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Lingua Inglese I Daniela Salusso

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1 Lingua Inglese I 2014-2015 Daniela Salusso

2 Information about the course
Class starts at 8:15 p.m. and ends at 9:45 p.m. EXAM PROGRAMME a written exam it will consist in activities and questions, in English, based on the course contents and on the set book it can be taken only once per session students must have passed the first year prova propedeutica (or lettorato), whose result will be integrated with the mark of the lingua inglese course

3 EXAM SESSIONS PROVE PROPEDEUTICHE (lettorato): 3 exams per year 1 in the Summer Session 2014, 1 in the Autum Session 2014, 1 in the Winter Session 2015 LINGUA INGLESE : 8 per year 4 in the summer session 2014 (1 in May, 2 in June, 1 in July) 2 in the autumn session 2014 (1 in September, 1 in November) 2 in the winter session 2015 (1 in January, 1 in February)

4 Course Timetable Week 1: 9/10/11 February: Introduction – Language change and variation in English Week 2: 16/17/18 February :The history of English Week 3: 23/24/25 February: (follows) Week 4: 2/3/4 March: The pronunciation of English Week 5: 9/10/11 March: (follows) Week 6: 16/17/18 March: English grammar Week 7: 23/24/25 March: (follows) Week 8: 30/31 March/ 1 April: The English lexicon: from words to phraseology Easter break: 2-7 April – 8 April: No lesson Week 9: 13/14/15 Apr (follows) + exercises and exam practice This timetable is only “tentative” – if lessons are cancelled they will be added after the Easter break

5 Title of the course “Introduction to present-day English: historical background, geographical spread and linguistic features”

6 Set book V. Pulcini, a cura di,
A Handbook of Present-day English, Carocci, Roma , 2009 (Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, pp ) * Chapter 5 will be covered in the second year

7 Becoming familiar with the handbook

8 Becoming familiar with the handbook
DIFFERENCES SHARED FEATURES Four chapters written by four lecturers in this university (Mazzaferro, Pulcini, Minutella, Prat) (see Table of Contents pp. 7-9) The history of English The pronunciation of English The grammar of English English lexicon Each chapter … is composed of the main text, the chapter overview and a list of study questions and activities is structured into titled and numbered sections has key-terms and names in bold print (see analytic index) has key concepts in the margin has a selected bibliography of important references

9 Some features of an academic handbook
ACADEMIC ENGLISH A handbook is written by experts to experts-to be. e.g. concepts and terms, which are widely shared by the scientific community, are explained, or clarified through examples. e.g. Different approaches and terminologies may be presented and compared ACADEMIC CONVENTIONS e.g. use of graphic devices (e.g italics), abbreviations and phonetic symbols (pp.11-15), cross-references (see Chapter 3, §4), bibliographic conventions in the text and in the final bibliographies

10 Aims of the course To understand where the English language comes from
To understand who speaks English, where and for what purposes To understand how the English language works To build good linguistic foundations for further research in any area of the English studies

11 Competences required PRACTICAL COMPETENCE in the use of English, both spoken and written (language teaching and learning/EFL methodology) SCIENTIFIC STUDY of English: based on data, making implicit knowledge explicit, using a metalanguage to talk about language (English linguistics)

12 Developing practical competence: self-study resources
Useful websites BBC – learning English: British Council – Learn English: Dictionaries Oxford Paravia concise (EN-IT/IT-EN): Cambridge Dictionaries Online (monolingual, different language varieties):

13 Why study linguistics? 5 Reasons: David Crystal on “Doing Linguistics”

14 Language change and variation in English

15 Language change and variation in English
Do languages change in time? Types of change: phonological, morpho-syntactic and semantic How do they change? Synchrony, diachrony, historical linguistics, history of the language, comparative linguistics, language family, Indo-European, Germanic family, Romance or Neolatin family Why do they change? “external” (e.g. historical events, inventions, new ideas) versus “internal” (e.g. analogy, hypercorrection, push chain processes) What is “the best form” of a language? (standard vs non-standard varieties) What is the relationship between language and society? (sociolinguistics) How and why did English spread in the world and become a global language? (from English to “Englishes”)

16 A very important question
Is the study of the history and varieties of English relevant to university students of English?

