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Advance to next slide1 Interactive Introduction to SPSS Statistical Software Elizabeth Bigham, Ph.D. California State University San Marcos May 2007 - Funded by SSRIC If you have not done so, save this file as a slide show (.pps) and view as a slide show. Use the double-down arrows in the bottom right hand corner of this window to “Advance to next slide”.

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Advance to next slide2 Set-Up Instructions - 1 Follow the set-up instructions (first 6 slides) before you begin the module. Shrink this window to approximately 20% of the size of your screen and move it to the bottom right hand corner of your screen. –This will allow you to carry out the exercises in SPSS while viewing the instructions.

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Advance to next slide3 This module requires the use of SPSS and DeskPins software. DeskPins keeps the instructional window on top so you can see it while you complete the SPSS exercises. If you have DeskPins on your computer (you would see a red push-pin in the bottom left blue area of your screen), advance to Set-Up Instructions – 6. If you do not have DeskPins already, print out the instructions on the next 4 slides (slides 3, 4, 5, 6) and follow the directions to download this free program. Set-Up Instructions - 2

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Advance to next slide4 Set-Up Instructions - 3 Open an internet window. Go to http://users.forthnet.gr/pat/efotinis/program s/deskpins.html http://users.forthnet.gr/pat/efotinis/program s/deskpins.html Scroll down and Select: DeskPins v1.30DeskPins v1.30 Select: Save > Save > Open

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Advance to next slide5 Set-Up Instructions - 4 Your screen should look like this.

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Advance to next slide6 Double left click on: DeskPins 1.30 setup Select: Extract all > Next > Next > Next > Finish Select: DeskPins 1.30 setup installer > Run > Next > Install When “Completed” appears in the upper left corner of the window, select: Close Close the DeskPins window Restart you computer to activate the DeskPins program and then return here and continue with Set-Up Instructions – 6. Set-Up Instructions - 5

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Advance to next slide7 Set-Up Instructions - 6 DeskPins should now be installed (you should see a red push-pin at the bottom right corner of your screen). Left click on the red push-pin in the bottom blue area of your screen (picks up a pin) Left click on this screen (you should see a red push-pin appear in the blue area above) Now you are set-up and ready to begin the module!

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Advance to next slide8 Interactive Introduction to SPSS Statistical Software Welcome, This module was designed to introduce you to SPSS statistical software. It is an interactive presentation for students who have successfully completed a lower division statistics course and are ready to begin conducting computerized statistical analysis.

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Advance to next slide9 Learning Objectives You will learn to: –set-up a data entry page –work with variables, such as add, move, and recode them –perform descriptive analysis –conduct simple correlations

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Advance to next slide10 Directions Remember to use the double-down arrows to “Advance to next slide” (or go back and review slides) at your own pace. Words in italics refer to a location. Words in “quotes” are words you type. Bold indicates a selection (to click on). The symbol > indicates that you move to the next step.

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Advance to next slide11 Getting Started Data collection methods vary and the capabilities of SPSS are tremendous. For this introductory module, we will use a simple survey (on the next slide) as part of a hypothetical study. Take a look at the Sample Survey and note the information that is collected with each item.

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Advance to next slide12 Sample Survey Participant #: __ Gender: M FAge: __ Year:__ Current GPA: ___High School GPA: ___ On a scale of 1 to 10, how confident are you that you will learn statistics? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Not at All Very How many years of computer experience have you had? __

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Advance to next slide13 Open SPSS Open SPSS: Start > All Programs > SPSS for Windows > SPSS 14.0 for Windows Your Version number may be different. A medium size window will open. Select: Type in Data > OK

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Advance to next slide14 –This first screen (Data View) is where you enter data - one participant per row, one variable per column. –If it is not full screen with this window on top (example on next slide), hit the full screen button at the top right hand corner of your screen.

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Advance to next slide15 Your screen should look like this.

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Advance to next slide16 For the rest of the module, the small instructional window will not be in the pictures that show what your screen should currently look like. See the next slide for an example.

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Advance to next slide17 Your screen should look like this.

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Advance to next slide18 Set Up Columns Switch to Variable View. At the bottom left of your screen there are two tabs (Data View and Variable View). Select: Variable View. (This screen is where you enter information about your variables - one variable per row.)

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Advance to next slide19 Your screen should look like this.

