a bill to more than one congressional committee for consideration and doing so in an ordered sequence. Sometimes a date is attached to a sequential referral. This obligates the first committee designated to finish its consideration by that date or the bill will be automatically discharged and sent to the second, and subsequent committees, if named in the original referral.

97 Seventeenth amendment

98 Clause 1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures. Clause 2. When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of each State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct. Clause 3. This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

99 Simple resolution

100 Used to take action on behalf of only one chamber or to give its non-binding opinion. It does not become law. Uses include modifying or proposing an internal rule, or creating a new committee.

101 Sophomore surge

102 An increase in the number of votes candidates receive between the first time elected and their first time reelected.

103 Speaker of the house

104 The presiding officer in the House of Representatives. The Speaker is elected by the majority party in the House.

105 Standing committees

106 A permanent commit in either the House or Senate, otherwise a select committee is temporary depending on the case.

107 Teller vote

108 A vote in which members turn in signed index cards: green for yea and red for nay.

109 Voice vote

110 A vote that requires only an oral "aye" or "no"

111 Whip

112 A legislator appointed by the party to enforce discipline

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