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P AULINE I NTERPRETATION OF C HRISTIANITY : ROMANS RLST 212/Div/Rel 3162 Tuesday, January 17, 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "P AULINE I NTERPRETATION OF C HRISTIANITY : ROMANS RLST 212/Div/Rel 3162 Tuesday, January 17, 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 P AULINE I NTERPRETATION OF C HRISTIANITY : ROMANS RLST 212/Div/Rel 3162 Tuesday, January 17, 2012

2 T ODAY ’ S S CHEDULE 4:00-4:50 Introduction to Paul: 5 Pauls 4:50-5:50 Roundtables Rom 1:1-7: Form Part A Theme: Paul, apostle for the gospel of God” JESSE REESE (his interpretation vs. Moo) Respondents: DANIELLE PETERSON; ZACH KING; LAUREN SHEEHAN MICHAEL DURHAM (his interpretation vs. Jewett) Respondents: SARAH JANE CAMPER; MILADYS PEREZ; JEFF VARWIG JILL DAVIS (her interpretation vs. Byrne) Respondents: JESSICA CINEFRO; BEN TAYLOR; ERICA GEURTS 5:50-55 Next Week: 1:1-15: Theme: “Jesus as Christ” and “faith” 5:55-6:30 Implications of choosing one interpretation/understanding of the theme[s] rather than other: Form Part B

3 3 PARTS TO OUR SESSION AS EACH TIME: P ART 1) I NTRODUCTION TO P AUL & HIS INTERPRETATIONS a) to Paul and his interpretation of Christianity (in and for his context) b) to the different interpretations of Paul by his readers (biblical scholars, as well as believers in different cultural contexts in history and today), TODAY Introduction to Paul: 5 Pauls

4 PEDAGOGICAL GOALS: P ART 2) L EARNING TO INTERPRET R OMANS Either as leader or as respondent, discussion of your weekly exercise presenting your own interpretation of a passage of Romans focusing on a specific theme This week: Rom 1:1-7: Form Part A Theme: Paul, apostle for the gospel of God” And compare it with a commentator: Moo, Jewett, or Byrne As we progress in the use of the form, your weekly exercise will also illustrate how believers allow Romans to know their lives in their specific life and religious contexts. Heeding the Ghanaian preacher’s warning “Some people claim to know the Bible, but the Bible doesn’t know them,” [quoted by Gerald West in Reading Other-wise: Socially Engaged Biblical Scholars Reading with Their Local Communities]

5 PEDAGOGICAL GOALS: P ART 3) ASSESSING INTERPRETATIONS Learning to do a critical assessment of your own interpretation by comparing it with other interpretations (scholarly interpretations and also Christian believers ’ interpretations) Today: Implications of choosing one interpretation/understanding of the theme[s] rather than other: Form Part B Why Paul’s Faith and the Power of the Gospel is a dangerous book

6 PEDAGOGICAL GOALS: P ART 1) I NTRODUCING YOU TO P AUL … ACTUALLY 5 P AULS Paul, the Apostle. A most influential figure in first-century Christianity and throughout Church history, a bold missionary who opened the Church to the “Nations,” A most contested figure A dangerous innovator 2 Peter 3:15-16

7 W ARNING : O UR F RIEND P AUL IS DANGEROUS ! H ANDLE WITH CARE ! 2 Peter 3:14-17 Therefore, beloved, while you are waiting for these things, strive to be found by [God] at peace, without spot or blemish; 15 and regard the patience of our Lord as salvation. So also our beloved brother Paul wrote to you according to the wisdom given him, 16 speaking of this as he does in all his letters. There are some things in them hard to understand, which the ignorant and unstable twist to their own destruction, as they do the other scriptures. 17 You therefore, beloved, since you are forewarned, beware that you are not carried away with the error of the lawless and lose your own stability.

