Presentation on theme: "The Complexities of Grading: What’s fair? What’s worth grading? Kay M. Sagmiller Oregon State University Center for Teaching and Learning."— Presentation transcript:
The Complexities of Grading: What’s fair? What’s worth grading? Kay M. Sagmiller Oregon State University Center for Teaching and Learning
Calculate the final grades SallyCC M DCB MM BA Bob75 78 M 828488909293 90-100 A 80-89 B 70-79 C 60-69 D Below 60 F 93 + A 90-92 A- 87-89 B+ 83-86 B 80-82 B- 77-79 C+ 73-76 C 70-72 C- 67-69 D+ 63-66 D 60-62 D- 95-100 A 85-94 B 75-84 C 65-74 D Below 65 F
Toxic Grading Practices 1.No common standard for the grading scale 1.Using zeros for missing work on a 100 point scale 2.Averaging all scores throughout the quarter 3.“Quarter-Killer Assignments” 4.Grading on the curve Marzano, 2000; O’Connor 2008; Reeves, 2004, 2008; Waugh & Gronlund, 2013
What are grades meant to communicate? …the extent to which a student has met a pre-specified standard of performance: the course objectives (Waugh & Gronlund, 2013)
Outcomes & Objectives Vary in Generality OSU Learning Goals Graduates = Lifetime Program Outcomes = 4-6 Years Course Outcomes = 10 weeks Daily Objectives = Today
Course outcomes are subsets of program outcomes Program Outcome: Apply scientific concepts towards assessing, promoting, or enhancing physical health, fitness, or performance Course Outcome: Review and recommend best practices and evidence-based procedures for the development and implementation of physical activity promotion efforts for individuals with a chronic health condition and disability.
First Year Graduation OSU Curriculum Sophomore/Junior Perspectives Synthesis Writing Quantitative Reasoning Speech BCBC BCBC M M M M M M BCBC BCBC M M BCBC BCBC BCBC BCBC M M Thinking
Understanding develops over time Strategic Thinking Skill/Co ncept Recall Extended Thinking
Skills develop with practice Preassessment Final Task Demonstration 2 nd 1 st Approximation Final Approximation Skill Group Work
Locate the course Where does this course fall in the program’s sequence of courses? What do my students need to know prior to this course starting? Which specific program outcomes are a primary focus in this course?
Clarify Expectations What “degree of understanding” and level of skill proficiency must my students’ achieve by the end of this course? How can I best communicate these expectations to my students? What summative assessment would give students the best opportunity to demonstrate the degree to which they have met these levels?
Scaffold and Support Learning What sequence of lessons will best support my students’ in constructing understanding? In what way is EACH lesson aligned to the course outcomes? Where are the difficult points in this class?
Plan your “dipstick” assessments Given the nature of this class, when is it important to take a “dipstick assessment” of student progress? Of the many ways to “check in” with students, which assessment will provide the best feedback on student growth?
Basic Principles of Grading 1.Learning is the goal 1.Communicate academic expectations by setting clear criteria and standards 1.Use a variety of assessments (pre, formative and summative) to get a more complete picture of student progress 1.Teach and assess what is “most important”
Weighted Grading Assumption: Different types of performances are of more value than others The “assessments” the professor “values more” are weighted more heavily in the grading process Often used in courses heavy in skill development: early approximations are not weighted as heavily as summative performances
Accumulated Point Grading Assumption: Good or poor performance in one area can be offset by work in other areas Example Quizzes0-40 points Field Project0-30 points Final Exam0-20 points Class Part0-10 points
Proficiency Grading Assumption: different categories of work are each important and one cannot compensate for another Course GradeGraded WorkPass-Fail Work AA average90% pass BB average83% pass CC average75 % pass DD average65% pass If a student gets an A on graded work but a 65% pass on daily work she gets a D in the class because it is the highest level at which she meets or exceeds the standards for both graded and pass/fail work
The most effective grading practices provide accurate, specific, timely feedback to improve student performance Marzano 2000, 2007; O’Connor, 2007; Reeves, 2008
Other Considerations Developmental Approach: Improvement over time Unit-Based Approach: Each unit is important Contract Grading Grading Group Work Extra Credit and Penalties
References Buller, J. (2010). The essential college professor. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Stiggins, R. (1994). Student-centered classroom assessment. New York: Macmillan College Publishing. Walvoord, B. & Anderson, V. (1998). Effective grading. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Waugh, C. & Gronlund, N. (2013) Assessment of student achievement, Tenth edition, Boston: Pearson.