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University October 17-19, 2014 Norio Ota, York University.

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Presentation on theme: "University October 17-19, 2014 Norio Ota, York University."— Presentation transcript:

1 JSAC2014@Ryerson University October 17-19, 2014 Norio Ota, York University

2   Minimum requirements: All students must take at least 36 credits within the course offerings of Japanese Studies, of which at least 6 credits must be at the 4000 level. Those who are exempted from AP/JP1000 6.00, AP/JP 2000 6.00 or AP/JP 3000 6.00 must take AP/JP 4000 6.00 and at least one more 4000 level course.  (i) Japanese Studies Core - 24 credits (compulsory):  AP/JP1000 6.0 Elementary Modern Standard Japanese  AP/JP2000 6.0 Intermediate Modern Standard Japanese  AP/JP2700 6.0 Contemporary Japanese Culture and Society  AP/JP3000 6.0 Advanced Modern Standard Japanese  (ii)12 additional credits at the 3000 or 4000-level chosen from:  AP/JP3070 3.0 Japanese Language in the Media  AP/JP3100 3.0 Japanese Linguistics I: Structure of Modern Japanese Language  AP/JP3200 3.0 Japanese Linguistics II: Structure of Modern Japanese Language  AP/JP3600 3.0 Japanese popular culture: Manga and anime (proposed)  AP/JP3650 3.0 Japanese popular culture: Beyond manga and anime (proposed)  AP/JP3751 3.0 Japanese Business Culture and Communication  AP/JP3900 6.0 Independent Reading and Research (Co-op/full-time internship in Japanese Studies)  AP/JP4000 6.0 Advanced Readings in Modern Standard Japanese  AP/JP4010 6.0 Classical Japanese  AP/JP4100 6.0 Teaching of Japanese as a Foreign/Second Language  AP/JP4120 6.0 Translation: Japanese - English; English – Japanese  AP/JP4600 6.0 The Japanese Immigration Experience in Canada (proposed)  AP/JP4900 6.0 Independent Reading and Research New honours minor degree program in Japanese Studies @ York University

3   Overall Program Design and Outcome Emphasis  Programs provide more conceptual sophistication, specialized knowledge and intellectual autonomy. Students learn appropriate applications of conceptual frameworks. Normally require students to prepare, under supervision, a terminal research paper, thesis, project, exhibition, etc. May also require to complete other practice-based exercises intended to develop and demonstrate the student's readiness for employment.  Types:  Academically-oriented  Profession-oriented  In an applied area of study  Qualification Standards:  Depth and Breadth of Knowledge  Conceptual & Methodological Awareness/ Research and Scholarship  Communication Skills  The ability to communicate information, arguments and analysis accurately and reliably, orally and in writing, to specialist and non-specialist audiences using structured and coherent arguments, and, where appropriate, informed by key concepts and techniques of the discipline.  Application of Knowledge  Professional Capacity/Autonomy  Awareness of Limits of Knowledge Source: OQF Ontario Qualifications Framework