8 P AUL. A MOST CONTESTED FIGURE E VOKING PASSIONATE OPPOSITION, FROM THE RIGHT ; A dangerous radical, perverting the “gospel”; He is no longer preaching Jesus’ message about the “kingdom” indeed, very rarely referring to Jesus’ teaching Not surprising: he was not with Jesus during his ministry! For him, Scripture (= Hebrew Bible, LXX = Septuagint) is no longer to be taken “literally”! Is the Law no longer God’s will? no need for circumcision; no need to eat kosher; Claiming authority as an “apostle” (= equal to Peter, James, John, etc.) on the basis of a charismatic experience! Galatians 1 and 2; 1 Cor 15

9 P AUL. A MOST CONTESTED FIGURE E VOKING PASSIONATE OPPOSITION, FROM THE LEFT ; Patriarchal; authoritarian: “imitate me and the Lord” (1 Thessalonians 1:6 you became imitators of us and of the Lord) Constantly affirming and defending his “apostleship” and thus his authority Slavery. Not contesting slavery and other oppressive institutions “Slaves obey your earthly masters in everything, not only while being watched and in order to please them, but wholeheartedly, fearing the Lord.” Colossians 3:22 Androcentric; Misogynist; Male Chauvinist; “Women should be silent in the churches. For they are not permitted to speak, but should be subordinate, as the law also says. If there is anything they desire to know, let them ask their husbands at home. For it is shameful for a woman to speak in church.” 1 Corinthians 14:34-35

10 P AUL. A MOST INFLUENTIAL FIGURE E VOKING DEEP - SEATED LOYALTY FOR MANY Transformed the gospel from a proclamation of the kingdom, as Jesus did (“kingdom” ??? for Hellenistic people) To a proclamation of Jesus as Christ: “the gospel of God… concerning his Son” (Romans 1:1-3) A proclamation of the gospel without the law for Gentiles = you do not need to become a Jew to be a follower of Jesus Christ…. >> An explosion of the mission to the Gentiles Paul the second founder of the church

11 P AUL. A MOST INFLUENTIAL FIGURE E VOKING DEEP - SEATED LOYALTY FOR MANY A radical gospel of liberation A break down of all religious and social norms that separate people. “In Christ” everyone is equal. As many of you as were baptized into Christ have clothed yourselves with Christ. 28 There is no longer Jew or Greek, there is no longer slave or free, there is no longer male and female; for all of you are one in Christ Jesus. (Galatians 3:27-28) A martyr that did not hesitate to challenge the powers of his days… and pay for it with his life.

12 P AUL. A N A MBIVALENT FIGURE : 5 “P AULS ” EMERGE OUT OF DIFFERENT SOURCES Paul of the Acts of the Apostles Paul of His 7 uncontested letters: Romans, 1 & 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Philippians, 1 Thessalonians, Philemon. = 3 “historical Pauls” (according to the scholars) Paul of The Deutero-Pauline Letters, written by his disciples/followers Ephesians, Colossians, the Pastoral Epistles (1 & 2 Timothy, and Titus) (and 2 Thessalonians).

13 P AUL ’ S L IFE (See “Chronology,” Paul’s Faith) = GENERAL AGREEMENT a Jew of the tribe of Benjamin (Phil 3:5), a Pharisee raised in Tarsus (Acts 21:39); solid Hellenistic and Jewish education, He zealously persecuted the church (Gal 1:13-14; Phil 3:5-6). He was “converted” “became a follower of Christ” (c33/34; Gal 1:15-16; Phil 3:7-9; 1 Cor 9:1, 15:8-11). Zealous mission work, 14 years with Barnabas in Syria and Cilicia (Gal 1:21); then independently in Macedonia, Achaia (Corinth) (c39-c51; writing 1 Thessalonians*),

14 P AUL ’ S L IFE (See “Chronology,” Paul’s Faith) = GENERAL AGREEMENT “Jerusalem conference” (c51) where Paul agreed with James, Cephas/Peter, and John (Gal 2:1-10=Acts 18:22) that the mission could have two thrusts: one to the Jews/Judeans (led by Peter) and one to the Nations/Gentiles* (led by Paul and Barnabas), and that the churches from the Nations would support the “poor of Jerusalem.” Two different forms of the “gospel” that are truly “gospel” precisely because they acknowledge the validity of a different gospel for Jews and a gospel for Gentiles Should Gentile Christians become Jews and practice circumcision and eat kosher? This undecided issue came to a head in Antioch where Paul confronted Peter for his ambivalent attitude (Gal 2:11-14)

