Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954) (USSC+) Argued December 9, 1952 Reargued December 8, 1953 Decided May 17, 1954 APPEAL FROM THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF KANSAS* Syllabus Segregation of white and Negro children in the public schools of a State solely on the basis of race, pursuant to state laws permitting or requiring such segregation, denies to Negro children the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment -- even though the physical facilities and other "tangible" factors of white and Negro schools may be equal. (a) The history of the Fourteenth Amendment is inconclusive as to its intended effect on public education. (b) The question presented in these cases must be determined not on the basis of conditions existing when the Fourteenth Amendment was adopted, but in the light of the full development of public education and its present place in American life throughout the Nation. (c) Where a State has undertaken to provide an opportunity for an education in its public schools, such an opportunity is a right which must be made available to all on equal terms. (d) Segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race deprives children of the minority group of equal educational opportunities, even though the physical facilities and other "tangible" factors may be equal. (e) The "separate but equal" doctrine adopted in Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537, has no place in the field of public education. (f) The cases are restored to the docket for further argument on specified questions relating to the forms of the decrees.
Little Rock Nine Melba Patillo, Elizabeth Eckford, Ernest Green, Gloria Ray, Carlotta Walls, Terrance Roberts, Jefferson Thomas, Minnijean Brown, and Thelma Mothershed with Daisy Bates.
Little Rock Central High School The 1957 Desegregation Crisis at Central High School Little Rock, Arkansas
Elizabeth Eckford Elizabeth Eckford transferred to Central High School her junior year 1957. Because all of the city’s high schools closed her senior year, Ms. Eckford moved to St Louis, where she obtained her GED.
Ernest Green The only senior among the Little Rock Nine in 1957, Green attended Dunbar Junior High before entering Central at the age of 16. He became the first African- American graduate of Central High School in May of 1958.
Carlotta Walls At fourteen, Carlotta Walls was the youngest of the "Little Rock Nine" as she began her sophomore year at Central High School. She graduated from Central in 1960
Terrence Roberts Terrence Roberts attended Dunbar Junior High School and Horace Mann High School before entering Central High as a junior in 1957. As a result of the closing of Little Rock's high schools during the 1958-1959 school year, Roberts completed his senior year at Los Angeles High School in Los Angeles, California.
Jefferson Thomas Jefferson Thomas attended Dunbar Junior High, where he served as president of the student council and was an outstanding track athlete. Thomas entered Central High School at fifteen as a sophomore. He, along with Carlotta Walls, graduated from Central in 1960.
Minnijean Brown Minnijean Brown was sixteen years old when she began her junior year at Central High School. Although all of the Nine were subjected to verbal and physical harassment during their years at Central, Brown was first suspended, and then expelled for retaliating to the daily torment.
Melba Pattillo Melba Pattillo was fifteen when she began her junior year at Central High School. A segregationist student threw acid into her eyes, attempting to blind her.
Gloria Ray Gloria Ray was fifteen when she entered Central High School. Her father, son of a former slave, was fired from his job when she refused to withdraw from Central High. They moved to Kansas City where she graduated in 1960.
Thelma Mothershed Thelma Mothershed attended Dunbar Junior High and Horace Mann High Schools and completed her junior year at Central. In order to earn the necessary credits for graduation she took correspondence courses and attended summer school in St. Louis. She received her diploma from Central High School by mail.
Elizabeth Eckford Attended Knox College in Illinois receiving BA in History from Central State University Became first African American to work in a local St. Louis bank Substitute teacher in Little Rock public schools U.S. Army veteran Recipient of the NAACP’s Springarn Medal Serves on the Board of Directors of the Central High Museum and Visitor Center
Elizabeth and Hazel Elizabeth and Hazel chronicles not just the day Elizabeth attempts to enter Central High School, but the months and years that came after in the two women's lives.
Ernest Green Earned BA and MA from Michigan State University Served as Asst Secretary of Labor for Employment and Training during Carter Administration Appointed by President Clinton to serve as Chairman of the African Development Foundation Chairman of the Historically Black Colleges and Universities Capital Financing Advisory Board Managing Director of Public Finance for Lehman Brothers in Washington, D.C.