4   The liberal arts (Latin: artes liberales ) are those subjects or skills that in classical antiquity were considered essential for a free person (Latin: liberal, "worthy of a free person") [1] to know in order to take an active part in civic life, something that (for Ancient Greece) included participating in public debate, defending oneself in court, serving on juries, and most importantly, military service. Grammar, rhetoric, and logic were the core liberal arts, while arithmetic, geometry, the theory of music, and astronomy also played a (somewhat lesser) part in education. [2]Latinclassical antiquityLatin [1]Ancient GreeceGrammarrhetoriclogic arithmeticgeometrymusicastronomy [2]  In modern times, liberal arts education is a term that can be interpreted in different ways. It can refer to certain areas of literature, languages, art history, music history, philosophy, history, mathematics, psychology, and science. [3] It can also refer to studies on a liberal arts degree program.literaturelanguagesart historymusic historyphilosophyhistorymathematicspsychology science [3] Source: Liberal Arts education  In short, a liberal arts education is aimed at teaching you how to think. It helps you to develop strength of mind, and an ordered intellect. To exercise the mind, any relevant discipline can be utilized – literature, sociology, or biology. The idea is that training the mind in one area will prepare it for learning in other areas as well. The following quote by educator Robert Harris makes this point well: "The mind is like a muscle; exercise makes it stronger and more able to grasp ideas and do intellectual work. Exercising the mind in one area – whether literature or sociology or accounting – will strengthen it for learning in other areas as well. What at first was difficult – the habits of attention and concentration, the ability to follow arguments, and the ability to distinguish the important from the trivial and to grasp new concepts – all these become easier as the mind is exercised and enlarged by varied study." Think of a liberal arts major as a gym for the mind. (Department of Spanish and Portuguese, UCLA)  Yale is committed to the idea of a liberal arts education through which students think and learn across disciplines, literally liberating or freeing the mind to its fullest potential. The essence of such an education is not what you study but the result – gaining the ability to think critically and independently and to write, reason, and communicate clearly – the foundation for all professions. (A Liberal Arts education, Yale University) Liberal Arts

5   You will become a more well-rounded WORLD CITIZEN. (WSU)  The study of foreign languages and literatures makes communication possible among people of different linguistic and cultural backgrounds and fosters intercultural understanding. This enables our students to engage the global community thoughtfully and creatively. (YU)  Studying another language also: … prepares you to interact successfully with people of different cultures in an increasingly globalized environment. (IUPUI)  What better way to learn about oneself and to engage this culturally diverse world than by embarking on the study of a language and a culture other than one's own?! The University's Mission Statement defines a liberal education as "preparation for students to lead rich and rewarding lives, rejoicing in the diversity of the world." In addition, familiarity with a second language is a necessary tool for successfully living in an increasingly multicultural, multilingual, and interdependent world. (Willamette University) Why study foreign languages?

6   East Asian Studies  Service program  Interdisciplinary nature  Professional and technical nature  Comprehensive educational training  Analysis  Synthesis  Application  Creativity  Communication  Technology and language learning and teaching  Discipline – Cross-cultural communication Foreign language in liberal arts

7   EAS: declining enrollments  EAS major/minor in Japanese – small portion of the Japanese language program  EAS major/minor requirements – intermediate level at best  Content courses – wide coverage but not in-depth  No clear discipline except for language  Difficult to develop a full language and Japan Studies program under the rublic of EAS  Many students tend to wish to focus on one language and culture in depth  Students major in various disciplines  Faculty members are wide spread Under East Asian studies

8   IN THE company of the liberal arts, introductory foreign language study has often seemed an unequal partner. While the beginning courses in subjects like philosophy, psychology, and literature hold out the opportunity for important intellectual discovery, the early semesters of proficiency-based language study seem aimed at lesser accomplishments, like ordering from menus, buying train tickets, and reading traffic signs—what the profession calls “meeting basic survival needs.” First-year college students, moreover, often set out to learn a second language just at the moment they enter into a more urgent language crisis. Marshaling expanding resources in English, they must rise swiftly to competence in new kinds of precisely formed discourse. This is the moment, especially in the humanities disciplines, when students struggle to carve out an intellectual voice in their native idiom. At such a critical juncture it may seem curiously out of step to repeat childhood ontogeny by learning a new language. Students' mental energies, one might think, ought to be invested in tasks that follow the natural order of cognitive development.  Apologists for foreign languages might therefore argue that this study makes its greatest contribution to liberal disciplines by cutting against the grain of ordinary liberal education to teach the adaptability suited to the fundamental rhythm of learning and surviving: that of passing from the known and risk-free to the unknown and contingent, of periodically beginning anew, of becoming childlike to gain new powers of understanding. Learning a second language, it has long been held, also supports habits of precision and systematic mastery that could under favorable circumstances offer a valuable counterpoint to the often superficial “exposure” given in other liberal subjects. 1 And, according to the familiar geopolitical argument, a global economy and community increasingly require liberally trained citizens who can adapt readily to other languages and cultures—now even more than when the Modern Language Association first sounded this admonitory note in the fifties. In profound ways, foreign language training does indeed seem instrumental to “basic survival.” 2  Genuine partnership between foreign language and liberal studies means grasping how profoundly survival depends on competence in language. But it also means openly acknowledging that foreign languages do not fit the conventional liberal studies mold. If the proficiency movement has done little else, it has brought us finally to face an uncomfortable fact: if a modest degree of foreign language competence were actually to become a serious goal of general education, the time spent on that task in beginning courses would need to increase at least fourfold. 3 The experience of the Foreign Service Institute (FSI) shows that students of French or Spanish require some 240 hours, or eight weeks of intensive instruction at about thirty hours a week, to attain the lowest proficiency level, 1/1+, in speaking. At this stage, according to the Interagency Language Roundtable (ILR) guidelines, the learner “can order a simple meal, ask for shelter or lodging, ask and give simple directions, make purchases, and tell time.” Vocabulary remains elementary; errors in pronunciation and grammar still abound. To reach level 1/1+ in German or Russian, moreover, a student might require 480 hours, of sixteen weeks of concentrated instruction. 4 Equal partnership