15 P AUL ’ S L IFE (See “Chronology,” Paul’s Faith) = GENERAL AGREEMENT Paul lost the confrontation in Antioch: Barnabas and other Jewish Christians separated from Paul, Paul nevertheless remained confident that Gentile and Jewish Christians could work together. During subsequent missions in Asia Minor and Greece (c51-c56, when he wrote most of his letters) Paul gathered a collection for the Church in Jerusalem He brought the collection to Jerusalem (c56/57; Rom 15:25-28), where he was arrested, then imprisoned at Caesarea (c57-59; Acts 23—24) and Rome (c61; Acts 28:16)…. And eventually executed in Rome

16 W HAT IS P AUL ’ S T EACHING ? = D ISAGREEMENTS S O THE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE RESPONSES TO P AUL Different understandings and assessments of PAUL’S VIEWS about: 1) HIS OWN AUTHORITY to proclaim the “gospel of Jesus Christ” (instead of “of the kingdom” that Jesus proclaimed); 2) THE HUMAN PREDICAMENT that the gospel addresses; why do people need this “good news”? 3) THE CHURCH.

17 D ISAGREEMENTS ABOUT P AUL ’ S VIEW OF HIS A UTHORITY AND A POSTLESHIP ( SEE R OM 1:1-7) 1. Paul has a special authority – comparable to that of the other apostles, and to the prophets (“servants of God”) -- because he has received a special revelation from God/Christ to whom he is totally and voluntarily submitted = Apostleship = transmitting this revelation Received through religious experiences, e.g. Road to Damascus 2. Paul has a delegated authority (as the “slaves of Caesar” acted in the name and with the authority of Caesar) so Paul acts in the name and with the authority of Christ = Apostleship = manifesting Christ’s authority 3. Paul has a paradoxical authority to free others, when he is “crucified” like Christ, an abject “slave of Christ” = Apostleship = one through whom the resurrected Christ works; redeeming others by suffering like Christ

18 D ISAGREEMENTS ABOUT P AUL ’ S VIEW OF H UMAN P REDICAMENT THAT THE G OSPEL NEEDS TO A DDRESS 1. Humans are under God’s condemnation; God is angry against human (God’s wrath); God views humans as God’s enemies 2. Humans are enemies of God; we are angry against God; suspicious of God (“God is unjust”; God is partial; God prefers & favors others) and jealous of God’s people 3. Humans are in bondage to the power of sin, to the power of evil; since humans serve evil (are in the “sphere of evil/sin”), they are enemies of God and of God’s people

19 D ISAGREEMENTS ABOUT P AUL ’ S VIEW OF THE G OSPEL AS “ GOOD NEWS ” brought about by Christ 1. Good news about God’s forgiveness = something which happened in the PAST, to be appropriated in the present, and with effects (salvation) in the future FOR INDIVIDUALS 2. Good news about God reconciling us to God something which happened in the PAST, to be implemented in the present, and with effects in the future FOR COMMUNITIES (the separation of Jews and Gentiles has been overcome; needs to be implemented now, and is promised to be complete in the future) 3. Good news about redemption (being freed from evil powers) something which is happening in the PRESENT, as a fulfillment of the promises contained in the past, and to be responded to through faith NOW IN THE PRESENT, and is a token, first fruits, of what will be fully accomplished in future FOR COMMUNITIES, although also for individuals

20 P AUL THE HERO OF THE A CTS. 1) A GAINST THOSE WHO DISTRUSTED P AUL ’ S GOSPEL & APOSTLESHIP. 1) PAUL’S AUTHORITY # 2 = Luke portrayed Paul as one who has all the authority of an apostle acting in the name of Christ (14:1-4), a witness (22:15; 26:16), a “chosen instrument” (9:15, Jer 1:5), and “light of the gentiles” (13:47; like Jesus, Luke 2:32; cf. Isa 49:6). a delegated authority (as the “slaves of Caesar” acted in the name and with the authority of Caesar) so Paul acts in the name and with the authority of Christ

21 P AUL THE HERO OF THE A CTS. 2 ). A GAINST THOSE WHO DISTRUSTED P AUL ’ S GOSPEL & APOSTLESHIP, 2) THE PREDICAMENT # 2 a) being angry against God, who might favor other people, so we exclude them; b) Gentiles were unduly excluded from the people of God by “the Jews” Luke emphasized Paul’s “road to Damascus experience,” presenting it three times. In Acts 9:1-31 it can eventually be viewed as a “conversion from Judaism” (and thus a rupture with Judaism, a “wrong religion”). But 22:6-21 and 26:1-32 show this is not the case; Luke presents Paul’s “road to Damascus experience” as a prophetic call to go “for the sake of the hope of Israel” (28:20) and preach to Gentiles (22:21; 26:17-18) the fulfillment of Jewish messianic expectations (22:3-4; 23:6; 24:14-21; 26:4-11). Gospel = reconciliation with God and with others