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Advance to next slide20 The first column is Name. This is where you enter the name of your first variable (do not use spaces). Type: “Case” and move down one line. –You will notice that across the first row the cells fill with information when you move down a line. These are the default settings. We will start by changing only a couple in this exercise. On the second line under Name. Type: “Gender” Move down one line and type: “Age”

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Advance to next slide21 Your screen should look like this.

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Advance to next slide22 Continue - Move down one line and type: “GPA” Move down one line and type: “HSGPA” Move down one line and type: “Confidence” (This will be the name for the question about confidence.) Move down one line and type: “CompExp” (This will be the name for the question about how much computer experience they have.)

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Advance to next slide24 Coding –In response to the survey item Gender, your participant will circle M or F. SPSS will need a number that indicates Male and a number that indicates Female. Go to Line 2 (Gender) and move over to the Values column, click on the cell and then on the 3 dots shaded in grey. A Value Labels window will appear. Enter “1” in the Value box and “Male” in the Label box. Select: Add. Then type “2” and “Female.” Select: Add > OK.

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Advance to next slide26 –You can write in information that explains the variable in the Label column. Go to line 6 (Confidence) and move over to the Label column and type: “On a scale of 1 to 10 with 10 being the most, how confident are you that you will learn statistics?” Move down to the Label column of line 7 (CompExp) and type: “How many years of computer experience have you had?”

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Advance to next slide27 Adjust the column width by putting your cursor over the gray area on the dividing line between Label and Values. Hold the left click button (to grab the line) and move your mouse to the left.

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Advance to next slide28 –The Measure column is where you indicate the Level of Measurement of the variable. Choices are Nominal, Ordinal, or Scale (Interval or Ratio). Go to line 1 (Case) and click on the Measure column. Click on the down arrow and select: Nominal. Go to line 2 (Gender) and click on the Measure column. Click on the down arrow and select: Nominal. Leave the remaining lines at the default value (Scale).

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Advance to next slide30 Enter Data Switch to Data View. At the bottom left of your screen select: Data View. In the upper left portion of your screen, select View and, if Value Labels is not checked, select Value Labels

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Advance to next slide32 Type “1” in the first line of the Case column. Move over to the Gender column and click on the down arrow in the cell. Select Male Move over to Age and type 23 Move over to GPA and type 3.2 Move over to HSGPA and type 3.11 Move over to Confidence and type 6 Move over to CompExp and type 5

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Advance to next slide34 You have just finished entering the data from this survey (Participant #1). Participant #: _1_ Gender: M FAge: _23_ Year: F Current GPA: _3.2_High School GPA: _3.11_ On a scale of 1 to 10, how confident are you that you will learn statistics? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Not at All Very How many years of computer experience have you had? _5_

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Advance to next slide35 Now enter the data from the next 9 surveys. Participant #: _2_ Gender: M FAge: _25_Year: So Current GPA: _3.0_High School GPA: _2.9_ On a scale of 1 to 10, how confident are you that you will learn statistics? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Not at All Very How many years of computer experience have you had? _2_

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Advance to next slide36 Participant #: _3_ Gender: M FAge: _31_Year: Sn Current GPA: _2.7_High School GPA: _2.5_ On a scale of 1 to 10, how confident are you that you will learn statistics? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Not at All Very How many years of computer experience have you had? _15_

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Advance to next slide37 Participant #: _4_ Gender: M FAge: _27_Year: J Current GPA: _3.9_High School GPA: _3.6_ On a scale of 1 to 10, how confident are you that you will learn statistics? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Not at All Very How many years of computer experience have you had? _4_

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Advance to next slide38 Participant #: _5_ Gender: M FAge: _27_Year: So Current GPA: _3.11_High School GPA: _3.2_ On a scale of 1 to 10, how confident are you that you will learn statistics? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Not at All Very How many years of computer experience have you had? _8_

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Advance to next slide39 Participant #: _6_ Gender: M FAge: _22_Year: F Current GPA: _3.0_High School GPA: _3.4_ On a scale of 1 to 10, how confident are you that you will learn statistics? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Not at All Very How many years of computer experience have you had? _2_

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Advance to next slide40 Participant #: _7_ Gender: M FAge: _21_Year: Sn Current GPA: _3.5_High School GPA: _3.8_ On a scale of 1 to 10, how confident are you that you will learn statistics? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Not at All Very How many years of computer experience have you had? _9_

