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Descriptive Statistics

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Descriptive Statistics: Summarizing your data and getting an overview of the dataset Why do you want to start with Descriptive Statistics? Descriptive Frequencies Allows us to answer questions like: What are the trends in my data? What is my sample population? (e.g., male/female, students, young/old, Freshmen/Sophomore/Junior/Senior, etc.) Are there any errors in my data?!

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Descriptive Statistics Step 1. “Week1_Descriptives_Examples.sav”

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Descriptive Statistics Step 2. Switch to Data View

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Descriptive Statistics Step 3. “Analyze” then hover over “Descriptive Statistics”

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Descriptive Statistics Step 4. Select the variables you’re interested in Click on the middle arrow to move them over to the “Variable(s):” column. Click on “Options” to select additional information for this analysis (see next screen)

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Descriptive Statistics Step 5. Click on “Options” to select additional information for this analysis

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Descriptive Statistics Step 6. In the “Output” window, you will see the result of your analysis.

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Descriptive Statistics cont. Frequencies Frequency distributions are useful to summarizing data such as grades, constructing tables for a paper, and checking for errors (range and limits). Normally, it is easier to work with a Code that is represented by a Score. For example, the Letter Grade A is a Code that is represented by a score of 4.0. __X ____ f _ 4.0 10 3.0 7 2.0 21 1.0 2 0.0 0

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Frequencies

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Frequencies Step 1. “Analyze” then hover over “Descriptive Statistics” Select Frequencies

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Frequencies Step 2. You’ll be at the Frequencies window Select the “Class” variable that you’re interested in.

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Frequencies Step 3. Click the middle arrow to move it over to the “Variables(s)” column for analysis

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Frequencies Step 4. Click on “Statistics” to select additional information for this analysis (similar to “Options” in Descriptive Statistics)

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Frequencies Step 4a. (optional) Select “Charts” if you want a chart that summarizes the frequency of your desired variable(s) (in this case, “Class”)

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Frequencies Step 5. In the Output window, you will see the following:

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Frequencies Step 5a. Scroll down in the Output window and you’ll also see the chart(s) created.

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Frequencies Step 6. Transferring the Output into a table or your own graph. Code: Freshmen = 1 Junior = 3 Sophomore = 2 Senior = 4 __X ____ f _ 4.0 10 3.0 5 2.0 5 1.0 6 _ N = 26

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The logic behind the stats You will also need to understand the basic statistical techniques that SPSS uses (In other words, if you had to calculate by hand).

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The logic behind the stats You will also need to understand the basic statistical techniques that SPSS uses (In other words, if you had to calculate by hand).

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The logic behind the stats Count how many participant you have N = ? Find the highest score and lowest score in the distribution Range of X to Y (All scores / # of scores) of each column Mean of Age, Height, Weight Count how many Freshmen, Sophomore, Junior, and Senior you have Frequency Distribution of Class Standing X f

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