Presentation on theme: "SOL Reading Literary Terms Review"— Presentation transcript:
1 SOL Reading Literary Terms Review Woodgrove High School
2 Definition:stories that use characters to represent abstract qualitiesoften teaches religious or moral lessonsExamples:Young Goodman Brown by Nathaniel HawthorneLord Of The Flies by William GoldingMoby Dick by Herman MelvilleDivine Comedy by Dante Alighieri
3 A story, poem, or picture that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, typically a moral or political oneExamples:"Animal Farm" by George OrwellThe short story “Animal Farm” represents the events leading up to Soviet totalitarianism in Russia by Stalin in a farm setting.The Divine Comedy by Dante AlighieriIn The Divine Comedy, Dante, symbolizing humankind, is taken by Virgil the poet on a journey through Hell, Purgatory and Paradise
4 Definition: Examples: ???? is a form of extended metaphor, in which objects, persons, and actions in a narrative, are equated with the meanings that lie outside the narrative itself.The underlying meaning has moral, social, religious, or political significance, and characters are often personifications of abstract ideas as charity, greed, or envy.Examples:The Faerie Queene, Edmund SpenserThe Pilgrim’s Progress, John BunyanThe Divine Comedy, DanteLord of the Flies, William GoldingMoby Dick, Herman MelvilleAnimal Farm, George Orwell???? of the four elements:
6 The occurrence of the same letter or sound atthe beginning of adjacentor closely connected words. Examples:Sam saw a spider sliding down the stairs.Paul picked plums from Patty’s plum patch.
7 ????? refers to the repetition of a particular sound in the first syllables of a series of words and/or phrases.Ex.1. Becky’s beagle barked and bayed, becoming bothersome for Billy.2. Peter’s piglet pranced priggishly
8 ????? is the repetition of initial sounds in neighboring words. Definition:????? is the repetition of initial sounds in neighboring words.Examples:Sweet smell of successBigger the betterA dime a dozenJump for joy
9 The repetition of initial consonant sounds in a series of words Example:-Sally sells seashells by the seashore.-Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers
11 AllusionDefinition:An expression designed to call something to mind without mentioning it explicitly; an indirect or passing reference - an allusion to Shakespeare- a classical allusionThe practice of making such references, esp. as an artistic deviceExamples:"I was not born in a manger. I was actually born on Krypton and sent here by my father, Jor-el, to save the Planet Earth." ~ Senator Barrack Obama, speech at a fund-raiser for Catholic charities, October 16, 2008 Barrack Obama makes an allusion to Superman.She transformed her backyard to look like the Garden of Eden. This is an allusion to the Bible.His wife was his Achilles' heel. This is an allusion to mythology and this has a different name know as a mythological allusion
12 Definition - is a brief reference to a person, event, or place, real or fictitious, or to a work of art within a work of art. An allusion may be drawn from history, geography, literature, or religionExamples:1. Andy Warhol, a 20th-century American artist most famous for his pop-art images of Campbell soup cans and of Marilyn Monroe, commented about the explosion of media coverage by saying, “In the future, everyone will be world-famous for 15 minutes.“ Today, when someone receives a great deal of media attention for something fairly trivial, and he or she is said to be experiencing his or her “15 minutes of fame”, the ????? is to Andy Warhol's famous saying.2. Allusion Martin Luther King, Jr., alluded to the Gettysburg Address in starting his "I Have a Dream" speech by saying 'Five score years ago..."; his hearers were immediately reminded of Abraham Lincoln's "Four score and seven years ago", which opened the Gettysburg Address. King's ????? effectively called up parallels in two historic moments
14 Definition:“the adversary of the hero or protagonist of a drama or other literary work” –dictionary.comExamples:The ????? of the Harry Potter series by J.K. Rowling is Voldemort (with the exception of The Prisoner of Azkaban)The ????? of the Hound of the Baskervilles is Stapleton.The ????? of the play “Hamlet” could be considered to be Claudius or Hamlet himselfThe ????? of the book Grendel by John Gardner is the world.
15 A person who actively opposes or is hostile to someone or something The ????? in Spider-Man was the Green Goblin.The ???? in this novel attempted to blow up the town.