9   The creation of a discrete “foreign language year,” situated between the freshman and sophomore or the sophomore and junior levels, removes this obstacle in a dramatically conclusive way. The foreign language year would feature intensive training along the lines of the model successfully used for several decades by the Foreign Service and Defense Language Institutes. Students would be involved some six hours of language activities daily, combined with two to three hours of private study, five days a week. For most languages this preparation would bring 2/2+ skills into reach in twelve months or less. 16 During the year ancillary study in history, politics, economics, anthropology, religion, literature, and culture—some in English, some in the foreign language—would help shape the cultural, historical, and social context for the intensive language work. A sizable portion of the year, or even the entire year, could be spent abroad.  A bold project of this sort would put genuine second-language competence and bicultural understanding at the very heart of undergraduate education; it would draw many of the liberal arts into direct interdisciplinary play. Concentrating basic foreign language study in one year also has the advantage of clearing the way for more rigorous and undiluted liberal study during the remaining four years. The first year or two might even be devoted to an integrated core curriculum. In the last two years, advanced students could apply their foreign language expertise in FLAC-enhanced courses, and they could assist as student apprentices in language courses. Majors might even shoot for level 3/3+ proficiency. Few would ask, “Where's the beef?”  This essay directly confronts the predicament of foreign languages in a liberal arts setting. If first- and second-year courses continue to produce low-level multiskill proficiency, then foreign language study will continue to find itself the odd subject out among the competing interests that make up general education. The introductory stages of other humanities require substantially less time and effort for greater intellectual return. Innovatives strategies, like FLAC and the Utah immersion approach, intended to bridge the gap between lower-level foreign language courses and liberal studies do not remedy the situation. Without 500 hours or more of basic instruction, language students do not develop the skills for advanced application. There is no clever reversal of priorities, no pedagogical sleight of hand, that can substitute for adequate instruction time. Only two alternatives, both radical in certain respects, can make foreign language study a full partner in liberal education. If the beginning stages must conform to a traditional low-intensity schedule, then the focus of requirement-level courses should perhaps narrow to a single skill, that of reading, to ensure the 2+ proficiency needed for substantive application. The ideal alternative, on the other hand, bilingual language competency, cannot be realized without an extraordinary increase in foreign language instruction and second- culture exposure: an extra year of undergraduate study combined with study abroad. The price of full partnership between the foreign languages and the other liberal arts is steep, but the gains would be high for both partners. (Sudermann, 1992) Source: Equal partnership (2)

10   Short study period  Minimum contact hours  Lack of access to instructional materials  Lack of EE experience  Mostly service programs  Quality of instruction  Poor preparation in the secondary education  Lack of understanding re foreign language learning and teaching  Types and motivations of learners  Lack of support by administration Canadian predicament

