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Realities of Managing Digital Rights Gail Dykstra Dykstra Research eLibraries 2003 New York, May 6, 2003 Gail Dykstra D ykstra R esearch.

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Presentation on theme: "Realities of Managing Digital Rights Gail Dykstra Dykstra Research eLibraries 2003 New York, May 6, 2003 Gail Dykstra D ykstra R esearch."— Presentation transcript:

1 Realities of Managing Digital Rights Gail Dykstra Dykstra Research eLibraries 2003 New York, May 6, 2003 Gail Dykstra D ykstra R esearch

2 Today Reality is being squeezed And the response is …. Libraries need 4 facets for strategy

3 Squeezed On All Sides

4 Caught in the Middle Consumer’s rights User behavior User’s expectations for content Library has exceptions Creator’s rights Pay to play Content business models Library sets practices & example

5 Caught in the Middle Again… Access issues Institutional response User behavior No Administrative Policies Laws, licenses & liability Implementation Indirect control (if at all) No realistic administrative policies

6 Out Of The Middle Libraries have been here before Content Collection Creation Setting metadata standards

7 Columbia University You are responsible for what you do on the network. You must respect copyright. The University must take appropriate action. File-sharing programs automatically distribute files. File sharing help… for removing or disabling …..

8 Libraries Actively ….. Educate users Only accept non-infringing behavior Identify content preferences Define best practices Engage technology standards

9 Strategy Public & Institutional Policy Standards Business & Behavior Technology

10 Digital Rights Management (DRM) Definition Functionalities

11 Enforcement & Roles Security policies & procedures Enforce password access Identity-based roles Personas

12 Rights Protection Software Digital Rights Management (DRM) 4 As Authentication Authority Access Accountability DRM permits smooth, secure, trusted and persistent movement of digital works from creators and publishers to retailers and consumers

13 DRM Technologies & Services Software Encryption, wrapping, watermarking Hardware eBooks, consumer games, mobile devices PCs & servers Services Copyright & licensing collectives. Point of permission services IP Asset Management Systems eLicensing & digital asset management

14 Encryption Technology Encryption Create Digital Content SENDSET - Content- Access - Metadata- Use Firewall Anywhere

15 DRM Technology Encryption Create Digital Content SENDSET - Content- Access - Metadata- Use Firewall Digital Content SET - Access - Use - Track & Report Anywhere

16 DRM Concepts Identity - Person - Device - Both Authenticate - Content - User name (alias, position, security) - Persona (person, position, use of content)

17 DRM Technology Concepts Content & license info included Software allows identity Person, device, or both Authenticate Content User name (alias, position, security) Persona (person, position, use of content

18 DRM Reference Architecture Content Server Content Repository Product Info DRM Packager Client Rendering Application DRM Controller Encryption Content Metadata Identity Encryption Keys Rights License Server Rights Encryption Keys Identities License Generator Financial Transaction With Permission of Bill Rosenblatt, Giant Steps Media Technology Strategies

19 Functionalities Access Controls Usage Controls Tracking Encryption Subscription Registration/Password Click-through Read-only Read & Print Full Watermarking/Digital footprints Online/Clearinghouse Voluntary user compliance

20 DRM Words & Concepts Used Syndicators “More is best” Solution-based;web delivered CONTENT- competitive E-Marketplaces Revenue-based fees Offer Source, type/topic & filtering for one-shot use or streaming Aggregators “Redistribute, Research, Re-use” Revenue; Proprietary products & software PRODUCT-Competitive Subscription or Pay per use models Familiar database models based on republished rights Traditional CA & research suppliers User-based fees License embedded in content-biblio, FT & A&I systems Software “Lock it up” Encrypt; Punitive Encryption Watermarking Wrapping technologies Licensed software fees or percentages of revenue Services “Make it easy to do the right thing” Requires WEB Browser Copyright Collectives License rights; Don’t usually deliver the content Set fees; Percentage of content licensed Honor system

21 Rights Models User authentication Content integrity Types of rights Types of users Extent of rights Costs Tracking Payment Granularity Business Product Market Channel Features Functionalities Purchase Options Updates

22 “ So What” Factors DRM technologies change how you: Purchase content Research Collaborate with others Everyday decisions on protecting content Lead investment and use of DRM for corporate compliance

23 Business & Behavior Piracy & unauthorized copying Enterprise Content Management (ECM) Libraries as institutions or businesses Coming soon ?

