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Following Washington’s precedent of two terms, Jefferson left the presidencyFollowing Washington’s precedent of two terms, Jefferson left the presidency.

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Presentation on theme: "Following Washington’s precedent of two terms, Jefferson left the presidencyFollowing Washington’s precedent of two terms, Jefferson left the presidency."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Following Washington’s precedent of two terms, Jefferson left the presidencyFollowing Washington’s precedent of two terms, Jefferson left the presidency He strongly favored the nomination of James Madison.He strongly favored the nomination of James Madison.

4 Madison inaugurated in 1809Madison inaugurated in 1809 Part of the Virginia DynastyPart of the Virginia Dynasty –Line of 4 VA Presidents between 1789 and 1829 –(Washington, Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe) Strongly JeffersonianStrongly Jeffersonian

5 Madison took oath of office with problems still boiling with France and Great Britain.Madison took oath of office with problems still boiling with France and Great Britain. Congress passed Macon’s Bill No. 2 to replace Non-Intercourse Act of 1809Congress passed Macon’s Bill No. 2 to replace Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 Purpose was to get either France or Britain to trade with USPurpose was to get either France or Britain to trade with US

6 US would retain embargo against the one that didn’t agree to trade.US would retain embargo against the one that didn’t agree to trade. Napoleon agreed.Napoleon agreed.

7 Non-Intercourse Act Replaced the Embargo of Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon’s Bill No. 2. Macon’s Bill No Forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first. France quickly changed its policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain.

8 He hoped US would go to war with England Napoleon never planned on honoring agreement. British given three months to end restrictions.He hoped US would go to war with England Napoleon never planned on honoring agreement. British given three months to end restrictions. Napoleon Britain demanded US withdraw restrictions on Britian until France had withdrawn all their restrictions on US shipping.Britain demanded US withdraw restrictions on Britian until France had withdrawn all their restrictions on US shipping.

9 CAUGHT IN A TRAP? Madison’s gamble failed.Madison’s gamble failed. Left with no choice but to establish embargo again against Great Britain.Left with no choice but to establish embargo again against Great Britain. Madison knew decision probably meant the end of American neutrality and would probably be the final steps towards war.Madison knew decision probably meant the end of American neutrality and would probably be the final steps towards war.

10 France Great BritainAmerican merchant You boys can keep on killing each other. If either of y’all need anything, just give us Yankees a holler! I hate you, French dude! Je vous hais plus!

11 France Great Britain Causes of the War of 1812War of 1812 In 1803, Britain and France went to war again. Both countries seized U.S. ships sailing towards the ports of their enemy.

12 American merchant Mr. President, the British and French keep seizing American merchant ships. Something must be done! President Thomas Jefferson I know what to do! If we don’t allow American ships to trade with anyone, then they won’t get attacked! True, but that’s not what I had in mind!

13 Group of young leaders in Congress that were strongly nationalisticGroup of young leaders in Congress that were strongly nationalistic Came mostly from the South and West.Came mostly from the South and West. Were on fire for a new war with the old enemy EnglandWere on fire for a new war with the old enemy England

14 1.Henry Clay- 1.Henry Clay- -from Kentucky; elected Speaker of the House of Representatives. 2.John C. Calhoun- 2.John C. Calhoun- - representative from South Carolina 1.Henry Clay- 1.Henry Clay- -from Kentucky; elected Speaker of the House of Representatives. 2.John C. Calhoun- 2.John C. Calhoun- - representative from South Carolina Henry Clay Kentucky John C. Calhoun South Carolina

15  Impressment meant that American soldiers were being held as captives and put into service for the British navy.  This is an act of war!!! impressment France and Great Britain are at war  War Hawks were upset about Great Britain impressing sailors.

16 Western War Hawks want to wipe out renewed Indian resistance.Western War Hawks want to wipe out renewed Indian resistance. Tecumseh and “the Prophet”Tecumseh and “the Prophet” –Twin Shawnee brothers –Organized confederacy of tribes east of Miss. Americans thought British were aiding them. Somewhat true!Americans thought British were aiding them. Somewhat true!

17 General William H. Harrison repelled an Indian raid at Tippecanoe (present day Indiana)General William H. Harrison repelled an Indian raid at Tippecanoe (present day Indiana) Essentially ended the Indian threat in the Old NorthwestEssentially ended the Indian threat in the Old Northwest War Hawks want US to attack Canada to remove further Indian threatsWar Hawks want US to attack Canada to remove further Indian threats

18 Federalist from New HampshireFederalist from New Hampshire Spoke against entry into the warSpoke against entry into the war Concerned about effects on New England from possible British blockade.Concerned about effects on New England from possible British blockade. “Don’t do it! Don’t go to war!” F “Don’t do it! Don’t go to war!” “Hey, hey! What do ya say? Let’s not go to war today!”

19 The United States declared war on England in June 1812.The United States declared war on England in June Many in the US opposed to the war!!Many in the US opposed to the war!!

20 1.War Hawks pushed Madison into war 2.Traditional Republican (Jeffersonian) feelings towards France. 3.Visibility of British impressments and arming of Indians. 4.Chesapeake-Leopard Affair 5.Lure of British Canada

21 US unprepared for warUS unprepared for war –Economy not ready, regular army not big enough, poorly trained militias, British had the best navy in the world.