17 YES!!! For cultural reasons
To understand more about present-day English - the gap between spelling and pronunciation - the mixed nature of its lexis e.g. “liberty” vs “freedom” - the existence of regular and irregular verbs - the linguistic situation of present-day UK To reinforce practical competence - to improve pronunciation and grammatical correctness - to expand lexical competence - to be prepared to understand different varieties of English

18 Linguistic variability and change
Languages are living entities: 1) They change over time 2) They reflect the culture of the speech community in which they are employed Language change along a historical continuum  the perspective is diachronic Language variability according to socio-cultural factors  the perspective is synchronic

19 The synchronic approach

20 The synchronic approach …
... describes language as it is at a particular moment in time ... The object of its description is a variety referred to as ‘standard’ Standard variety: the language par excellence in terms of social prestige, language functions and domains of use. Who speaks the standard variety of a language? Educated people In which contexts is the standard variety of a language used? Official circumstances (e.g. certain TV programmes – BBC news; political discourse; school; university) Is it more likely to be based on spoken or written language? Written

21 Standard and non-standard varieties
Development of a standard form of English through long processes of selection (London English) and codification through grammars and dictionaries Development of a standard accent : The Received Pronunciation (RP) There is no intrinsic value in the features that characterize the standard variety of a language: Favor (AmE) vs. favour (BrE)/ center (AmE) vs. centre (BrE) Cockney (working class, East End of London) glottal stop /ʔ/in the pronunciation of /t/: Saturday; quite well Th-fronting: the fricative sounds /θ/ or /ð/  /f/ or /v/: brother [‘br∧ðə(r)]  [‘br∧və(r)]; three [θri:]  [fri:] Double negative (many non-standard varieties) I didn’t say nothing!

22 Standard and non-standard varieties
Prescriptive views Descriptive views A prescriptive view of language formulates rules for how language should be used Non-standard varieties are considered as ‘irregular’, ‘unsystematic’. They do not have the same status as standard varieties. Language teaching tends to focus on standard varieties (e.g. pedagogical grammars) A descriptive view is concerned with the language that people actually use  to understand how languages work All the varieties of a language have equal status Language varieties are studied to understand the relationship between a certain language form, i.e. a variant (e.g. a new word, a specific syntactic construction, a vowel sound), and social variables (e.g. social class, gender, age)

23 Sociolinguistics The study of the relationship between language and society The aim is to understand how language variability is related to social factors such as: class: e.g. working-class, middle-class, upper-class social networks: e.g. professional networks (colleagues, customers), family and friends sex/gender identities: women vs. men (sex as a biological fact)/ gender identity as a social phenomenon age: childhood, adolescence, adulthood ethnicity: factors that create a sense of belonging to macro-groups  it replaces the concepts of race, national origin and culture Positive/negative attitudes (a variety may be perceived as less or more prestigious and useful than others)

24 Labov (1966): Linguistic variation and social class  positive attitudes
Labov studied the patterning of [r] pronunciation (r-full) in New York City before a consonant (fourth) and at the end of words (floor) as a sign of social prestige. Speakers’ social class: (0-5) lower classes; (6-8) middle class; (9) upper-class. Speech style: casual speech, careful speech, reading style, word lists, minimal pairs (god and guard, dock and dark)

25 Labov (1966): Linguistic variation and social class  positive attitudes
Hypercorrection: middle-class speakers conform to the prestige norm with higher frequency than the highest social class

26 Milroy (1992): Linguistic variation and social networks  negative attitudes
In Belfast urban vernacular, words such as pull, bull, wool are pronounced with the vowel sound [ʌ] instead of the standard sound [ʊ] Milroy discovered that this non-standard variant was used considerably less by speakers with weak network ties with the local community Strong networks support the maintenance of varieties even if they are stigmatized. Milroy, J. (1992). Linguistic Variation and Change. Oxford: Blackwell


28 The diachronic approach

29 The diachronic approach …
… focuses on language change over time … defines the relationships among languages so as to understand how they ame to be as they are  comparative linguistics … reconstructs the historical development of a specific language  history of language

30 Comparative linguistics
Which family does the English language belong to? Germanic languages Which languages belong to the Germanic family? German, Dutch, Flemish, Afrikaans, Icelandic, Norwegian, Danish, Swedish, Yiddish What is the proto-language from which Germanic languages and other language families have descended? Indo-European

31 Indo-European Languages

32 Similarities among Indo-European languages
English: father mother three Sanskrit: pitar matar trayas Greek: pater mater treis Latin: pater mater tres

