9 Page 128 – exercise 2 (e-h) adjunct PP adjunct PP adjunct NP (possibly AdvP)INF (n-f) clauseconjunctREMARK:I like you a lot. > “a lot” is an AdvPHow many CDs do you have? A lot. > “a lot” is a PRONOUN / NPTODAY: usually Adv(P). According to some dictionaries it can be a NOUN in “Today is Tuesday.”, however this is questionable: “Here is the answer.” > We would never identify “here” as an NP. It is probably an NP only in “Today’s newspapers…” and similar constructions.adjunctfinite clauseadjunctAdvP
18 The general order of adverbials. M P TThe general order of adverbials.
19 The general order of adverbials. Manner Place TimeThe general order of adverbials.
20 Page 129 – exercise 5 (a-d)Determine the sentence position of the adjuncts in brackets:a) The horse jumped. (into the pond/over the fence)over the fence into the pond (sequence of events)b) He has come. (from London/to Paris)to Paris from London (verb of arrival – come)c) The match will be held. (in Vienna/at a sports club)at a sports club in Vienna (more specific, less specific)d) The term will begin (next year/on 15th February)on 15th February next year (more specific, less specific)
21 Page 129 – exercise 5 (e-h)Determine the sentence position of the adjuncts in brackets:e) I will be away. (during the winter/for 2 weeks/in the country)In the country for 2 weeks during the winter (P+D+W)f) I came home. (very late/last night/after the party/from John’s)from John’s very late after the party last nightg) We have lectures. (this week/all the afternoon/every day)all the afternoon every day this week (D+F+W)h) There were power cuts (during the winter/every day/for about four hours at a time)for about four hours at a time every day during the winter (D+F+W)
22 Page 129 – exercise 5 (i-j)Determine the sentence position of the adjuncts in brackets:i) The shops are open. (every weekday/from 8 to 8)from 8 to 8 every weekday (D+F)j) The telephone rang. (three times/while you were out)three times while you were out (D/F+W)
23 Page 131 – exercise 6 (a, b)My car was damaged. (also / badly/ in an accident/ the other day)It was not my fault. (definitely/ in any way)MY CAR WAS ALSO BADLY DAMAGED (BADLY) IN AN ACCIDENT THE OTHER DAY.IT (DEFINITELY) WAS DEFINITELY NOT MY FAULT IN ANY WAY.
24 Page 131 – exercise 6 (c, d)The driver jammed on his brakes. (in front of me/ right/ stupidly/ very)It is snowing. (still/ hard/ quite/ today)THE DRIVER VERY STUPIDLY JAMMED ON HIS BRAKES (VERY STUPIDLY) RIGHT IN FRONT OF ME(TODAY) IT IS STILL SNOWING QUITE HARD (TODAY).STILL, IT IS SNOWING QUITE HARD TODAY.
25 Page 131 – exercise 6 (e, f)Willie was with me and confirmed everything I said. (at the time/ enough/ fully/ luckily)If it is snowing I shall stay. (at home/ at six/ by the television/ comfortably/ probably/ still/ the whole evening)LUCKILY ENOUGH, WILLIE WAS WITH ME AT THE TIME AND FULLY CONFIRMED EVERYTHING I SAID.IF IT IS STILL SNOWING AT SIX I SHALL PROBABLYSTAY COMFORTABLY AT HOME BY THE TELEVISION THE WHOLE EVENING.
26 Page 131 – exercise 6 (g, h) I have liked snow. (frankly/ much/ never) I like to row. (about the lake/ in the park/ also/ gently/ in the early autumn/ sometimes)FRANKLY, I HAVE NEVER (MUCH) LIKED SNOW MUCH.SOMETIMES (, IN THE EARLY AUTUMN), I ALSO LIKE (ALSO) TO ROW GENTLY ABOUT THE LAKE IN THE PARK IN THE EARLY AUTUMN.
27 Page 131 – exercise 6 (i)I want to do things I couldn’t do. (luckily, obviously/ only/ rarely)LUCKILY, I ONLY RARELY WANT TO DO THE THINGS I OBVIOUSLY COULDN’T DO.
29 DISJUNCTS DISJUNCTS STYLE DISJUNCTS Comment the style, form, conditions of speakingCONTENT/ATTITUDINAL DISJUNCTS (comment the truth value of an utterance)CERTAINTYEVALUATIONDON’T FORGET: He was drunk, because he couldn’t stand. > NOT A DISJUNCT, EITHER REUSULT ADJUNCT OR (REMOTELY POSSIBLE?) CAUSE ADJUNCT.NOTE: apparently/perhaps > SIMILAR TO MODALITY ADJUNCTS, HOWEVER THEY ARE DISJUNCTS BECAUSE THEY ARE SUBJECTIVE HERE > it appears to me that the play was written by… I think it is somewhat possible (=perhaps) that the play was written by…
30 DISJUNCTS: more info Disjuncts are typically PPs and CLAUSES. STYLE DISJUNCTS convey either:Speaker’s assertion of truth (truthfully), orSpeaker’s indication of generalization (broadly).ATTITUDINAL DISJUNCTS comment on:TRUTH VALUE OF THE SENTENCE (CERTAINTY)General: certainlyGeneral + perception: obviouslyGeneral + comment on reality of content: reallyCONTENT OF COMMUNICATION (EVALUATION)General: understandablyGeneral + comment on clause subject: wisely (similar to subjuncts)I KNOW, YOU SEE, I MEAN > style discjuncts
31 PAGE 131 – exercise 7 ATTITUDINAL It is obvious that there has been a mistake.That there has been a mistake is obvious.
32 Page 131 – exercise 7 (b, c) ATTITUDINAL It was foolish of me to forget to ask her name.That I forgot to ask her name was foolish of me.ATTITUDINALIt was understandable that she was very upset.That she was very upset was understandable.
33 Page 131 – exercise 7 (d, e) ATTITUDINAL We were lucky to manage to find our way back.ATTITUDINALYou were quite right to phone/to have phoned the police first.
35 CONJUNCTS (1/2)They have a CONNECTIVE FUNCTION between SENTENCES (sometimes, they are called SENTENCE LINKERS)Most typically, they take the INITIAL POSITION, but they are not restricted to it.Sometimes, they can take the MEDIAL and FINAL position:
36 CONJUNCTS (2/2)There are many classifications of conjuncts, below there is a list of THE MOST FREQUENT classes of conjuncts (there are many other classes, which are not given here):