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Advance to next slide41 Participant #: _8_ Gender: M FAge: _28_Year: J Current GPA: _2.22_High School GPA: _2.7_ On a scale of 1 to 10, how confident are you that you will learn statistics? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Not at All Very How many years of computer experience have you had? _5_

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Advance to next slide42 Participant #: _9_ Gender: M FAge: _21_Year: Sn Current GPA: _2.9_High School GPA: _3.1_ On a scale of 1 to 10, how confident are you that you will learn statistics? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Not at All Very How many years of computer experience have you had? _1_

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Advance to next slide43 Participant #: 10_ Gender: M FAge: _27_Year: Sn Current GPA: _3.3_High School GPA: _3.1_ On a scale of 1 to 10, how confident are you that you will learn statistics? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Not at All Very How many years of computer experience have you had? _7_

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Advance to next slide44 Save your file Whenever you work with data, you should be sure to save your file often. Go to File > Save As > (choose a location) Type your last name in the File Name box. Select: Save

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Advance to next slide46 Add a variable Click on the top grey portion of the GPA column to highlight the column. At the top left of your screen, select Edit > Insert variable.

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Advance to next slide48 At the bottom left of your screen, select: Variable View. Double click on VAR00001 (it will turn blue) and type “Year” to give the new variable (Year Level) a name. –Move over to the Values column, click on the cell and then on the 3 dots shaded in grey. Type “1” in the Value box and “Freshman” in the Label box. Select: Add. Type “2” and “Sophomore.” Select: Add. Type “3” and “Junior.” Select: Add. Type “4” and “Senior.” Select: Add > OK.

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Advance to next slide50 At the bottom left of your screen, select: Data View. Click in the Year column of line 1, select the down arrow then select Freshman.

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Advance to next slide51 You have just finished entering the Year Level for your first participant. Participant #: _1_ Gender: M FAge: _23_ Year: Fr Current GPA: _3.2_High School GPA: _3.11_ On a scale of 1 to 10, how confident are you that you will learn statistics? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Not at All Very How many years of computer experience have you had? _5_

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Advance to next slide52 Now enter the Year Level for the other 9 participants (these are the same surveys). Participant #: _2_ Gender: M FAge: _25_Year: So Current GPA: _3.0_High School GPA: _2.9_ On a scale of 1 to 10, how confident are you that you will learn statistics? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Not at All Very How many years of computer experience have you had? _2_

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Advance to next slide53 Participant #: _3_ Gender: M FAge: _31_Year: Sn Current GPA: _2.7_High School GPA: _2.5_ On a scale of 1 to 10, how confident are you that you will learn statistics? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Not at All Very How many years of computer experience have you had? _15_

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Advance to next slide54 Participant #: _4_ Gender: M FAge: _27_Year: Ju Current GPA: _3.9_High School GPA: _3.6_ On a scale of 1 to 10, how confident are you that you will learn statistics? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Not at All Very How many years of computer experience have you had? _4_

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Advance to next slide55 Participant #: _5_ Gender: M FAge: _27_Year: So Current GPA: _3.11_High School GPA: _3.2_ On a scale of 1 to 10, how confident are you that you will learn statistics? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Not at All Very How many years of computer experience have you had? _8_

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Advance to next slide56 Participant #: _6_ Gender: M FAge: _22_Year: Fr Current GPA: _3.0_High School GPA: _3.4_ On a scale of 1 to 10, how confident are you that you will learn statistics? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Not at All Very How many years of computer experience have you had? _2_

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Advance to next slide57 Participant #: _7_ Gender: M FAge: _21_Year: Sn Current GPA: _3.5_High School GPA: _3.8_ On a scale of 1 to 10, how confident are you that you will learn statistics? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Not at All Very How many years of computer experience have you had? _9_

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Advance to next slide58 Participant #: _8_ Gender: M FAge: _28_Year: Ju Current GPA: _2.22_High School GPA: _2.7_ On a scale of 1 to 10, how confident are you that you will learn statistics? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Not at All Very How many years of computer experience have you had? _5_

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Advance to next slide59 Participant #: _9_ Gender: M FAge: _21_Year: Sn Current GPA: _2.9_High School GPA: _3.1_ On a scale of 1 to 10, how confident are you that you will learn statistics? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Not at All Very How many years of computer experience have you had? _1_

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Advance to next slide60 Participant #: 10_ Gender: M FAge: _27_Year: Sn Current GPA: _3.3_High School GPA: _3.1_ On a scale of 1 to 10, how confident are you that you will learn statistics? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Not at All Very How many years of computer experience have you had? _7_

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Advance to next slide61 Your Data View file should look like this -

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Advance to next slide62 Move a variable Click on the top grey portion of the Year column to highlight the column. Press and hold a Left click then use your mouse to move the cursor to in between the Gender and Age columns. Drop (stop pressing the Left click) the Year column.

