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“What Stumped the Bluejays” by Mark Twain “Dawn in the Forest”

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1 “What Stumped the Bluejays” by Mark Twain “Dawn in the Forest”

2 When Tom awoke in the morning, he wondered where he was. He sat up and rubbed his eyes and looked around. Then he understood. It was a cool morning, and the woods were calm and peaceful. No leaf moved; nothing made a sound. The leaves and grasses were wet with dew. White ashes covered the fire and some smoke still rose up into the air. Joe and Huck still slept. Does vocabulary make a difference? When Tom awoke in the morning, he wondered where he was. He sat up and rubbed his eyes and looked around. Then he comprehended. It was the cool gray dawn, and there was a delicious sense of repose and peace in the deep pervading calm and silence of the woods. Not a leaf stirred; not a sound obtruded upon great Nature’s meditation. Beaded dewdrops stood upon the leaves and grasses. A white layer of ashes covered the fire, and a thin blue breath of smoke rose straight into the air. Joe and Huck still slept.

3 1. *absurdity (n) –ies (pl) absurd (adj) absurdly (adv) something that is absurd; ridiculously unreasonable, unsound, or *incongruous (an absurd argument); having no rational or orderly relationship to human life, meaningless 2. conflagration (n)a large disastrous fire; conflict, war syn: holocaust, inferno 3. *credulous (adj) credulously (adv) credulousness (n) credulity (n) Add: incredulous ready to believe especially on slight or uncertain evidence 4. fluent (adj) fluently (adv) capable of flowing (fluid); capable of moving with ease and grace; capable of using a language easily and accurately; effortlessly smooth and flowing (polished); having or showing mastery of a subject or skill 5. *manifest (adj) manifestly (adv) readily perceived by the senses—especially by sight; easily understood or recognized by the mind

4 6. metaphor (n) metaphoric (adj) metaphorical (adj) metaphorically (adv) a figure of speech in which a word or phrase literally denoting one kind of object or idea is used in place of another 7. obtrude (v) -ed; -ing obtrude (n) *obtrusive (adj) obtrusively (adv) to thrust out; to force or impose without request; to get in the way; interfere; meddle 8. pervade (v) pervasive (adj) pervasively (adv) to become diffused through every part of syn: permeate 9. *principle (n) principled (v, adj) a comprehensive and fundamental law, doctrine, or assumption; a rule or code of conduct 10. *rudimentary (adj) rudimentarily (adv) rudiment (n) -s (pl) consisting of first principles; fundamental; of a primitive kind; basic, simple a basic law or guideline

5 Yesterday, you wrote a journal entry about five accomplishments you would like to achieve this year. On a piece of notebook paper, write a developed paragraph about one or more of those accomplishments. Explain what, why, how, etc. Note the directions on the poster on the board. This is due before you leave class.

6 Quiz: On your own paper, answer the following. Correct heading = 5 points 1.Who wrote “Dawn in the Forest” and “What Stumped the Bluejays”? (3) 2.“Dawn in the Forest” is part of what larger work? (4) 3.The author of “What Stumped...” starts out by making the claim that animals can do something. What is it? (3) 4.What did the blue jay find that aroused his curiosity? (4) 5.What did the bluejay do with what he found? (6)

7 Mark Twain: A Brief Background real name: Samuel Clemens wrote The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn lived childhood—Hannibal, Missouri worked on a riverboat—hence, the name Mark Twain What else?

8 Figurative Language metaphor—imaginative comparison which does not employ the words like or as [most of the time a “be” verb is used] --the stated or implied equivalence of two things “All the world’s a stage.” --William Shakespeare “Mercy Chadham was a big haunted house of a woman.” –Elyse Singleton in This Side of the Sky simile—imaginative comparison using the words like or as “The Assyrian came down like a wolf on the fold.” –George Gordon, Lord Byron “O my love is like a red, red rose.” –Robert Burns

9 Figurative Language Note: Clichés are often worn-out figurative phrases or comparisons. 1. He’s as brave as a ______. 2. She’s as slow as a ______. 3. The car broke down as soon as I bought it. It must be a _____. 4. I was so hungry that I made a _____ of myself. 5. He’s as strong as an ____.