16 Definition~ A character who is opposed to good. Adversary. Examples~ ~ Voldemort (from Harry Potter series) ~ Lex Luther (from Superman series)
18 Definition:A brief comment made on stage to the audience, so that the other characters cannot hear.Example:In Romeo and Juilet: the balcony scene-Juliet. O Romeo, Romeo! wherefore art thou Romeo? Deny thy father and refuse thy name; Or, if thou wilt not, be but sworn my love, And I'll no longer be a Capulet. -Romeo. [????.] Shall I hear more, or shall I speak at this?
19 Definition-noun-Words spoken (usually in a play) that can be heard by the audience but not by other charactersExample 1-The play had an ???? in it, where the main character turned to the crowed and gave his own, unspoken, opinion on the situation.Example 2-The character gave an ????during the play, explaining the current situation and his growing suspicions of the character next to him.
20 Definition:a part of an actor's lines supposedly not heard by others on the stage and intended only for the audience.a temporary departure from a main theme or topic, especially a parenthetical comment or remark; short digression.Examples:In Othello, examples of ???? can be found while Iago is informing the audience of his plans and his route he has mapped out to achieving his goals.In Shakespeare's play Hamlet, Polonius, who is a Chamberlin, speaks about his daughter in an ?????.
21 Definition:In theater, a part of an actor’s/actress’s lines that is heard only by the audience, and by none of the other characters that are on stage.Examples:“Time, thou anticipatest my dread exploits.”-Macbeth, in Macbeth by Shakespeare
23 Definition: A narrative poem, often of folk origin and intended to be sung, consisting of simple stanzas and usually having a refrain.Examples: *Oscar Wilde’s “Ballad of Reading Gaol” *Aerosmith’s “Dream On” *Led Zeppelin’s “Stairway to Heaven” *Heart’s “What About Love”
24 Definition:a simple narrative poem of folk origin, composed in short stanzas and adapted for singing.Examples:Sir Patrick SpensBonnie Barbara AllenThe Rime of Ancient Mariner
25 Definition:A poem that tells a story, usually with a musical quality or rhythm and put to music.Examples:“Light do I see within my Lady’s eyes And loving spirits in its plenisphere Which bear in strange delight on my heart’s care Till Joy’s awakened from that sepulchre.”from Ballata 5, by Guido Cavalcanti
26 Definition-noun- A free verse poem that is usually told orally and set to music. Example 1- The ???? told a story of a young man and a young girl who had met and fell in love, but then were separated when a terrible storm struck.Example 2- The man sung the ???? while playing his banjo to give a more upbeat feel to the otherwise grim story.
27 Defini-tion:any light, simple song, especially one of sentimental or romantic character, having two or more stanzas all sung to the same melody.Examples The ???? of the Green Berets by Sgt. Barry Sadler The ???? of Persse O’Reilly by James Joyce The ???? Of A Bachelor by Ellis Parker Butler ???? on the American War by Robert Burns
29 A poem written in unrhymed iambic pentameter Definition:A poem written in unrhymed iambic pentameterMuch of Shakespeare’s plays – “Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day” as well as other Renaissance playsMilton’s Paradise LostThe Ball Poem by John BerrymanWhat is the boy now, who has lost his ball, What, what is he to do? I saw it goMerrily bouncing, down the street, and then Merrily over-there it is in the water!
30 Definition: Verse without rhyme scheme, especially that which uses iambic pentameter Example: Romeo and JulietTomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow,Creeps in this petty pace from day to day,To the last syllable of recorded time;And all our yesterdays have lighted foolsThe way to dusty death. Out, out, brief candle!Life's but a walking shadow, a poor playerThat struts and frets his hour upon the stageAnd then is heard no more: it is a taleTold by an idiot, full of sound and fury,Signifying nothing.Example: Hamlet"Indeed this counselor / Is now most still, most secret, and most grave, / Who was in life a foolish prating knave”
31 Definition:Unrhymed Iambic PentameterExamples:Paradise Lost by MiltonMen called him Mulciber; and how he fellFrom heaven, they fabled, thrown by angry JoveSheer o'er the crystal battlements: from mornTo noon he fell, from noon to dewy eve.The Ball Poem by John BerrymanWhat is the boy now, who has lost his ball,What, what is he to do? I saw it goMerrily bouncing, down the street, and thenMerrily over-there it is in the water!
32 Verse without rhyme, esp. that which uses iambic pentameter What is the boy now, who has lost his ball, What, what is he to do? I saw it go Merrily bouncing, down the street, and then Merrily over-there it is in the water!But soft! What light through yonder window breaks?It is the East and Juliet is the sun!A-rise fair sun and kill the envious moon,Who is already sick and pale with griefThat though her maid art far more fair than sheVerse without rhyme, esp. that which uses iambic pentameterunrhymed verse, especially the unrhymed iambic pentameter most frequently used in English dramatic, epic, and reflective verse.
