2Figurative LanguageFigurative language is writing or speech that is not mean to be taken literally. Used by authors to express ideas in vivid and imaginative ways.IronyIdiomsSatireImagery
3IronyIrony is a literary or dramatic device in which something that is the opposite of what is expected occurs.Verbal irony – Someone says something but means another (sarcasm). “I just love liver.”Dramatic irony – The reader (audience) knows something character does not. Across 5 Aprils, Eb deserts thinking North will lose - is hopelessSituational irony – When what happens is the opposite of what is expected. “I went to the bank to deposit my check, but left it at home!”
4Irony in “A Retrieved Reformation” P. 43 – “Me?” said Jimmy… “Why, warden, I never was in Springfield in my life?” VerbalP. 45 – “She’s Annabel Adams. Her pa owns the bank.” Situational – bank robber falls for girls whose father owns the bank.P. 46 – The clerk was impressed with the manner and clothes of Jimmy. Dramatic irony
5Irony in StoryP. 47 – From a good look across the street from Spencer’s shoe store, he got a good look at Ralph D. Spencer. Situational – detective catches up with Jimmy after he goes straight.P. 48 – Jimmy takes suitcase with burglary equipment into bank even though doesn’t plan to use it. Situational.P. 48 – When Annabel picks it up - dramatic
6Irony in StoryP. 49 – Decides to save child, but doing so exposes himself. Situational/dramatic because others have no idea of the dangerP. 48 & 49 – Ben Price watches Jimmy – Dramatic because Jimmy does not know he’s being watched.P. 50 – “Guess you’re mistaken Mr. Spencer. Don’t believe I recognize you.” Verbal
7IdiomsIdioms are expressions that develop over time that cannot be taken literally. Often they are regional and people outside the region may not understand them.“It’s raining cats and dogs.”“Come out of your shell.”“Save for a rainy day.”“Up a creek without a paddle.”
8SatireSatire is a literary devise meant to make fun of and show the weaknesses of human nature or a particular person using wit, scorn, ridicule, or sarcasm.Often focuses on politics, society, weaknesses, wrongdoings with a moral voice.It often exaggerates the situation to show extreme foolishness.Often dramatic or verbal irony is used.
9Techniques of SatireHyperbole/exaggeration - To enlarge,, or represent something beyond normal bounds so that it becomes ridiculous and its faults can be seenIncongruity - To present things that are out of place or are absurd in relation to its surroundings
10More Techniques of Satire Reversal - To present the opposite of the normal order (e.g., the order of events, hierarchical order).Parody - To imitate the techniques and/or style of some person, place, or thing.
11Some Examples of Satire Subject of the satireComment or criticismSNL Weekend UpdateTelevision newsFlaws and vices related to politics, entertainment and current eventsScary MovieHorror MoviesExaggerates techniques used to scare audiencesAustin Powers1960 Spy MoviesRidicules behavior of the spy and stupidity of the evil figurePolitical CartoonsPoliticians and Political IssuesPolicy decisions and personality traits of elected officials can be flawedFamily GuyThe American FamilyThere is no such thing as the perfect familySouth ParkFamilies and Social and Political IssuesFoolish issues impact families and children
12ImageryImagery is the use of words or phrases that appeal to the senses.Writers use imagery to describe how their subjects look, sound, taste, feel, and smell.“Then a skeleton came out from among the trees. It was the skeleton of a Union soldier… The sunken cheeks were covered with a thin scattering of fuzz; the hair was lank and matted” (Across Five Aprils, p. 134)
13Other Forms of Figurative Language Metaphor – A type of comparison used in literature when one thing is said to be another, “She is the sunshine on a rainy day.”Simile – A comparison using like or as, “She is like the sun.”Alliteration – A literary device in which the first letter of words in a sentence are the same, “Happily Harry hurriedly hopped home!”Oxymoron – figure of speech using contradictory words such as “large shrimp” “bitter sweet” “alone together”
14Other Forms of Figurative Language Hyperbole – An exaggeration not meant to be taken seriously, “If I’ve told you once I’ve told you a thousand times!”Personification – when something non-human is given human characteristics, “The dark and sinister windows of the abandoned house watched me as I passed by.”
15OnomatopoeiaThe word sounds like the sound it represents: Buzz Whoosh Shhhhh Bam Crash