10 Figurative Language personification—human characteristics are given to objects, ideas, abstractions, or animals “Bright April shakes out her rain-drenched hair.” --Sara Teasdale “Time, the subtle thief of youth.” –John Milton

11 Figurative Language metonymy—an expression in which a related thing stands for the thing itself The White House has decided. White House = President “There is death in the pot.” –II Kings 4:40 death = poison “The sword shall never depart from thine house.” --II Sam. 12:10 sword = death, strife house = family or descendents

12 Figurative Language synecdoche— (seh-neck-doh-key) —an expression in which a part stands for the whole “Blessed are your eyes for they see” --Matt. 13:16 Jesus is talking to the disciples. He uses the word eyes to refer to the whole person. All hands on deck. hands = sailors “Give us this day our daily bread.” bread = food It can be argued that this is metonomy: bread=sustenance

13 Figurative Language 1. “Death, be not proud, though some have called thee / Mighty and dreadful...” --John Donne 2. “The fog comes / on little cat feet.” --Carl Sandburg 3. “In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground.” --Gen 3:19 Choices: metaphor simile personification metonymy synecdoche

14 Figurative Language 1. “Can God furnish a table in the wilderness?” --Ps. 78:19 2. Father always provided a roof over our heads. 3. The sun’s rays tentatively stroked the sleeping boy’s face; then grew bolder and tapped more vigorously. 4. “They set their mouths against the heavens.” --Ps. 73:9 Choices: metaphor simile personification metonymy synecdoche

15 Short quiz! Heading = 2 points Matching. Use capital letters only. 1.Life is a race to the finish. 2.The mountains and hills will break forth into singing. 3.“Friends, Romans, Countrymen, lend me your ears.” –from Julius Caesar 4.Hollywood produces many movies every year. 5.He is like a sponge because he listens and learns eagerly. 6.I bought a new set of wheels! A.metaphor B.simile C.personification D.metonomy E.synecdoche A.metaphor B.simile C.personification D.metonomy E.synecdoche

16 “Dawn in the Forest” 1. What is the basic structure (organization) of this piece? [order of importance? time? visual orientation?] 2. Twain uses strong images to describe just a few seconds (minutes?) of time. Find examples of the following sensory images: sight sound touch smell

17 “What Stumped the Bluejays” 1.What imaginative comparison does Twain use to create humor in this piece? 2.At what point in the story are you clued in to the storyteller’s facetious or playful intent? 3.Find at least one example of each of the figurative language devises we described. Metonymy and synecdoche might be difficult to find.

18 Writing Assignment Write a descriptive paragraph (approx words) personifying an animal, object or idea. Give it a title. Word process if possible (handwriting should be NEAT) double space / watch margins Remember heading. An artistic presentation is part of the grade. See the following slides for examples.

19 Writing Assignment Examples: Object: Turning her face toward the sun the daisy soaked in the warm rays with gratitude. Animal: Smiling to herself the lynx took careful note of the hole in the chicken wire surrounding the blithely unaware fowl in the farmyard. Idea or abstraction: Anger stalked the boy with a vengeance. With every thought, every action, anger was ready to pounce and give the boy a reason to succumb to mastery.

20 The literary metaphor known as personification is not fantasy writing. Personification: An object/animal/idea is described with human characteristics, but the sense of the original remains. The reader understands that it remains the original object/animal/idea. Example: The timid rabbit paused at the entrance to the grand meadow, warily watching the arrival of the others. The butterflies were already dancing.... Fantasy writing: The object/animal/idea becomes human or human-like. It takes on human behavior, actions, speech, thoughts. Dialogue is often part of this. Example: Billy and Bobby Bunny packed a picnic lunch of carrot sandwiches and watercress salad, and looked forward to frolicking in the meadow all day.

21 Writing Assignment Possible Topics: Animals lion bear kangaroo hippopotamus giraffe deer rabbit lamb ferret raccoon hyena Objects ship bell book train clock violin church snowflakes castle sword cross Ideas happiness sorrow death life hatred music honor patriotism betrayal whimsy truth


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