Presentation on theme: "Clauses and Sentences Grammar II. Brief Teaching Phrase: a group of words, generally begun with a preposition Clause: a group of words with a subject."— Presentation transcript:
Clauses and Sentences Grammar II
Brief Teaching Phrase: a group of words, generally begun with a preposition Clause: a group of words with a subject and verb Independent clause: will make a complete thought if removed from the sentence Dependent clause: will not make a complete thought if removed from the sentence (depends on the other clause for meaning.
ID Clauses > S/V Darkness blanketed the countryside, and stars twinkled into sight. Here is the spot where I had my accident. Luke is leaving next Wednesday if he can take time off from work.
Answers [Darkness blanketed the countryside], and [stars twinkled (into sight)]. [Here is the spot] [where I had my accident]. [Luke is leaving (next Wednesday)] [if he can take time off (from work)].
Connecting Clauses Independent Clauses: conjunctions are NOT part of the clause, FANBOYS ; Dependent Clauses: ARE part of the clause Subordinate conjunctions Dependent clause, independent clause After the game, we went to dinner. Independent clause dependent clause We went to dinner after the game. Relative pronouns Who, whom, which, what, that (may be subjects)
Subordinate Conjunctions Althoughafter as as ifas long as as much as as soon as as thoughas if BecauseBefore Even ifeven though how Ifin order thatinasmuch Lest Now thatprovided that Sinceso that Tillthough Unlessuntil Whenwhenever Wherewhereverwhetherwhile
ID Clauses > S/V Gardenias grew near the elm tree and roses grew beside the driveway. If you hold the door open too long, the alarm will sound. Lisa hung pictures of Harry Potter characters in her little sister’s bedroom. The girl whom you like is her daughter.
Explanations and Answers [Gardenias grew (near the elm tree)] and [roses grew (beside the driveway)]. [If you hold the door open too long], [the alarm will sound]. [Lisa hung pictures (of Harry Potter characters) (in her little sister’s bedroom)]. The girl [whom you like] is her daughter.
Fragments and Run-Ons Fragment—an incomplete sentence Subject or verb is missing: The girls to the store. Dependent clause > incomplete thought: Because it rained Run-On Sentence: An over-fused sentence that puts 2+ complete sentences together in one sentence without separating them properly.
Independent Clauses Are connected with, FANBOYS For, and, nor, but, or, yet, so Ind. Clause 1, FANBOYS Ind Clause 2 FANBOYS are NOT part of the clause He was very tired, so he went to bed. The game was nearly lost, but the team made a miracle comeback in the closing seconds.
Subordinate (Dependent) Clauses Begin with subordinate conjunctions or relative pronouns These ARE part of the clause Because it rained, I used my umbrella. The pizza that you ate so quickly before I could say anything was over 3 weeks old! Cause / Effect: because, since, so that Comparison / Contrast: although, even though, though, whereas, while Place & Manner: how, however, where, wherever Possibility / Conditions: if, whether, unless Relation: that, which, who, whom Time: after, as, before, since, when, whenever, while, until
Fixing Run-Ons 1) Add a semicolon between the two ind clauses 2) Add comma, FANBOYS b/w two ind clauses 3) Make one clause dependent SAT Part 1 SAT Part 2 Maximum three clauses per sentence until college Maximum three uses of semi-colons this year
ID Clauses > S/V Mom says that I can’t go with you until I get my homework done. Whenever the road is slippery, drive more cautiously. Young hopefuls lined the waiting room, but nobody noticed them. The old tractor was still the most dependable of the lot.
Explanations [Mom says] [that I can’t go (with you)] [until I get my homework done]. [Whenever the road is slippery], [(you) drive more cautiously]. [Young hopefuls lined the waiting room], but [nobody noticed them]. [The old tractor was still the most dependable (of the lot)].
ID Clauses > S/V Whales shouldered the waves and dripped rivers. Gina will arrive today, but Carl will not be here until Saturday. It looks as if it might rain, but I will still not bring an umbrella. Although you may not like vegetables or milk, they are each very good for overall health. Over the hills and through the woods, it’s to grandmother’s house that we go.