22 P AUL THE HERO OF THE A CTS. 2). A GAINST THOSE WHO DISTRUSTED P AUL ’ S GOSPEL & APOSTLESHIP, 1) PAUL’S AUTHORITY Luke portrayed Paul as one who has all the authority of an apostle acting in the name of Christ (14:1-4) 2) THE PREDICAMENT a) being angry against God, who might favor other people, so we exclude them; b) Gentiles were unduly excluded from the people of God by “the Jews” 3) CHURCH includes both Jews and Gentiles: Jews should be in the church with Gentiles: Paul consistently begins his mission in local synagogues before turning to Gentiles. But they refuse.

23 P AUL ’ S DISCIPLES DEFENDED P AUL ’ S LEGACY BY WRITING THE D EUTERO -P AULINE LETTERS 1) PAUL’S AUTHORITY # 1 Paul is an Orthodox teacher: Paul’s gospel is an “orthodoxy”; he adheres to the proper doctrine (Eph 1:3-14; Col 1:15-23) revealed by God through Christ. 2) THE PREDICAMENT # 1 (under God’s condemnation) that threatens believers is wrong beliefs, including deviant teachings of heretics (e.g., Eph 4:25; Col 2:16–23; 1 Tim 1:3- 11; 4:1-5; 6:3-10),

24 P AUL ’ S DISCIPLES DEFENDED P AUL ’ S LEGACY BY WRITING THE D EUTERO -P AULINE LETTERS 3) The Church includes those who hold orthodox beliefs; And have the right praxis: life in Christ involves rejecting pagan ways of life (e.g., Eph 5:3-20), and conforming to the order of life in Roman imperial society reflected in household codes (Eph 5:21-6:9; Col 3:18-4:1; 1 Tim 2:8-3:13; Titus 2:1-10) that normalize the submission of women to men and of slaves to their masters as integral parts of the Christian way of life.

25 Q UEST FOR THE “ HISTORICAL P AUL ” FOCUSING ON THE UNDISPUTED LETTERS = 3 “ HISTORICAL P AULS ” Yielded three different scholarly interpretations of “ Paul & his authority: 1) “Paul the Theologian” along the line opened by Augustine, Luther; 2) “the Pastoral Paul” With similarities with the Paul of Acts; and 3) “the Realized Apocalyptic/Messianic Paul” With similarities with Paul of Greek Fathers, Orthodox Churches, Charismatic movements, and liberation theology

26 PREDICAMENT AND GOOD NEWS Different kinds of predicaments and then of good news”: 1) “Paul the Theologian” >> Good news that sinners are justified-forgiven through faith = Forensic Gospel 2) “Pastoral Paul” >> Good news of the New Covenant that now includes Gentiles: Pastoral/Covenantal Gospel (= “New Perspective”) 3) “The Realized Apocalyptic/Messianic Paul” >> Good news of the Liberation from the Powers of Evil: Realized Apocalyptic/Messianic Gospel

27 F ORENSIC, T HEOLOGICAL G OSPEL  Human predicament: People are sinners as individuals who rebelled against God  They are guilty (and feel guilty) and should be condemned and punished by God, the righteous judge (as in a court, so “forensic”);  root-problem: lack of Knowledge of God’s love.  Solution: a) NEWS: Christ died instead of sinners; the Grace of God; (vicarious death)  b) Sinners are justified (= not condemned) through faith in Christ.

28 P ASTORAL /C OVENANTAL G OSPEL  Human predicament: Gentiles are sinners, separated from God, in rebellion against God and do not belong to the People of God (rejected by Jews); Jews also are sinners = in rebellion against God; they are not faithful to the covenant.  Root-problem: rebellion against God and God’s Will (either as Gentile or as Jews) = LACK OF/WRONG WILL to do God’s will, (which Gentile and Jewish sinners know.