33 Why and how do languages change in time?
External causes for change: they are extralinguistic or social factors Technological innovation: e.g. online, freeware, netiquette; URL, HTML, PDF New concepts and relevant vocabulary: e.g. sustainability, stakeholder, greenwashing Military conquest: e.g. The Norman Conquest (XI century)  liberty, guardian, soldier, beauty, music, poet, dangerous, flower, pork, very […] Immigration: Hispanic varieties of English in the USA  “Chicano English” of descendants of Mexican immigrants: distinct vowel sounds and intonation patterns Internal causes for change: changes leading to balance and regularity in the language system E.g. The Great Vowel Shift

34 How do new means of communication and technology change language?
Printing (1400 – 15th century) enabled new styles, new spelling and new punctuation systems to develop The telephone (19th century) let new patters of dialogue emerge With broadcasting (1920s) new styles came into being (sports commentaries, news reading, weather forecasting, chat shows)

35 How does the Internet affect the English language?
There have been no major changes in grammar, vocabulary or pronunciation. Some changes are attested in punctuation, such as the use of emoticons. However, the English language has become expressively richer thanks to the development of new styles (e.g. the style used in chat rooms, virtual world games, the world wide web, s, etc.) (Crystal,

36 Is it possible to integrate sociolinguistics and the history of language?
The analysis of language use in social contexts applied to the history of language is difficult mainly for methodological reasons: Lack of any spoken evidence for the earlier stages of the language The difficulty of interpreting and dating changes in earlier written texts

37 Phonological change It refers to any mutation within the sound system of a language The Great Vowel Shift. Starting point: 15th century – Middle English period – end: 17th century - Modern English period

38 The Great Vowel Shift A chain of changes affecting long vowels named push chain process /i:/  [ɛi] [bi:t] > [bɛit] > [bəit] > [bʌit] (bite) /e:/  /i:/ [me:t] > [mi:t] (meat) /ɛ:/  /i:/  [mɛ:tə] > [mi:t] (meet) In PDE meat and meet are homophones /a:/  /ɛ:/ [nɑ:mə] > [nɛ:m] > [ne:m] > [neɪm] (name) /u:/  [ɔu:] [u:] >[ɔu:]>[əu]>[ʌu]>[ɑu:] (house) /o:/ /u:/ [bo:tə] > [bu:t] (boot) /ɔ:/ /o:/ [bɔ:nə] > [bo:n] > (18th cent) [oʊ]/[əʊ] (bone, boat) These changes partly explain the inconsistencies between spelling and pronunciation in PDE!!!

39 The Great Vowel Shift

40 Morpho-syntactic changes
Analogy: the extension of existing forms to create new forms, e.g. through suffixes and prefixes E.g. complete/completion –> incomplete/incompletion Hypercorrection: the speakers’ awareness of the social value of a given variant and the overuse of the more prestigious form E.g. In some AmE varieties: fellow  *fella and yellow  *yella umbrella  * umbrellow Backformation: is the process of creating new forms, often by removing affixes: E.g. editor  to edit; lazy  to laze

41 Semantic change It indicates any mutation in the meaning of lexical items It is commonly triggered by external causes, e.g. socio-cultural change, scientific and technological innovation and foreign language influence Two main types of semantic change: change of meaning and change of connotation

42 Change of meaning Widening: the meaning of a lexical item is extended:
Dog (PDE) “any breed”  “a particular powerful breed of dog” Cupboard (PDE) “a piece of furniture usually with shelves where to store food and crockery”  “a table upon which cups and other vessels were placed” To grow (PDE) “to grow in any way”  “to get bigger” Narrowing: the meaning of a lexical item is narrowed down to a specific meaning: Meat (PDE) “edible flesh of animals”  “food” To starve (PDE) “to die of hunger”  “to die”

43 Change of connotation Pejoration: the meaning of a lexical item acquires negative connotations Knave (PDE) “rogue, dishonest man”  cnafa (OE) “youth, child” Silly (PDE) “foolish, lacking seriousness”  sely (ME) “happy, innocent” Amelioration: the meaning of a lexical item acquires positive connotations Queen (PDE) “a woman sovereign, the wife of the king”  cwēn (OE) “woman, wife” Knight (PDE) “a warrior serving a king”  cniht (OE) “boy, servant”

44 Historical Periods and Linguistic Phases
1. The Anglo-Saxon period 2. The Norman period 3. Modern period 4. 20th Century 1. Old English, OE ( ) 2. Middle English , ME ( ) 3. Modern English, ModEngl. ( ) 4. Present-day English (PDE) (to the present)