Carlotta Walls LaNier Attended two years at Michigan State University before completing her Bacholor of Science degree at the University of Northern Colorado Involved in various aspects of the real estate industry Member of various national and community organizations, including the Colorado Aids Project, Jack and Jill of America, the Urban League, and the NAACP. Recipient of the NAACP’s Spingarn Medal
Terrence Roberts Earned a BA in sociology from California State University in 1967 Earned his Masters in social welfare from UCLA School of Social Welfare in 1970 Earned his PhD in psychology from Southern Illinois University in 1976 Chair of masters in psychology program at Antioch University Private practices in Pasadena, CA CEO of management consulting firm, Terrance J Roberts & Associates
Jefferson Thomas Attended Wayne State University, then transferred to attended Los Angeles State College to obtain a Bachelor Degree of Business Administration Inducted into the United States Army in 1966. He received training at Fort Riley, Kansas, and was promoted to staff sergeant, before being assigned to duty in South Vietnam, with the 9th Infantry Division Volunteer mentor in the Village to Child Program, co-sponsored by Ohio Dominican University Recipient of an Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from Ohio Dominican University in recognition of his life-long efforts in human rights and equality Recipient of the NAACP Spingarn Medal Passed away September 5, 2010
Minnijean Brown Trickey Bachelor of Social Work in Native Human Services from Laurentian University Master of Social Work at Carleton University, in Ontario Canada. served in the Clinton Administration as Deputy Assistant Secretary for Workforce Diversity at the Department of the Interior Recipient of Lifetime Achievement Tribute by the Canadian Race Relations Foundation, Recipient of the International Wolf Award for contributions to racial harmony. With the Little Rock Nine, she received the NAACP Spingarn Medal
Melba Pattillo Beals Earned BA in journalism from San Francisco State University Earned MA from Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism Earned PhD from University of San Francisco Worked as a reporter and communications consultant for NBC and public TV station Author of Warriors Don’t Cry, a 1995 ALA Notable book and winner of the 1995 Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Book Award Author of White is a State of Mind, sequel to Warriors Don’t Cry
Gloria Ray Karlmark Graduate of Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), Chicago joined the IIT Research Institute as Assistant Mathematician on the APT IV Project (robotics, numerical control, and online technical documentation). Recruited to join IBM’s Nordic Laboratory, Mrs. Karlmark completed “Patent Examiner” Program in 1975, and joined IBM’s International Patent Operations as European Patent Attorney co-founded Computers in Industry, and international journal of practice and experience of computer applications Retired in 1994 currently resides in Europe
Thelma Mothershed Wair graduated from Southern Illinois University, Carbondale in 1964 earned her Master's degree in Guidance & Counseling and an Administrative Certificate in Education from Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville in 1970 and 1985, respectively served as an educator in the East St. Louis School System for 28 years before retiring in 1994 an instructor of survival skills for women at the American Red Cross Shelter for the homeless. Recipient of the NAACP’s Spingarn Medal
Little Rock Nine Foundation Established in February 1999, the mission of the Foundation is to provide direct financial support for students to help them reach their educational goals.
On November 9, 1999, President Clinton honored the group with the Congressional Gold Medal in recognition of the selfless heroism they exhibited and the pain they suffered in their efforts to desegregate Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas in 1957. Little Rock Nine Receives Congressional Gold Medal
Congressional Gold Medal A Congressional Gold Medal is the highest civilian award given by Congress to any individual who performs an outstanding deed or act of service to the security, prosperity, and national interest of the United States.
To mark the 50th anniversary of the desegregation of Central High School, the US Mint issued the 2007 Little Rock Central High School Silver Dollar. Proceeds from the coin sales are to be used to improve the National Historic Site. Little Rock Nine commemorative coin
Opened on September 24, 2007 across the intersection from the school, the visitor center contains interactive exhibits on the 1957 desegregation crisis. Little Rock Central High School National Historic Site Visitor Center
Little Rock Nine Monument Arkansas State Capitol in Little Rock
Bibliography Levy, Peter. (1998). The Civil Rights Movement. New York: Greenwood Press Margolick, David (2011). Elizabeth and Hazel: Two Women of Little Rock. New Haven: Yale University Press http://littlerock9.org/Home.aspx http://www.nps.gov/chsc/index.htm http://www.usmint.gov/mint_programs/commemoratives/?action=LittleRock http://clinton6.nara.gov/1999/11/1999-11-09-president-presents-congressional- medals-to-little-rock-nine.html http://www.clintonlibrary.gov/littlerocknine.html http://www.nationalcenter.org/brown.html http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/research/online_documents/civil_rights_little_rock.html http://www.blackpast.org/aah/little-rock-crisis-1957