29 P ASTORAL /C OVENANTAL G OSPEL  Human predicament: sinners in rebellion against God  Root-problem: rebellion against God and God’s = LACK OF WILL to do God’s will,  Solution: Christ died to reconcile all with God [so that we will not be in rebellion/angry against GO], by establishing a new covenant (new good relationship between humans and God)  through the Grace of God all are called to be members of God’s chosen people; to be “children of God”  Gentiles as well as Jews are “justified” (made righteous) when through obedient faith they carry out their vocation (the purpose of their calling) as the chosen people sent by God to others… as Christ was for others.

30 R EALIZED A POCALYPTIC /M ESSIANIC G OSPEL  Human predicament: All (Jews and Gentiles) are sinners = separated from God by evil powers  the “power of sin” which keep them in bondage;  Idolatry which have power upon them as Powers, Principalities (engendering death)  By distorting their vision (darkening their minds)  Being oppressed by evil, idolatrous powers  Root-problem: a darkened mind;  either lack of/wrong vision, bringing about powerlessness (unjust oppression)  or powerlessness (lack of ability) = in bondage, bringing about a wrong vision

31 R EALIZED A POCALYPTIC /M ESSIANIC G OSPEL  Human predicament: bondage to evil powers  Root-problem: either lack of/wrong vision, bringing about powerlessness (unjust oppression) or lack of ability, powerlessness, being in bondage  Solution: Christ died and was raised from the dead in power to free people, today as well as in the past; he is the living Christ who today free people from the powers of sin which keep them in bondage  “Justified” people = redeemed people, freed people, become in turn instrument of justice, members of Christ’s body through whom the resurrected Christ acts; freeing people from bondage; this is their vocation as slave of Christ and saints.

32 3 K INDS OF I NTERPRETIVE C HOICES :

33 3 K INDS OF I NTERPRETIVE C HOICES : A NALYTICAL C HOICES & F RAME Each biblical text has many possible, legitimate meanings inscribed in the text We have to make a choice The intention of the authors is not necessarily the most significant

34 T HEOLOGICAL C HOICES AND C ONTEXTUAL C HOICES Theological Choices = among different PLAUSIBLE views of certain themes : E.G. different Plausible ways of understanding “Apospleship” “Authority” … or “Gospel”” Contextual Choices = among different VALID views of the problem and ROOT-PROBLEM that the teaching of a text should address … “VALID” = VALUABLE to address concrete problems

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36 PART 2. ROUNDTABLE THEME: “Jesus as Christ” and “faith” READINGS: Romans 1:1-15 One commentary on Romans 1:1-15 (Moo; Jewett; Byrne) The Cambridge Dictionary of Christianity: Faith; Christology in Western Church History (214- 217); Jesus, Images of (multiple articles) and Jesus, Quest 641- 648); Everyone prepare her/his own reading of Rom 1:1-15 comparing your interpretation with one of the three commentators (using the “the comparative Form” attached) focusing on the THEME: “Jesus as Christ” and “faith” ROUNDTABLE QUESTION: From Rom 1:1-15, what is the teaching that present-day believers need to hear on the basis of what Paul says about “Jesus as Christ” (focus 1:1-6, 8-9) and about “faith” (focus 1:5, 8, 11-12)? According to your own interpretation? According to a commentator (Moo, or Jewett, or Byrne)? Why do particular believers need to hear this teaching (in a specific present-day situation or context)? LEADER # 1: _______________________ (his/her interpretation vs. either Moo -- on reserve) Respondents: ________________ ; ________________ ; ________________ ; LEADER # 2: _______________________ (his/her interpretation vs. Jewett -- on reserve) Respondents: ________________ ; ________________ ; ________________ ; LEADER # 3: _______________________ (his/her interpretation vs. Byrne -- on reserve) Respondents: ________________ ; ________________ ; ________________ ;

37 >>> T Jan 24 PART 1. Lecture: Three distinctive readings of Romans: Forensic/Theological; Covenantal/Rhetorical; Realized Apocalyptic/Figurative READINGS: 1) Romans 1:1-15 2) Cambridge Dictionary of Christianity “Paul” (review) “Apostle” “Gospel” “Resurrection” 3) Patte, “Romans” in Global Bible Commentary: pp. 429-443 (on Web) 4) Longenecker, Introducing Romans: Critical Issues Chapter 5: Purpose. Pp. 92-160