45 The History of English in ten minutes

46 Old English

47 English is a Germanic language
The reconstructed proto-language from where Germanic derives is Indo-European It is difficult to locate and date the origin of Germanic languages exactly  lack of relevant documentation

48 Old English period ( ) this term refers to Germanic dialects spoken by Jutes, Angles and Saxons: Kentish, West-Saxon, Mercian and Northumbrian the West-Saxon reign was the most important religious, military and cultural centre in Europe West-Saxon was considered the first standard written language, associated with political, military and cultural power in society

49 Major historical events leading to the OE period
Stonehenge, about 3, BC 100 BC the first Celts appeared in Britain 55-54 BC Julius Caesar invaded Britain ( …and the Romans left it in the 5th century) 5th century: some Germanic tribes (Anglo-Saxons and Jutes) arrived in England and forced the Celts to move west and north

50 Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain

51 The Celts Indo-European people who lived in Europe from 2000 BC to 100 AD they inhabited the British Isles before the Roman and Anglo-Saxon invasions names of Celtic origin: London, Leeds, Avon, Thames, Kent, Cornwall very few Celtic words in Old English Celtic languages spoken today: Welsh, Irish Gaelic, Scots Gaelic (Breton)

52 Stonehenge (2500 BC)

53 Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument, one of the most famous sites in the world.

54 The Roman period (55 BC – 400 AD)
The name Britain comes from the Greek word Pretani (PDE Britons) (Πρετανι), probably of Celtic origins. It was mispronounced by the Romans, and was used to name the Romance province of Britannia In BC Julius Caesar invaded Britain, but the army occupied the island only a century later in 43 AD Political and economic reasons for the Roman invasions: The Celts of Britain were protecting and hiding the Gauls against whom the Romans were fighting Britain was an important food producer because of its mild climate

55 The Roman baths of Bath

56 The Roman Baths complex is a site of historical interest in the English city of Bath. It is a well-preserved Roman site for public bathing. Clean spa water can be drunk by visitors.

57 Hadrian’s Wall

58 Hadrian's Wall was a defensive fortification in Roman Britain
Hadrian's Wall was a defensive fortification in Roman Britain. Begun in AD 122, during the rule of emperor Hadrian, it was the first of two fortifications built across Great Britain.

59 Angles, Saxons and Jutes (c.400 AD – c.1150 AD)
In the 5th century, the Angles, Saxons and Jutes arrived in England. The Romans had left the island in 409 AD following the progressive weakening of the empire due to Germanic attacks in European mainland. The Celts had to defend themselves alone. They were gradually forced to move north and west. Language: Old English period: 700 – c1150 AD “Old English” refers to four Germanic dialects: Kentish, West-Saxon, Mercian and Northumbrian What happened between the 5th and the 8th century which led to the shaping of Old English?

60 Christianisation of Britain
6th century introduction of the Latin alphabet abandonment of the Runic alphabet by the Anglo-Saxons from the 9th to the 11th centuries manuscripts were translated from Latin into Old English Latin and Greek gave Old English a wide range of Gospel words related to religion and spirituality

61 Runic Alphabet (Futhark)

62 The Scandinavian invasion (8th century)
The first settlers were located in the north-east of England. They expanded all through the island until King Alfred the Great, the head of the West Saxon region, defeated them in the 9th century (887 AD). English toponyms in -by are Danish in origin: Rugby, Derby, Whitby (the Danish word by meant ‘farm’ or ‘town’). Simple-life words borrowed into English from Danish: law, band, odd, rotten, rugged, die

63 Linguistic features of OE
Latin alphabet, with some differences from PDE (e.g. the consonant thorn, or þorn, <þ>) nouns, adjectives and pronouns were inflected for case, number and gender (synthetic versus analytic language) two types of verbs (strong and weak) = regular and irregular verbs in PDE word order was free lexis was mainly Germanic but included words of Celtic (names of places, e.g. London) , Latin (e.g. schol from schola) and Scandinavian origin (e.g. landes mann = native in PDE)

64 Ælfric’s Colloquy (c.998) OE:
We cildra biddaþ þe, eala lareow, þæt þu tæce us [...] Latin: Nos pueri rogamus te, magister, ut doceas nos [...] PDE: Master, we young men would like you to teach us [...]

65 Food for thought on youtube: “The Story of English” Episode 2 The Mother Tongue “The Story of English” Episode 1 An English-speaking World Pronunciation of Old English,

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