Explanations [Whales shouldered the waves and dripped rivers]. [Gina will arrive today], but [Carl will not be here (until Saturday)]. [It looks] [as if it might rain], but [I will still not bring an umbrella]. [Although you may not like vegetables or milk], [they are each very good (for overall health)]. [(Over the hills) and (through the woods), it’s (to grandmother’s house)] [that we go].
Simple Sentences sentence with one independent clause May have compound subjects or verbs I kicked the ball. I went (to the store) (by the bridge) (near the river) (on Wednesday) (in the afternoon). The man (from Alexandria) lifted a box, carried it (to his room), and quickly slept (in his bed)!
Compound Sentences Contain two or more independent clauses connected by Conjunction: [I called], and [he answered the phone]. FANBOYS Correlative Conjunctions either/or Either [you do your homework] or [you don’t]. neither/nor not only/but also Semicolon : [Mrs. Smith teaches history, global issues, and Model UN]; [Mr. Bob teaches art and drama].
Complex Sentences Contain one independent clause AND one or more dependent clauses Introduced by subordinate conjunctions or relative pronouns THESE WORDS ARE PART OF THE CLAUSE! Relative pronouns except for whom may be subjects! [If you want to go to Harvard], [you will need strong grades and SAT scores]. The girl [whom you called] is my neighbor.
ID Clauses > S/V Stop the car when you come to a red light. Lower automobile speeds result in better fuel mileage, but only up to a point. Pewter and silver tarnish easily and need polishing often. After much internal debate, Sean, through a discussion with his father, decided to run a marathon. This figure was carved by Daniel Chester French, and it is deeply impressive.
Explanations CX: [(you) Stop the car] [when you come (to a red light)]. S: [Lower automobile speeds result (in better fuel mileage), but only (to a point)]. S: [Pewter and silver tarnish easily and need polishing often]. S: [(After much internal debate), Sean, (through a discussion) (with his father), decided to run a marathon]. CD: [This figure was carved (by Daniel Chester French)], and [it is deeply impressive].
ID Clauses > S/V The number of objects that have landed on earth is unknown. In any world at any time, I neither could nor would ever love anything of that type of cruelty or, for that matter, silliness as well.
Explanations CX: The number (of objects) [that have landed (on Earth)] is unknown. S: [(In any world) (at any time), I neither could nor would ever love anything (of that type) (of either cruelty or silliness)].
ID Clauses > S/V If I had talent with a hammer, I would surely be a carpenter or a construction worker because it’s a fun tool and, when I work with one, I never feel as if I am actually working. In the middle of the second page is a very small paragraph about the contradictions in Puritan life.
Explanations CX: [If I had talent (with a hammer)], [I would surely be a carpenter or a construction worker] [because it’s a fun tool] and, [when I work (with one)], [I never feel] [as if I am actually working]. S: [(In the middle) (of the second page) is a very small paragraph (about the contradictions) (in Puritan life)].
ID Clauses > S/V These are all sayings that are meant as compliments. Some albino elephants are a pale yellowish-gray with pink spots.
Explanations CX: [These are all sayings] [that are meant as compliments]. S: [Some albino elephants are a pale yellowish-gray (with pink spots).]
ID Clauses > S/V During last night's game, the bases were loaded, and Bob hit a grand slam. Older television sets had tubes; the newest models, which take less space, are digital televisions.
Explanations [(During last night's game), each of the bases) was loaded], and [Bob hit a grand slam (out of the park) (to the delight) (of the tens) (of thousands) (of fans)!] [Older television sets had tubes]; [the newest models, [which take less space], are digital televisions].
ID Clauses > S/V Because of rain, the baseball game was postponed. Joe and his brother went fishing last weekend and caught lots of fish.
Explanations S: Because (of rain), the baseball game was postponed. S: Joe and his brother went fishing last weekend and caught lots (of fish).