38 >>> T Jan 24 PART 2. ROUNDTABLE THEME: “Jesus as Christ” and “faith” (include relation between “faith” and “obedience”) READINGS: Romans 1:1-15 The Cambridge Dictionary of Christianity: Faith; Christology in Western Church History (214-217); Jesus, Images of (multiple articles) and Jesus, Quest 641-648); Everyone prepare her/his own reading of Rom 1:1- 15 comparing your interpretation with one of the three commentators (using the “the comparative Form” attached) focusing on the THEME: “Jesus as Christ” and “faith” Form Parts A & B

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40 J ESUS AS C HRIST F ORENSIC /J URIDICAL Christ is the savior: Christ’s death (2000 years ago), dying instead of us Christ died for sinners; Propitiation through Christ dying/being punished instead of us: Vicarious sacrifice

41 J ESUS AS C HRIST C OVENANTAL Christ died for sinners; Expiation = Reconciled human with God, by demonstrating God’s love for us, through his absolutely faithfulness to God and to us, which established a new covenant with God; His death is a Passover Sacrifice Covenantal Sacrifice

42 J ESUS AS C HRIST A POCALYPTIC /M ESSIANIC Christ died for sinners & was raised with power. Redemption = freeing people from their bondage to evil powers/ aka idols that keep people under their power. Redemption Sacrifice

43 A UTHORITY Authority means not sheer power but legitimate power. Authority exists only insofar as those who submit do so by acknowledging the legitimacy of those who are in a position to use institutional or other power and/or to speak authoritatively. In Christian thought, authority belongs first to God, then to Christ, then to those who are authorized by God and Christ (prophets*, apostles*)

44 A UTHORITY 2. H OW IS THE DIVINE AUTHORITY TRANSMITTED FROM C HRIST TO P AUL ? Paul’s authority because he has received the Gospel and has the true, orthodox teaching (1 Cor 15:1ff) was recognized by the Jerusalem church (Gal 1-2). Peter/Cephas, John, James). Institutional authority: Paul has authority because he is recognized as a commissioned apostle; someone who is honored/saint (by contrast with shameful); as someone who can be trusted. a charismatic authority. Paul’s authority based on being freed from bondage by the power of God “through a revelation/intervention of Jesus Christ,” (road to Damascus) = gospel.

45 GROUP 2 = ROUNDTABLE A: A ) A POSTLE FOR THE G OSPEL OF G OD R OMANS 1:1-7 JESSE REESE (his interpretation vs. Moo) Respondents: DANIELLE PETERSON; ZACH KING; LAUREN SHEEHAN MICHAEL DURHAM (his interpretation vs. Jewett) Respondents: SARAH JANE CAMPER; MILADYS PEREZ; JEFF VARWIG JILL DAVIS (her interpretation vs. Byrne) Respondents: JESSICA CINEFRO; BEN TAYLOR; ERICA GEURTS

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47 P AUL ’ S M ETAPHORIC SELF - DESIGNATION AS “ SLAVE.” A “ SLAVE ” IS : Someone owned by a master, and thus in bondage and totally at the mercy of this master; someone worthless, powerless, in an abject situation, with a shameful status (emphasized by the Messianic Reading); Someone who, although in a low status, is a member of a household, and who, as a servant, acts in the name of his/her master for the sake of the household; someone totally defined by his/her mission in the name of a master (emphasized by the Pastoral Reading); Someone who is unconditionally submitted to the will and authority of a master (emphasized by the Theological Reading).

48 C ONNOTATIONS OF “C HRIST J ESUS ” IN “S LAVE OF C HRIST J ESUS ” EMPHASIZED 1. Christ’s power upon the “slave” (according to the first view of slave chosen in the Messianic Reading); 2. Christ’s mission which the “slave” prolongs in the name of the Lord (according to the second view of slave chosen in the Pastoral Reading); 3. Christ’s authority to which the “slave” voluntarily submits (according to the third view of slave chosen in the Theological Reading).

49 S HOWING “O BEDIENCE OF FAITH ” TO A R OMAN L EGIONNAIRE

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51 I AM INDEBTED TO G REEKS AND BARBARIANS, TO WISE AND FOOLISH Because of God’s gift to me (calling me, grace, apostleship, gospel), I must do something for all people I am indebted to them… I have received & continue to receive from them precious gifts


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