24 Attitudes & Behavior Do it Questions Free Disrupt Explain 1990 1992 1997 2003 2006 Names WWW Texaco P2P P2P decision(s) corporate impact Verizon

25 Quotes … The biggest whines were about the fact that the e- book couldn’t be duplicated once it was downloaded. It’s an emotional issue. People hate copy protection, partly for good reasons (it’s hard to make legal personal copies) and partly for bad reasons (it’s hard to steal). I received many email messages informing me that I was greedy, shortsighted and foolish… Scott Adams (Dilbert) As cited in the recent Association of American Publishers & American Library Association study on e-books and DRM (see list of resources)

26 Quotes “Piracy has been systematically encouraged by a generous supply of Internet services, products and tools…. There is no free lunch… In the end when someone gets ripped off… someone else is getting screwed.” Peter Chernin, CEO Fox Group & President & COO of News Corporation at Comdex 2003 “Is DRM the answer to a question we’re not asking? How do we burn this library down for good?” Cory Doctrow, Electronic Frontier Foundation at ETECH Conf 2003 “There was lots of talk about value propositions… nobody has come up with a value proposition that customers want/ But they never said the people setting the policy don’t trust or respect the customer. And there are moves afoot to mandate and require DRM so the current customer-unpopular value propositions are shoved down our throat. Did anybody mention this? Nope. Nathan Torkington, in talking about an software developers’ industry panel

27 Quotes … Forgive me for being simple-minded, but I believe that the Number One Preference is not to have DRM at all. There is no 'need to protect the security... there are only self-serving, short-sighted, greedy and customer-hostile desires to do so. Semi-anonymous liblicense Listserv … I fear that Digital Rights Management today is Political Rights Management tomorrow… embedding these kinds of technological controls into the very architecture of computing has the capacity to become a form of political control in the not so distant future. John Perry Barlow, “Wrapped in Crypto Bottles”

28 Numbers 2,804,674 Kazaa downloads per week 60M Americans downloaded MP3 files 500M Worldwide downloads 220 million Kazaa downloads (5/3/03) # 1 Downloaded song: In da club- 50 Cent ( 4/28/03) 15% Decline in CD shipments since 2001 56% Increase in sales of MP3 Players since 2001 1.7 billion sales of blank CDs 2002 40% leaked info from inside company (estimated at costing business $6B per year) 80% software game piracy originates inside company

29 Current News Vindictive DRM? Music Companies explore software: - Trojan horse (redirects to official site) - Freeze (program locks computer OS) - Trackbacks (identify users & sends email) - Spoofing (sends false music files) - Denial of service attacks - Silence (Erases legitimate files) - Interdiction (Prevents use of network while downloading “unauthorized files)

30 Apprehensions “…technologies that could be very effective in combating piracy on peer-to-peer networks but are not widely used because some customers … feel uncomfortable with current ambiguities in computer hacking laws” Randy Saaf, President of MediaDefender

31 Piracy & Unauthorized Copying Recording Industry Association of America Sends letters to 2500 university presidents Sends Fortune 1000 corporate guide to licensed use, policy & practices Sends Instant Messages (IM) to millions of “Chat” users from download software sites. Messages warn people that an illegal software download and points them to legal download sites.


33 Work Functions - Clusters Access / Search Creation / Collaboration Production / Distribution Secure Track / Report

34 Content Management Enterprise Content Management (ECM) The technologies and tools used to create, capture, customize, deliver and manage content across the Enterprise Association of Imaging and Information Management (AIIM)

35 What if? The way we think about Enterprise Content Management (ECM)m will change… The technologies and tools used to create, capture, customize, deliver, manage and persistently protect content across the Enterprise

36 Collaboration – DRM Potential Inter & Intra organizations

37 Microsoft Alters Behavior NEW … Windows Information Rights Management- Late 2003 Office 2003 – DRM built into Outlook, Excel, WORD, PPT XrML-based standards Coming... Palladium (2004/5) Embedded in OS (operating system) “Trusted Computing” To succeed, Microsoft needs OED-opt-in & buy-in Continuing … Windows Media Player & Windows Media Rights Manager Music eBooks Streaming Media/Video


