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Early Puritanism An historical introduction to English Non-Conformity to 1625 CHURCH HISTORY II Lesson 11.

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Presentation on theme: "Early Puritanism An historical introduction to English Non-Conformity to 1625 CHURCH HISTORY II Lesson 11."— Presentation transcript:

1 Early Puritanism An historical introduction to English Non-Conformity to 1625 CHURCH HISTORY II Lesson 11

2 Agenda 1. Identity and Definitions 2. Historical Overview 3. Lessons we can learn

3 Identity and Definitions

4 Who were the Puritans? Englishpreachers who wanted to reform church life further than the episcopal establishment would allow in the 16 th and 17 th centuries

5 What’s in a name? “Puritan” = Cathari “Puritan” = Cathari Lumped with Donatists, Montanists, Novatians, Cathari, Anabaptists Lumped with Donatists, Montanists, Novatians, Cathari, Anabaptists Also called “Precisians” Also called “Precisians” Puritans came to accept the name “Puritan” Puritans came to accept the name “Puritan” Proper name would be English Dissenters or Non- Conformists Proper name would be English Dissenters or Non- Conformists

6 Protestant LutheranReformedAnabaptistAnglican Anglo-Catholic Protestant Conformists Protestant Non- Conformists PuritansSepara-tionistIndep-endentBaptist

7 HistoricalOverview

8 Historical Overview 1. Preparing the Soil ( ) 2. Emergence ( ) 3. The Spread of Dissent ( ) 4. Full-blown Persecution ( ) 5. A Lull in the Battle ( ) 6. Renewed Persecution ( ) 7. Polarization of a nation ( ) Charles I Elizabeth James I Mary Edward VI

9 Preparing the Soil Slide 1/2 Wycliffe & the Lollards Wycliffe & the Lollards Proto-puritan forerunners: Proto-puritan forerunners: –William Tyndale (1531) –John Frith (1533) –William Turner & John Bale (1543) –Miles Coverdale (1548) –John Bradford (1550) –John Hooper (1550) ………………………………………

10 The First Vestments Controversy ( ) John Hooper vs Bp. Nicholas Ridley Preparing the Soil Slide 2/2

11 Historical Overview 1. Preparing the Soil ( ) 2. Emergence ( ) 3. The Spread of Dissent ( ) 4. Full-blown Persecution ( ) 5. A Lull in the Battle ( ) 6. Renewed Persecution ( ) 7. Polarization of a nation ( ) Charles I Elizabeth James I Mary Edward VI

12 Emergence Slide 1/6 The Troubles at Frankfort (1555) John Knox Richard Cox’s Party ? 1552 Book of Common Prayer Knox’s Form of Prayers To Geneva Liturgy of Compromise Whittingham & others From Geneva Calvin on the 1552 Prayer Book: it contains “Many foolish, tolerable things”

13 Emergence Slide 2/6 Geneva ( ) First Reformed service in English First Reformed service in English Heavy influence from Calvin Heavy influence from Calvin Geneva Bible Geneva Bible

14 Emergence Slide 3/6 Return to England ( ) Act of Uniformity (1559) Act of Uniformity (1559) Queen’s Injunctions Queen’s Injunctions –Holy Days –Clerical celibacy –Habits / square caps –Collegiate choirs Some ministers scruple the habits Some ministers scruple the habits Conforming ministers (Coxians) elevated to bishops Conforming ministers (Coxians) elevated to bishops

15 Elizabethan Settlement (1562) Petitions to Parliament to remove: Petitions to Parliament to remove: –Vestments –Kneeling –Private baptism / cross in baptism –Collegiate Choirs & Organs –Holy days 1552 Book of Common Prayer confirmed 1552 Book of Common Prayer confirmed Thirty-nine Articles Thirty-nine Articles Emergence Slide 4/6

