Presentation on theme: "Research Proposal University Students’ Perceived Norms about Peers and Drug Use: A Multi-centric Study from five Latin American countries International."— Presentation transcript:
Research Proposal University Students’ Perceived Norms about Peers and Drug Use: A Multi-centric Study from five Latin American countries International Research Capacity-Building Program for Health Related Professionals to Study the Drug Phenomenon in Latin America
Sponsoring Organizations Canadian Government, Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT) Organization of American States – OAS Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission – CICAD Secretaria de Seguridad Multidimensional (SSM, MSS) Centre for Addiction and Mental Health – CAMH / University of Toronto Advisors (CAMH, Canada) Brands, Bruna (CAMH, Canada) Cunningham, John (CAMH, Canada) Strike, Carol (CAMH, Canada) María Da Gloria M. Wright (CICAD/OAS, USA) Researchers Bustamante, Inés – Peru Cazenave, Angélica – Chile Carvalho, Ana Maria Pimenta– Brasil Chaname, Eva – Peru Medina, Luz Stella – Colombia Montoya, Erika – Colombia Oliveira, Elias Barbosa de – Brasil Oliveira Jr., Hercilio Pereira de – Brasil Ramirez, Julia – Chile Santos, Syntia – Honduras
Introduction Worldwide drug use consequences have affected many lives at a high cost. University students have the highest prevalence of drug use (Asamblea Nacional de Rectores, 2006; Cardona & Hernandez, 2007; CONACE, 2005; Instituto Hondureno para la Prevencion del Alcoholismo, Drogadiccion t Farmacodependencia, 2004; Ministerio de la Protección Social y FES, 2003; Wagner et al., 2005). Peer influence a key factor associated with drug use (Andrews et al., 2002; Sale et al., 2003). Misperception of peer drinking and alcohol use amongst university students (Borsari & Carey, 2003; Neighbors et al., 2006; Perkins, 2002; Perkins, Haines, & Rice, 2005).
Research Question What is the difference between perceived norms amongst peers and drug use in a sample of university students, aged 18 to 24 years old, from 9 Universities in five Latin American countries?
Significance This was one of the first studies on perception of peers drug use and own drug use amongst university students in Latin America. It shed light on perceived norms and tobacco, marijuana and cocaine use. Unlike alcohol, there are relatively few studies on these drugs. It will contribute to the improvement of the life of university students: Raise awareness University policies Prevention Programs Brief interventions
General Objective To assess the difference between the perceived norms and drug use amongst peers in sophomore and junior university students, aged 18 to 24, from schools of Health and Education of nine Universities in five Latin American countries.
Specific Objectives 1. Identify the perceived norms about drug use amongst university students. 2.Assess drug use amongst university students. 3.Compare the subjects own drug use with the perception about peers use of drugs amongst university students.
Theoretical Framework Social Norms Theory Descriptive Norms Injunctive Norms Misperceptions of peers drug use Attribution Theory Peers reinforcement Cultural Perception Economy Politics Culture Social Globalization Normalization Drug Use
Methods Cross-sectional, multi-centric study
Population Registered sophomore and junior university students, aged 18 to 24, from health (medicine, nursing, dentistry and public health) and education schools in nine universities. The study was conducted through a census. …Methods
Variables Perceived norms: The perceptions of peers drug use was measured by the following questions: In your opinion, what percentage of students in your university has ever used alcohol/tobacco/marijuana/cocaine? …have used alcohol/tobacco/marijuana/cocaine in the past year? How often do you think a typical university students uses alcohol/tobacco/marijuana/cocaine? Answer alternatives: once a year, once in a month, 2 to 3 times a month, once a week, 2 to 3 times a week, every day, never.
Drug use: frequency, lifetime and past year use of alcohol/tobacco/marijuana/cocaine, amount of alcohol and tobacco use, and consequences of drug use (alcohol/tobacco/marijuana/cocaine). Socio-demographics variables: sex, working status, marital status, career, and year of study. Environmental variables: access and availability of drugs, drug use university policies, type of university, places of drug use, and drug use partners. Methods …Measures
Sophomore and junior students, on a required course (no elective), answered an anonymous self-report questionnaire. …Methods Procedure Instrument The instrument was based on CORE survey, 1989 and Canadian Campus survey, 2004.
…Methods Data management The data was entered using EpiData in each site. The data was sent to CICAD/OAS and CAMH for a multicentric analysis. Analysis plan Exploratory and descriptive analysis. Computation of Accurate/overestimation/underestimation = perceived norms of drug use in the last year –drug use proportion in the last year. Computation of Accurate/overestimation/underestimation = perceived norms of drug use in the last year – the frecuency of drug use in the last year.
The Review Ethics Board of CAMH and each one of the universities involved in the study reviewed and approved the proposal. The study ensured the following: Voluntary participation Confidentiality Informed Consent Ethical Aspects
Sample Characteristics (n = 2858)* Data from Medellín, Colombia it is not included. VariableFrequency% Sex Male68223.9 Female217376.1 Marital Status Single271995.3 Work Yes31110.9 Age Mean = 21 years
Sample Characteristics (n = 2858) VariableFrequency% Year of study Sophomore144250.5 Junior125243.9 Other1605.5 Career Medicine76126.6 Nursing97134 Dentistry56119.6 Education48216.9 Public Health812.8
Perceived Norm of Peers’ Drug Use in the Last Year by sex
Perceived Norm of Peers’ Drug Use in the Last Year by site
Perceived Norm and Real Norm of Drug Use in the Last Year
Perceived Norm of Drug Use frequency by sex in the Last Year
Perceived Norm and Real Norm of Drug Use Frequency in the Last Year
Discussion An overestimation of the perceived norm was found for tobacco, marijuana and cocaine use in the last year and an accurate perceived norm for alcohol. Regarding the frequency of drug use in the last year, a similar pattern was observed. The findings about overestimation of tobacco, marijuana and cocaine use are consistent with other studies: Martens, Peige, Mowry, Damann, Taylor, & Cimini, 2006; Kilmer, Walker, Lee, Palmer, Mallet, Fabiano, & Larimer, 2006; Martens et al., 2006; Wolfson, 2000. The accurate perception of the norm of alcohol use is not consistent with the evidence of studies done specially in North America by Perkins, 2002; Borsari & Carey, 2003; Neighbors, Dillard, Lewis, Bergstrom, & Neil, 2006; Perkins, Haines, & Rice, 2005. These findings deserve a particular analysis under the light of the theoretical framework of normalization.
Limitations of the Study The use of self-report A non-representative sample of the universities. However, the findings of the study can be generalized to the population of sophomore and juniors of the universities that were involved.
Recommendations To raise awareness amongst university and government authorities regarding the importance of designing and implementing policies on prevention and control of drug use amongst university students. To implement and evaluate brief interventions, based on the Cognitive Dissonance theory, that have the purpose of correcting the perceived norm of university students, derived from the real norm.