34 A harsh, discordant mixture of sounds a discordant and meaningless mixture of soundsShe heard a ???? of hoots, cackles, and wails.The sound of city traffic during midday is ridiculous.
35 harsh or discordant sound:dissonance; Examples:The sounds of barking dogs and sirens added to the ???? on the streets.The ???? of a pet store full of animals.Definition:harsh or discordant sound:dissonance;Specifically: harshness in the sound of words or phrases
36 Definition:Harsh, discordant soundsExamples:finger of birth-strangled babe.EXCERPT FROM JABBERWOCKY BY LEWIS CARROLL'Twas brillig, and the slithy tovesDid gyre and gimble in the wabe;All mimsy were the borogoves,And the mome raths outgrabe.
37 Definition: a harshness of sound. discordant noise Examples: 'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe; All mimsy were the borogoves, And the mome raths outgrabeBreakers crashed onto jagged rocks and clawed the sands with brutal strikes, pummeling the beachBeware the Jabberwock, my son! The jaws that bite, the claws that catch! Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun The frumious Bandersnatch
38 Definition: A technique in poetry in which using an unpleasant, harsh spoken sound is created by clashing consonantsExample:'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves Did gyre and gimble in the wabe; All mimsy were the borogoves, And the mome raths outgrabe.-Lewis CarrollExample:And thou, who didst the stars and sunbeams know,/Self-school'd,self-scann'd, self-honor'd, self-secure,/Didst tread on earth unguess'd at. –Matthew Arnold
40 Definition:a graphic or vivid verbal description by an author describing the characters of his story.Examples:- The girl was in her teenage years and always wore a bright yellow dress that expressed her perfect tan.- There was a middle-aged man who was wearing a long, brown coat and looked very suspicious.
42 The decisive moment in a drama, the The decisive moment in a drama, the ???? is the turning point of the play to which the rising action leads.Examples:1.In Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar" the ???? occurs at the end of Marc Antony's speech to the Roman public.2. The ???? of Romeo and Juliet occurs in Act 3 just after Romeo kills Tybalt when he realizes he has just murdered his wife's cousin
43 ExamplesIn the movie 127 hours when he cuts off his arm.In Toy Story when the toys escape Sid’s house.In Aladin when Aladin fights Jafar.In The Patriot when Mel Gibson’s soldiers fight on the front line against Cornwalis.Definitionthe highest or most intense point in the development or resolution of something(in a dramatic or literary work) a decisive moment that is of maximum intensity or is a major turning point in a plot.
44 Definition: Examples: The point at which the action in a story reaches its emotional peakThe highest level of conflict and dramaExamples:In the ???? to the film "Star Wars," the empire's death star is ready to destroy the rebel base. Luke Skywalker and rebel pilots attack the base, and after the deaths of some rebel pilots, Skywalker successfully fires his missile into the death star's vulnerable spot and destroys the death star, saving the rebel forces.In Grendel, the ????is when Beowulf rips Grendel’s arm off during the fight.The ???? of the book Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows is when Harry Potter and Voldermort battle and Voldermort is killed by Harry.
45 Definition:the highest or most intense point in the development. The climax of work usually involves an important event, decision, or discovery that affects the final outcome.Examples:The ????in THE SCARLET LETTER is when Dimmesdale finally confesses his sins to the crowd.The ???? in Beowulf is when Beowulf kills Grendel’s mother.
46 Definition:. a) the highest point Definition: a) the highest point b) a figure of speech in which a series of phrases or sentences is arranged in ascending order of rhetorical forcefulness.Examples: “The ???? of that movie kept me on the edge of my seat because it was filled with so much action!” – this is the high point in the movie and everything leading up to this point. “The man has reaches the ???? of his life as he has traveled around the world and experienced things no one else has.” – this is the high point and the ascending points leading to this point of greatest.Reaching the ???? is like reaching the top of a mountain.
48 Definition: the repetition of consonant sounds in the middle or at the end of consecutive words that do not rhymeExamples: blank and think, brick and clock
49 Definition: A poetic device, repetition of sounds or consonants; Examples:“as in guys she gently sways at ease”-"The Silken Tent" by Robert Frost"Rap rejects my tape deck, ejects projectile/Whether Jew or gentile I rank top percentile."- Zealots by the Fugees"And the silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain."- ”The Raven” by Adgar Alan Poe Totally a picture of ????.