16 Emergence Slide 5/6 Suppression of Dissent (1564) Secretary Cecil’s report to the queen Secretary Cecil’s report to the queen Bishops cave in and break promise Bishops cave in and break promise Sampson & Humphreys* Sampson & Humphreys* –Interaction with Reformed leaders –Non-conforming ministers deprived

17 Emergence Slide 6/6 Summary Puritanism arose from four ingredients: Puritanism arose from four ingredients: –Dissent over ceremonies –Left out of positions of authority –Failed to gain concessions from majority party –Pressured to conform against their conscience

18 Historical Overview 1. Preparing the Soil ( ) 2. Emergence ( ) 3. The Spread of Dissent ( ) 4. Full-blown Persecution ( ) 5. A Lull in the Battle ( ) 6. Renewed Persecution ( ) 7. Polarization of a nation ( ) Charles I Elizabeth James I Mary Edward VI

19 The Spread of Dissent Slide 1/2 Cambridge dissent (1565) Cambridge dissent (1565) Puritan pamphleteers* Puritan pamphleteers* First separationists First separationists –“Plumber’s Hall” congregation –Richard Fitz’ “Privye Church” Field, Wilcox and Cartwright (1572) Field, Wilcox and Cartwright (1572) –Admonition to the Parliament Many conform after Reformed letters published Many conform after Reformed letters published Excursus: The Regulative Principle of Worship Normative Principle of Worship: Every church is free to adopt practices in its worship service without warrant from God’s Word as long as their practices are not contrary to the Word of God, nor thought of as necessary for true worship. [in-between position] Every church is free to adopt practices in its worship service without specific warrant from God’s Word if they are moderate, edifying and reasonable applications of general biblical principles and serve to enhance, rather than detract from, those practices that God has commanded. Separationists, Independents, Baptists, Strict Puritans Anglicans, Lutherans Reformed, Moderate Puritans “We hold nothing that is not warranted by the word of God… we will be tried by the best reformed churches” “the pure vnmingled and sincere worshippinge of God, accordinge to his blessed and glorious worde in al things, onely abolishinge and abhorringe all tradicions and inuentions of man…” Regulative Principle of Worship: In the worship service, it is unlawful to do anything except what God has prescribed in His Word, excepting only minor matters of public order.

20 The Spread of Dissent Slide 2/2 Summary Puritan sentiments spread rapidly Puritan sentiments spread rapidly The people in the cities largely sided with them The people in the cities largely sided with them The Puritans: The Puritans: –Most remained faithful to Anglicanism –Many began promoting Presbyterianism –A few broke off and became Separationists

21 Historical Overview 1. Preparing the Soil ( ) 2. Emergence ( ) 3. The Spread of Dissent ( ) 4. Full-blown Persecution ( ) 5. A Lull in the Battle ( ) 6. Renewed Persecution ( ) 7. Polarization of a nation ( ) Charles I Elizabeth James I Mary Edward VI

22 Full-blown Persecution Slide 1/1 AB Grindal imprisoned for defending Puritans* (1577) AB Grindal imprisoned for defending Puritans* (1577) AB Whitgift sets up High Commission* (1583) AB Whitgift sets up High Commission* (1583) “Martin Mar-prelate” tracts ( ) “Martin Mar-prelate” tracts ( ) Brownists / Barrowists Brownists / Barrowists –Robert Brown: Reformation without tarrying for any (1582) –Barrowe, Greenwood and Penry hanged (1593) –Brownists flee to Holland

23 Historical Overview 1. Preparing the Soil ( ) 2. Emergence ( ) 3. The Spread of Dissent ( ) 4. Full-blown Persecution ( ) 5. A Lull in the Battle ( ) 6. Renewed Persecution ( ) 7. Polarization of a nation ( ) Charles I Elizabeth James I Mary Edward VI