11   Developing self-study interactive material  24 hour-access to the online material  Implementing EE activities  Enhancing teaching and learning approach  Taking advantage of extra-curricular activities  Promoting overseas study  Attracting learners with job prospect  Setting up intensive streams  Creating a degree program Possible solution

12   Modular-Synergy approach  No core textbook  Authoring instructional materials for specific purposes  Each module has its own syllabus.  Modules enhance synergistic effects.  Developing materials to enhance synergy  Personalizing instructional materials  Developing internally condensed materials for short study period  Communicative-empathic approach  Content-based language learning  Language learning for university education  Taking advantage of extra curricular activities  Increasing accessibility via the Internet  Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL)  Multi-dimensional – involving distant learners  Empowering language professionals and learners Paradigm shifts in TJFL

13  Washback hypothesis Wide definition UnintendedIntended Narrow definition Unintended Washback hypothesis PositiveNegativePositiveNegative Narrow definition: Effects of testing on learning and teaching Positive Ota (2014)

14  Curriculum Instructional materials Teaching strategy Testing Assessment Washback: wide definition Learning Ota (2014)

15  Structure Vocabulary Culture Speaking ReadingWriting Listening Module & Synergy Ota (2014)

16  Technology Self-study materials Online testing Distance education Modular – synergy approach What technology has made possible Ota (2014)

17  New paradigm Reliance on a learner’s self-study Freeing up time for in-class communicative activities Empowering teachers and learners Authoring instructional materials Essence of new paradigm Ota (2014)

18   Enrollment  Faculty  Web-based curriculum  Extra-curricular activities  Internationalization  Community involvement  Research  High quality and reputation  External grants Preparation

19   Major or minor  East Asian Studies  Humanities  Other languages  Programs in other institutions  Model  New concepts  Experiential education (EE) Proposal

20   Departmental level  Faculty level  Senate level  External advisers  Internal advisers  Students’ input  Collegial input  Administrative consultation  Funding Writing a proposal

21   Problems  Rules and regulations changed  Requirements changed  Delaying tactic  Lack of support Rewriting

22   2006 version  Creation of a four-year minor B.A. degree program and a three-year major B.A. program in Japanese Studies  2010 version  Creation of an Honours B.A. program, a 90-credit B.A. program and an Honours Minor program in Japanese Studies.  2013 version  Creation of an Honours Minor degree program in Japanese Studies. Proposal

23   Major degree program  Distance education courses  Experiential education  Internationalization  Global networking  Research initiatives Future

24   Holistic planning and much patience and endeavor  Internal and external networking and support  Accommodating students’ needs  Empowering the colleagues  Showing results  Creative, innovative and risk-taking  Taking advantage of opportunities  Securing a large enrollment  Creating and adopting new strategies and approaches  Winning external funding in order to increase the number of full-time faculty – Tanaka Fund  Success in students’ extra-curricular activities – speech contests  Pioneering TEL projects – web-based course and material development, distance education via video- conferencing, online testing, online seminars  Internationalization – exchange programs, JET program, technical cooperation to Cuba  Research activities – hosting and attending international and domestic conferences  Spearheading in Experiential Education (EE) – summer internship and co-op programs  Community involvement – participating in post-secondary education, hosting the Japanese Language Proficiency Test (JLPT), online seminar for high school teachers Conclusion What worked

25   Hartono, Paulina M. (2014?) A History of the Institute of East Asian Studies, UC Berkley  NEA (2007) The benefits of second language study: research findings with citations der/BenefitsofSecondLanguage.pdf der/BenefitsofSecondLanguage.pdf  Middlebury interactive (2013) Second language acquisition by the numbers (infographic) infographic_n_4136915.html  Ota, Norio (2014) Washback and paradigm shift – The post-communicative paradigm with technology, unpublished paper presented at 12th Annual Hawaii International Conference on Arts & Humanities, Jan. 10-13, 2014  Sudermann, David P. (1993) Foreign language and liberal studies: toward an equal partnership References

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