22 US attacks on Canada a strategic failure.US attacks on Canada a strategic failure. Attacked Ontario instead of Montreal.Attacked Ontario instead of Montreal. Most of the war focused on the Great Lakes area.Most of the war focused on the Great Lakes area. Fighting will end in stalemate.Fighting will end in stalemate.

23 Nicknames given to the problems faced by American soldiers in the War of 1812

24 When America’s land invasions of Canada did not find success, Americans looked for success on water.When America’s land invasions of Canada did not find success, Americans looked for success on water. The navy did much better than the army!!The navy did much better than the army!!

25 Famous battleship involved was the USS Constitution or called “Old Ironsides”

26 Control of the Great Lakes was vital

27 Famous American sailorFamous American sailor Great victories in the Great Lakes regionGreat victories in the Great Lakes region “We have met the enemy and they are ours”“We have met the enemy and they are ours” –Famous quote of O.H. Perry Forced British troops to move out of Canada setting them up for heavy losses at the armies hands.Forced British troops to move out of Canada setting them up for heavy losses at the armies hands.

28 Perry forces British army towards William Henry HarrisonPerry forces British army towards William Henry Harrison Where Tecumseh is killedWhere Tecumseh is killed

29 By 1814, Napoleon was defeated and British focused on North AmericaBy 1814, Napoleon was defeated and British focused on North America Washington DC will be burned!Washington DC will be burned!

30 Attack on Fort McHenry near Baltimore importantAttack on Fort McHenry near Baltimore important American forces hold out against heavy British bombardment!American forces hold out against heavy British bombardment!

31 Battle of Fort McHenry, 1814 And the rockets red glare The bombs bursting in air… -- Francis Scott Key

32 Watched the attack aboard a British ship as a prisonerWatched the attack aboard a British ship as a prisoner Composes the Star-Spangled BannerComposes the Star-Spangled Banner Will become an important symbol of US nationalism after the war!Will become an important symbol of US nationalism after the war!

33 Gave proof through the night, That our flag was still there..

34 Indian attacks on US military causes Andrew Jackson to retaliate against a Creek villageIndian attacks on US military causes Andrew Jackson to retaliate against a Creek village 300 warriors killed300 warriors killed Largest Indian massacre in US history.Largest Indian massacre in US history.

35 British aimed at taking mouth of Mississippi in New OrleansBritish aimed at taking mouth of Mississippi in New Orleans British launch foolish frontal assaultBritish launch foolish frontal assault Andrew Jackson commanded 7000 man force of sailors, regulars, pirates, Frenchmen, free blacks, and militiamen from KY, TN, and LAAndrew Jackson commanded 7000 man force of sailors, regulars, pirates, Frenchmen, free blacks, and militiamen from KY, TN, and LA

36 Over 2000 British casualties in ½ hour compared to about 70 AmericansOver 2000 British casualties in ½ hour compared to about 70 Americans

37 Famous for crushing Indians at Battle of Horseshoe BendFamous for crushing Indians at Battle of Horseshoe Bend Force made up of a variety of rough charactersForce made up of a variety of rough characters See battle of New OrleansSee battle of New OrleansSee battle of New OrleansSee battle of New Orleans

38 Battle was needless b/c end of war had been determined 2 weeks earlier by the Treaty of GhentBattle was needless b/c end of war had been determined 2 weeks earlier by the Treaty of Ghent Battle of New Orleans resulted in tremendous American pride and nationalismBattle of New Orleans resulted in tremendous American pride and nationalism Jackson a hero!Jackson a hero! Battle was needless b/c end of war had been determined 2 weeks earlier by the Treaty of GhentBattle was needless b/c end of war had been determined 2 weeks earlier by the Treaty of Ghent Battle of New Orleans resulted in tremendous American pride and nationalismBattle of New Orleans resulted in tremendous American pride and nationalism Jackson a hero!Jackson a hero! New orleans

39 Americans began to see themselves as Americans FIRST and state citizens SECOND

40 Signed in late 1814Signed in late 1814 Both sides agree to stop fighting and restore things to the way they were before the war beganBoth sides agree to stop fighting and restore things to the way they were before the war began No mention of American grievances!!!No mention of American grievances!!!

41 Meeting of most New England statesMeeting of most New England states Discuss complaints during the warDiscuss complaints during the war Hurt by blockadeHurt by blockade Some delegates urge secessionSome delegates urge secession

42 With American victories, makes them look like traitorsWith American victories, makes them look like traitors Hartford Resolutions were the end of the Federalist Party for good.Hartford Resolutions were the end of the Federalist Party for good.

43 Leaders of the Federalist Party that tried to break New England away.Leaders of the Federalist Party that tried to break New England away.

44 U.S. gained the respect of other nationsU.S. gained the respect of other nations U.S. came to accept Canada as a neighbor and a part of the British EmpireU.S. came to accept Canada as a neighbor and a part of the British Empire The Federalist party came to an end as a national forceThe Federalist party came to an end as a national force Talk of nullification and secession in New England set a precedent that would later be used by the SouthTalk of nullification and secession in New England set a precedent that would later be used by the South Gained our neutrality and became isolated from EuropeGained our neutrality and became isolated from Europe


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