24 A Lull in the Battle Slide 1/1 Parliament backs off Parliament backs off Richard Hooker’s Ecclestiastical Policy (1597) Richard Hooker’s Ecclestiastical Policy (1597) Ascession of King James (1603) Ascession of King James (1603) Millenary Petition (1603) Millenary Petition (1603) Hampton Conference (1604)* Hampton Conference (1604)*

25 Historical Overview 1. Preparing the Soil ( ) 2. Emergence ( ) 3. The Spread of Dissent ( ) 4. Full-blown Persecution ( ) 5. A Lull in the Battle ( ) 6. Renewed Persecution ( ) 7. Polarization of a nation ( ) Charles I Elizabeth James I Mary Edward VI

26 Renewed Persecution Slide 1/2 Book of Canons (1604)* Book of Canons (1604)* AB Bancroft renews High Commission (1604)* AB Bancroft renews High Commission (1604)* Puritans defend themselves in pamphlets Puritans defend themselves in pamphlets –Loyalty to king emphasized Small groups of Puritans flee to Holland, Virginia Small groups of Puritans flee to Holland, Virginia Parliament defends Puritans and is dissolved (1610) Parliament defends Puritans and is dissolved (1610)

27 Renewed Persecution Slide 2/2 Fracturing of the Separationists Brownists excommunicate each other Brownists excommunicate each other John Smith becomes first Baptist John Smith becomes first Baptist –Gathers church in Leydon, Holland –Embraces Arminianism –Eventually merge with the Mennonites John Robinson becomes first Independent John Robinson becomes first Independent –Leaves Brownism under influence from Dr. William Ames Intra-Puritan debate over separation Intra-Puritan debate over separation

28 Historical Overview 1. Preparing the Soil ( ) 2. Emergence ( ) 3. The Spread of Dissent ( ) 4. Full-blown Persecution ( ) 5. A Lull in the Battle ( ) 6. Renewed Persecution ( ) 7. Polarization of a nation ( ) Charles I Elizabeth James I Mary Edward VI

29 Polarization of a Nation Slide 1/2 Dr. Abbot becomes archbishop Dr. Abbot becomes archbishop King James Bible published (1611) King James Bible published (1611) Separationists return to England Separationists return to England –Baptists: Thomas Helwys* (1612) –Independents: Henry Jacob (1616) Declaration of Sports (1618) Declaration of Sports (1618) Part of John Robinson’s congregation leaves Holland for New England (1620) Part of John Robinson’s congregation leaves Holland for New England (1620)

30 Polarization of a Nation Slide 2/2 Three Alarming Trends The growth of Arminianism The growth of Arminianism The growth of Roman Catholicism The growth of Roman Catholicism Growing tensions between the king and parliament Growing tensions between the king and parliament

31 Historical Overview Summary Puritans pressed to violate their consciences over ceremonies Puritans pressed to violate their consciences over ceremonies Pressure increases dissent and drives them further away Pressure increases dissent and drives them further away Begin to splinter into various groups that disagreed among themselves Begin to splinter into various groups that disagreed among themselves Suffered severe persecution while maintaining loyalty to the state Suffered severe persecution while maintaining loyalty to the state Became staunch defenders of Calvinism Became staunch defenders of Calvinism Eventually found most of the nation politically on their side against the growing threat of Catholicism. Eventually found most of the nation politically on their side against the growing threat of Catholicism.

32 Lessons we can learn

33 Lessons we can learn Slide 1/3 Lesson #1 –GOOD: Supremacy of the Word of God in all matters (all) –BAD:Naïve to think that the Bible gives us a complete order of worship and church government (most)

34 Lessons we can learn Slide 2/3 Lesson #2 –GOOD: Conscientious about the protecting the gospel (all) –BAD:Made too much out of insignificant matters over which many were willing to leave the ministry over (many) and some to quarrel among themselves and divide (Separatists)

35 Lessons we can learn Slide 3/3 Lesson #3 –GOOD: Serious about church discipline (all) –BAD:Often too ready to excommunicate and disfellowship over minor matters (Separatists)

36 The End


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