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Advance to next slide64 Recode Variables The Confidence variable indicates students' responses to the question: On a scale of 1 to 10, how confident are you that you will learn statistics? Their responses are currently Scale data (1 – 10). To make a comparison of the participants who answered with a low, medium, or high response, you can create groups (Nominal data).

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Advance to next slide65 Select: Transform > Recode > Into Different Variables. Highlight the Confidence question on the list and click on the arrow to move Confidence into the Input Variable box. Type: “ConfLoHi” in Output Variable: Name. Click on the Change button.

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Advance to next slide67 Select: Old and New Values. Under Old Value, select: Range. Type: “1” in the top box and “3” in the box under through. Type: “1” in the Value box under New Value. Click: Add. Type: “3” in the top Range box under Old Value and “6” in the lower box. Type: “2” in the Value box under New Value. Click: Add. Type: “7” in the top Range box under Old Value and “10” in the lower box. Type: “3” in the Value box under New Value. Click: Add.

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Advance to next slide69 Click on Continue > OK The new variable will appear at the right hand side of your current variables.

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Advance to next slide71 At the bottom left of your screen, select: Variable View Go to line 9 (ConfLoHi) and move over to the Values column. Click on the cell and then on the 3 dots shaded in grey. Type “1” in the Value box and “Low” in the Label box. Select: Add. Type “2” and “Medium.” Select: Add. Type “3” and “High.” Select: Add

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Advance to next slide73 Select: OK

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Advance to next slide74 Descriptive Statistics Descriptive statistics describe the status of variables. How you describe the status of variables depends on the level of measurement of the variable. Recall that SPSS uses Nominal, Ordinal, and Scale (Interval or Ratio). –Nominal and Ordinal variables, such as Gender, could be reported as Frequency (% or number of Males and Females). –Scale variables, such as Age, could be reported by stating the Minimum, Maximum, Mean, and Standard Deviation (Ages ranged from 18 to 64 years old with an average age of 27 (SD=9.81)).

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Advance to next slide75 Calculate Frequency Select: Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Frequencies Highlight Gender on the list and click on the arrow to move Gender to the Variable(s) box. Highlight ConfLoHi on the list and click on the arrow to move ConfLoHi to the Variable(s) box Be sure that Display Frequency Tables is checked Select Charts On the Frequencies: Charts box, select: Bar charts and Percentages > Continue > OK.

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Advance to next slide77 Notice that a 2 nd file is now open. Each time you perform an analysis, the output will be added to the output file. When you save, you will need to save both your data file (.sav) and your output file (.spo). Go to File > Save As > (choose a location) Type your last name in the File Name box. Select: Save

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Advance to next slide78 Review the Output Frequencies: the number of valid and missing data entries for Gender and ConfLoHi Frequency Table: the number of data entries for each level of Gender (how many Males and Females) and ConfLoHi (how many Low, Medium, and High) followed by Bar Charts

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Advance to next slide79 Calculate Minimum, Maximum, Mean, & Standard Deviation Select: Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Frequencies to open Frequencies. Select: Reset Highlight Age, GPA, HPGPA, and the 2 questions (Confidence and CompExp) on the list and click on the arrow to move them to the Variable(s) box. Be sure that Display Frequency Tables is checked Select: Statistics. Check Mean, Standard Deviation, Minimum and Maximum Select: Continue > OK

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Advance to next slide81 Review the Output Frequencies: the number of valid and missing data entries for these variables now includes Mean, Standard Deviation, Minimum, Maximum. Frequency Tables: the number of data entries for each level of these variables (one table for each variable). If there are many levels of a variable, the Frequency Table provides information that is very detailed. Instead, the variable’s Mean, Standard Deviation, Minimum, and Maximum are typically reported.

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Advance to next slide82 Calculate for Multiple Variables Determine the frequency of a combination of variables, such as how many of each Gender are at each level of ConfLoHi: Select: Analyze > Descriptive Statistics > Crosstabs Highlight Gender and click on the upper arrow to move Gender to the Row(s) box. Highlight ConfLoHi and click on the lower arrow to move ConfLoHi to the Column(s) box. Check Display clustered bar charts Select: Cells. Check Percentages for Row, Column, and Total Select: Continue > OK.