39 DRM — Markets + Indicators EARLY MARKET 1994 - 2001 Market Business Models Standards Users Relationships

40 DRM — Markets + Indicators CHASM 2001-2002 Market Business Models Standards Users Relationships

41 DRM — Markets + Indicators DEPLOYMENT 2002-2003 Market Business Models Standards Users Relationships

42 DRM — Markets + Indicators ASSIMILATION IT world changes too fast to predict

43 DRM — Markets + Indicators ADOPTION 2005 Market Business Models Standards Users Relationships

44 Different Uses Publishing Corporate product PDF, online and e-book and data formats Wide variety of devices Typically, a one way channel Enterprise E-mail Documents (PDF, MS Office, Specialized) Technical drawings Web portals, internal and extranet Collaborative & business value chains

45 Cultural Institutions Heritage Uses Museums, Archives & Libraries Examples: - Library of Congress - OCLC - “Digital Libraries in the Classroom” $9.5 m grant from the Joint Information System Committee & the US National Science Foundation

46 Standards Metadata Applications Policies

47 DRM Standards DOI Digital Object Identifier ID for online content Links source to rights clearance systems eBook XrML Extensible Rights Markup Language XeroxParc created 1995 ContentGuard licenses and promotes Microsoft, SONY Evolving standard ODRL Open Digital Rights Language Created in 2000 Mobile devices RDD B2B content rights Ambitious, cross-media

48 Applications Content management Content use (COUNTER Code of Practice) Categorization software

49 Numbers 97% Library standards and Practices: Creating/organizing a digital library Digital rights management and copyright Metadata Collection development and management 46% Librarians want training in digital rights OCLC Library Training and Education Market Needs Assessment Study Outsell, Inc. for OCLC Institute

50 Libraries Need Assurance of integrity of product and content Solutions for tracking & paying - Make it easy to do the right thing - One-stop solution for licensing, accounting and paying across multiple databases - Seamless transitions for users to license (charge-back options) -Licensing options to serve different-users, functions, technologies, platforms, products Library-oriented DRM analysis - Potential, companies, products, markets, costs & technology

51 Libraries Need User experience: Make content easy to use Keep users within your site Icon on your site Seamless … Licensed No payment (Corporate – Need personal or purchasing codes) All formats: Digital, re-license, copy, distribute Technology Standards All platforms & scalable Embedded /wrapped code Balance pain // gain Security levels One install vs. multiple expenses & serial installations

52 Libraries Need Compliance (Federal and State) Accountability Educational role (eLearning, distance education) Instructional requirements for audio, video, graphics Mix of original and licensed content Student-derived works

53 Public & Institutional Policy

54 Open Access Copyright Commons Research Commons Digital Heritage

55 Institutional Policies Copyright – University of Washington Library as University Publisher-Reuters Technology Transfer – IP Offices

56 Digital Rights Policies Include: Mission Institutional policies for academic speech, student behavior, honor codes User profile, expectations & behavior Content - Do you own the content? Licenses? Educational and research prerogatives and priorities Technology neutral or specific (as fits) People

57 Balancing Control & Access DRM is affects access, copyright and privacy Balancing creator’s rights, content vendor copyright, and user needs Regulation vs. Market-Control Models Nobody wants a “Sony Bono” government imposed DRM solution

58 Public Policy Digital rights are a public policy issue Public’s attitude towards DRM - What do they know? - What do they want? Legislative, regulatory & copyright issues around DRM - Encryption - Mechanical - Privacy - “ Reasonable access by reasonable people”

59 Policy Issues - Privacy Institutional -What to do about identifying users? - Who has access? Internal & External - Research can see competitive threat: Connecting - identity & use & research strategy -Device interoperability requires common network identity Personal - Reasonable people want reasonable access - Are privacy & reasonable personal use compatible? - Does privacy compete with “fair use?” - New groups on the scene representing “consumers”

60 Resources Digital Rights Management- Business and Technology (William Rosenblatt New York: John Wiley, 2001 ISBN 0-7645-4889-1) DRM Watch What Consumers Want in Digital Rights Management (DRM). ( Hill Slowinski. American Association of Publishers and American Library Association, 2003) Or Access Granted: DRM for Brave New World. (Gail Dykstra. Information Highways, April 2003)

61 Resources It’s All Free (Lev Grossman. Time, May 5, 2003, pp. 60-69) Software Bullet Is Sought To Kill Musical Piracy (Andrew Ross Sorkin. New York Times, May 4, 2003, pp. 1, 36)

62 Dykstra Research 10550 NE 29 th Street, Suite E Bellevue, WA 98004 Bus/cell: 425.241.4632 Content Licensing & Digital Rights Management

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