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Chapter 3 Thinking Like a Researcher McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 3 Thinking Like a Researcher McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 3 Thinking Like a Researcher McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

2 3-2 Learning Objectives Understand... The terminology used by professional researchers employing scientific thinking. What you need to formulate a solid research hypothesis. The need for sound reasoning to enhance research results.

3 3-3 Research and Attitudes “Brand communities play a pivotal role for a brand connecting with its consumers, and as one of our Never Ending Friending focus group respondent notes: “I want brands to be my friends,” which means that consumers would like to have common ideas, conversations and benefits delivered to them on their own terms.” Judit Nagy vice president, consumer insights MySpace/Fox Interactive Media

4 3-4 PulsePoint: Research Revelations 55 The percent of executives who admitted that their companies do not have an official policy for social networks.

5 3-5 Language of Research Variables Models Theory Terms used in research Terms used in research Constructs Operational definitions Operational definitions Propositions/ Hypotheses Propositions/ Hypotheses Conceptual schemes Conceptual schemes Concepts

6 3-6 Language of Research Clear conceptualization of concepts Shared understanding of concepts Success of Research

7 3-7 Job Redesign Constructs and Concepts

8 3-8 Operational Definitions Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior < 30 credit hours credit hours credit hours > 90 credit hours How can we define the variable “class level of students”?

9 3-9 A Variable Is the Property Being Studied Variable Event Act Characteristic Trait Attribute

10 3-10 Types of Variables Dichotomous Male/Female Employed/ Unemployed Male/Female Employed/ Unemployed Discrete Ethnic background Educational level Religious affiliation Ethnic background Educational level Religious affiliation Continuous Income Temperature Age Income Temperature Age

11 3-11 Independent and Dependent Variable Synonyms Independent Variable (IV) Predictor Presumed cause Stimulus Predicted from… Antecedent Manipulated Dependent Variable (DV) Criterion Presumed effect Response Predicted to…. Consequence Measured outcome

12 3-12 Relationships Among Variable Types

13 3-13 Relationships Among Variable Types

14 3-14 Relationships Among Variable Types

15 3-15 Moderating Variables (MV) The introduction of a four-day week (IV) will lead to higher productivity (DV), especially among younger workers (MV) The switch to commission from a salary compensation system (IV) will lead to increased sales (DV) per worker, especially more experienced workers (MV). The loss of mining jobs (IV) leads to acceptance of higher-risk behaviors to earn a family- supporting income (DV) – particularly among those with a limited education (MV).

16 3-16 Extraneous Variables (EV) With new customers (EV-control), a switch to commission from a salary compensation system (IV) will lead to increased sales productivity (DV) per worker, especially among younger workers (MV). Among residents with less than a high school education (EV-control), the loss of jobs (IV) leads to high-risk behaviors (DV), especially due to the proximity of the firing range (MV).

17 3-17 Intervening Variables (IVV) The switch to a commission compensation system (IV) will lead to higher sales (DV) by increasing overall compensation (IVV). A promotion campaign (IV) will increase savings activity (DV), especially when free prizes are offered (MV), but chiefly among smaller savers (EV-control). The results come from enhancing the motivation to save (IVV).

18 3-18 Propositions and Hypotheses Brand Manager Jones (case) has a higher-than-average achievement motivation (variable). Brand managers in Company Z (cases) have a higher-than-average achievement motivation (variable). Generalization

19 3-19 Hypothesis Formats Descriptive Hypothesis In Detroit, our potato chip market share stands at 13.7%. American cities are experiencing budget difficulties. Research Question What is the market share for our potato chips in Detroit? Are American cities experiencing budget difficulties?

20 3-20 Relational Hypotheses Correlational Young women (under 35) purchase fewer units of our product than women who are older than 35. The number of suits sold varies directly with the level of the business cycle. Causal An increase in family income leads to an increase in the percentage of income saved. Loyalty to a grocery store increases the probability of purchasing that store’s private brand products.

21 3-21 The Role of Hypotheses Guide the direction of the study Identify relevant facts Suggest most appropriate research design Provide framework for organizing resulting conclusions

22 3-22 Characteristics of Strong Hypotheses A Strong Hypothesis Is A Strong Hypothesis Is Adequate Testable Better than rivals Better than rivals

23 3-23 Theory within Research

24 3-24 The Role of Reasoning

25 3-25 A Model within Research

26 3-26 The Scientific Method Direct observation Clearly defined variables Clearly defined methods Empirically testable Elimination of alternatives Statistical justification Self-correcting process

27 3-27 Researchers Encounter problems State problems Propose hypotheses Deduce outcomes Formulate rival hypotheses Devise and conduct empirical tests Draw conclusions

28 3-28 Curiosity Is the Ally of a Researcher Synovate’s campaign associates important discoveries in research to a common trait of entrepreneurs: curiosity. As one of the world’s largest research organizations, it claims curiosity is “what makes us tick.”

29 3-29 Sound Reasoning ExpositionArgument InductionDeduction Types of Discourse

30 3-30 Deductive Reasoning Inner-city household interviewing is especially difficult and expensive Inner-city household interviewing is especially difficult and expensive This survey involves substantial inner-city household interviewing This survey involves substantial inner-city household interviewing The interviewing in this survey will be especially difficult and expensive The interviewing in this survey will be especially difficult and expensive

31 3-31 Inductive Reasoning Why didn’t sales increase during our promotional event? –Regional retailers did not have sufficient stock to fill customer requests during the promotional period –A strike by employees prevented stock from arriving in time for promotion to be effective –A hurricane closed retail outlets in the region for 10 days during the promotion

32 3-32 Why Didn’t Sales Increase?

33 3-33 Tracy’s Performance

34 3-34 Key Terms Argument Case Concept Conceptual scheme Construct Deduction Empiricism Exposition Hypothesis –Correlational –Descriptive –Explanatory –Relational Hypothetical construct Induction Model Operational definition Proposition Sound reasoning Theory Variable –Control –Confounding (CFV) –Dependent (DV) –Extraneous (EV) –Independent (IV) –Intervening (IVV) –Moderating (MV)


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