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Advance to next slide84 Review the Output Case Processing Summary: the number of valid, missing, and total data entries for Gender and ConfLoHi (participants that answered both questions) Crosstabulation: the number (and percentages) of data entries for each level of both variables (rows are levels of one variable and intersect with columns which are levels of the other variable). Works best with nominal or ordinal variables

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Advance to next slide85 Correlation –A Pearson correlation analyzes relationships between parametric, linear (interval or ratio which are Scale in SPSS) variables. If ordinal, use Spearman Rho even if not from a normal distribution. –You can enter several variables and get a matrix of the direction and strength (-1 to 1) of relationships.

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Advance to next slide86 To examine the relationship between GPA and Confidence, start by restating the hypothesis. Hypothesis: –It is hypothesized that there will be a significant positive relationship between GPA and Level of Confidence. –This is directional so it is one-tailed. Variables and Level of Measurement: –Variable1: GPA (Scale) –Variable 2: Level of Confidence (Scale)

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Advance to next slide87 Select: Analyze > Correlate > Bivariate Highlight GPA and the Confidence question on the list and click on the arrow to move them to the Variables box. Check Pearson, One-tailed, and Flag significant correlations. Select: Options. Check Means and standard deviations. Select: Continue > OK

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Advance to next slide89 Review Output Descriptive Statistics: Here are the Means, Standard Deviations, and N for GPA and Level of Confidence. Correlations: The variables are listed across the top and down the side so that they intersect within the grid. Each intersection box has the value of the correlation, then the significance level, then the N.

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Advance to next slide90 Find the numbers in the statement below on the output at the intersection of GPA and Level of Confidence (the question about confidence): –There was a positive correlation [r(10)=.883, p <.01] between GPA and Level of Confidence.

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Advance to next slide92 Scatter plot A scatter plot is a common method of displaying the results of a bivariate correlation. You can add a third variable by entering it at set markers by. One variable is represented on each axis and the dots represent the intersection of participants’ scores on the two variables.

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Advance to next slide93 Select: Graphs > Scatter/Dot > Simple Scatter > Define Highlight GPA. Click the arrow to move it to the Y Axis box. Highlight Level of Confidence question. Click the arrow to move it to the X Axis box.

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Advance to next slide94 Select: Titles. In the Footnote Line 1 box, type “Figure 1. There was a significant positive relationship between GPA and Level of Confidence.” Select: Continue > OK

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Advance to next slide96 SPSS Graphs are easily edited and copy/pasted into your document. You can change the Axis labels, colors, sizes, etc. in the Chart Editor. Place your curser over the chart and double-left click. Now double click on the X Axis label (On a scale of 1 to 10 with 10 being the most, how confident are you that you will learn statistics?). A the blue box appears around the text. (Close the Properties box that pops up.) You can now change the label by deleting the old label and typing: “Level of Confidence”

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Advance to next slide98 Click outside the box onto the SPSS Viewer to close the Chart Editor and the change will be made to your graph. If you wanted to use your graph in a document, you would just right click then Copy / Paste it into your document.

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Advance to next slide99 Good Job! You have almost completed the module. Just 2 more steps.

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Advance to next slide100 Step 1 - Print the output file (SPSS Viewer) Select: File > Print > OK

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Advance to next slide101 Step 2 - –Get out a blank sheet of paper and answer the questions on the next page. –If you find that they are difficult for you to answer, you should go back through the module, review your statistics text, or consult with your professor.

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Advance to next slide102 Post - Test 1.What percentage of the participants were females? 2.What was the average number of years of computer experience? 3.How many males were in the High Confidence group and how many females in that group? 4.Was the relationship between GPA and Confidence significant (<.05)? 5.Did your graph display the difference between variables or the relationship between variables?

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Advance to next slide103 Congratulations You have now –set-up a data entry page –added, moved, and recoded variables –performed descriptive analysis on nominal and scale variables –conducted a Pearson correlation and created a scatter plot for the results

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Advance to next slide104 Thank You Your comments are appreciated and may be directed to: Elizabeth Bigham, Ph.D. California State University San Marcos 333 S. Twin Oaks Valley Rd. San Marcos, CA 92096 ebigham@csusm.edu

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