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科学者の方法 KAGAKUSHA NO HO The way of the scientist. Science and language Contrast the following terms: Fact Observation Theory Law Speculation Hypothesis.

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Presentation on theme: "科学者の方法 KAGAKUSHA NO HO The way of the scientist. Science and language Contrast the following terms: Fact Observation Theory Law Speculation Hypothesis."— Presentation transcript:

1 科学者の方法 KAGAKUSHA NO HO The way of the scientist

2 Science and language Contrast the following terms: Fact Observation Theory Law Speculation Hypothesis

3 Science and language Contrast the following terms: SupportedProven

4 Science and language Contrast the following terms: ObviousEvident

5 Science and language Contrast the following terms: Data Qualitative observation Quantitative observation

6 Science and language Contrast the following terms: PrecisionAccuracy

7 Scientific Method --First defined by Sir Francis Bacon (1620) --A method for eliminating wrong ideas --Based on evidence, not authority --Anyone can play. If you evaluate your world according to evidence, you are a scientist.

8 Scientific Method 1) Make an observation 2) State a hypothesis 3) Test, by a controlled experiment, if possible 4) Modify hypothesis & test again as needed 5) Incorporate tested hypothesis into a theory

9 Designing a controlled experiment: Try something. Change one thing, try it again

10 Designing a controlled experiment: Try something. Change one thing, try it again If you change only one thing, and your results differ—

11 Designing a controlled experiment: Try something. Change one thing, try it again If you change only one thing, and your results differ— --that change must have caused it…

12 Designing a controlled experiment: Try something. Change one thing, try it again If you change only one thing, and your results differ— --that change must have caused it… …because everything else is identical

13 Controlled experiment vocabulary Hypothesis—state as an “If—then” prediction Experimental variable– the “if” you are testing Dependent variable — the “then” you measure Control group-doesn’t get the experimental variable Experimental group-gets the experimental variable Controlled variables—the things kept identical (aka “constants”)

14 For example: Suppose that I observe that students who carry a skateboard show symptoms of brain damage. How could I test the question: “Does carrying a skateboard cause brain damage in sophomores?”

15 Step 1: Make a Hypothesis Choose one: “If a sophomore carries a skateboard then it will cause brain damage.” “If a sophomore carries a skateboard then it will not cause brain damage.” (Whichever one you choose, your results will give you the answer)

16 Step 2: Define control and experimental groups Describe your subjects. Control group: Experimental group:

17 Step 2: Define control and experimental groups Describe your subjects, choose a number, state that all factors except the one you are testing will be kept identical. Control group: 50 high school sophomores, randomly chosen, who will not be allowed to carry skateboards Experimental group: 50 high school sophomores, randomly chosen, who will be forced to carry skateboards

18 Step 2: Define control and experimental groups --Oh, yeah. Never use one subject or trial for an experiment. Use several and average your results. If “identical” is impossible, use larger groups in the hope that variations will cancel out.

19 Step 2: Define control and experimental groups Describe how you will do the experiment on them. The only allowable difference is the experimental variable.

20 Step 2: Define control and experimental groups Describe how you will do the experiment on them. The only allowable difference is the experimental variable. Each student will attend the same school for their sophomore year. We will dissect their brains at the end to discover any damage.

21 Step 3: Define your experimental and dependent variables Experimental=“if” Dependent=“then” Experimental variable: Carrying a skateboard Dependent variable: Brain damage

22 Step 4: Define your controlled variables List the ways in which they will be treated the same. Prioritize. The students will have identical diets, study time, schedules, books, sleep times, medical care, TV time, teachers, school, neighborhoods, clothes, haircuts, backpacks, transportation, time off, weather, air pressure, color of walls in their rooms, hand lotion, etc.

23 Step 4: Define your controlled variables If “identical” is impossible, use larger groups in the hope that differences will cancel out. The only two things that can’t be on this list are: 1) The experimental variable and 2) (final) dependent variable (You can control the initial conditions, but the brain damage must be allowed to occur if it will)

24 Step 5: Conduct your experiment, collect and analyze data. If you were to do this experiment and the experimental group (with skateboards) showed more brain damage, you would conclude: “If a sophomore carries a skateboard then it will cause brain damage…

25 Step 5: Conduct your experiment, collect and analyze data. If you were to do this experiment and the experimental group (with skateboards) showed more brain damage, you would conclude: “If a sophomore carries a skateboard then it will cause brain damage… …because everything else was identical ”

26 “Does carrying a skateboard cause brain damage in sophomores?” Hypothesis: Control group and Experimental group Experimental variable: Dependent variable: Controlled variables:

27 “Does carrying a skateboard cause brain damage in sophomores?” Hypothesis: “If a sophomore carries a skateboard then it will cause brain damage.” Control group and Experimental group Experimental variable: Carrying a skateboard Dependent variable: Brain damage after 1 year Controlled variables: The students will have identical diets, study time, schedules, books, sleep times, medical care, TV time, teachers, school, neighborhoods, clothes, haircuts, backpacks, transportation, time off, weather, air pressure, color of walls in their rooms, hand lotion,… etc. 50 sophomores, not allowed to carry skateboards 50 sophomores, forced to carry skateboards

28 “Does warm weather cause dandelions to flower?” Hypothesis: Control group and Experimental group Experimental variable: Dependent variable: Controlled variables:

29 “Does a steel water bottle last longer than plastic water bottle” Hypothesis: Control group and Experimental group Experimental variable: Dependent variable: Controlled variables:

30 “Does a Toyota Corrolla get better gas mileage in the mountains than a Honda Civic? Hypothesis: Control group and Experimental group Experimental variable: Dependent variable: Controlled variables:


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