50 ExamplesWhose woods these are I think I know. His house is in the village though; He will not see me stopping here To watch his woods fill up with snowLitter and batterSpelled and scaldLaughed and deftDefinition: ???? is the repetition, at close intervals, of the final consonants of accented syllables or important words , especially at the ends of words,
52 Examples Ulysses in The Odyssey Beowulf in Beowulf Robin Hood Definitiona mythical or mythicized character who embodies the aspirations of the society in which the story takes placeHe appeals to society because he stands out from traditional beliefs
53 Definition:a mythical or mythicized historical figure who embodies the aspirations or ideals of a societyExamples:Beowulf has extreme strength and is cocky.Batman is extremely brave and is very humble.
54 Cultural Hero- A figure who embodies the ideals of a society Ex. SupermanEx. Nelson Mandela
56 Examples: Definition: style of speaking or writing as dependent upon choice of wordsthe accent, inflection, intonation, and speech-sound quality manifested by an individual speaker, usually judged in terms of prevailing standards of acceptabilityin a look until dropped like an egg on the floor let slop, crashed to slide and run, yolk yellow for the live, the dead who worked through me(Wherever You Are, Be Somewhere Else: Denise Riley)Or is it the pentagram Hidden in a bed the conversation of bodies.(The prose of walking back to China: Christopher Middleton)
57 Examples:Grendel uses words that portray gloominess and confusion to provide sympathy for Grendel.Words and Behavior uses complex words to provide knowledgeable feel to the essay.Definition:Style of speaking or writing as dependent upon choice of words
58 ????- (noun) the authors choice or words Sentence-The authors true meaning or theme cannot be conveyed without a clear ????.Her ???? while giving her persuasive speech was flawless.
60 Definition: ????that occurs when the meaning of the situation is understood by the audience but not by the characters in the play.Ex.1: A horror movie is playing all of the sudden creepy music starts playing, the viewers know someone is about to die or discover something horrible but of course the characters can’t hear the music.Ex.2: In Shrek, donkey knows that Fiona and Shrek like each other but only donkey and the audience knows this, Shrek and Fiona have no idea…yet .
65 Examples:The Iliad and The Odyssey by HomeAeneid by VirgilParadise Lost by MiltonBeowulfDefinition:a story that is usually told of a hero and his adventuresit is written in a formal styles
66 a long narrative poem telling of a hero's deeds. Examples:The Iliad by HomerThis ????? tells of the Trojan Wars the Greeks fought and of the hero Achilles. The Iliad is thousands of years old and has over 15,000 lines.The Epic of GilgameshThe Epic of Gilgamesh is an ancient poem who has no specific author from ancient Mesopotamia.
67 Definition: Examples: An extended narrative poem recounting actions, travels, adventures, and heroic episodes written in a high style.Protagonist is heroically larger than lifeThe deeds of the hero are presented without favoritismThe action (in battle) reveals the more-than-human strength of the heroesThe gods and lesser divinities play an active role in the outcomeAll of the various adventures relate in some way to the central themeTypical in epics is a set of conventions (or epic machinery). Among them are these:Poem begins with a statement of the themeInvocation to the muse or otherStory begins in medias resCatalogs (of participants on each side, ships, sacrifices)Histories and descriptions of significant items (who made a sword or shield, how it was decorated, who owned it from generation to generation)Epic simile (a long simile where the image becomes an object of art in its own right as well as serving to clarify the subject).Frequent use of epithetsUse of patronymics (calling son by father's name)Long, formal speeches by important charactersJourney to the underworldUse of the number three (attempts are made three times, etc.)Previous episodes in the story are later recountedExamples:Iliad, HomerOdyssey, HomerAeneid, VirgilJerusalem Delivered, TassoParadise Lost, MiltonBeowulf
69 Ethos: A persuasive argument appealing to ethics Peter VolponeEthos: A persuasive argument appealing to ethicsEXAMPLES:“If you support the army, you support your country – please donate $5 to the army.”“You wouldn't kill an animal would you? Then why do you litter? Littering is the same as killing animals, STOP LITTERING TODAY!!!”
70 Examples: Definition: Join the military if you want to be a proud citizen of your country-Some would feel obligated to do something for their country after seeing this, because of their morals.Sponsor a child in Africa to make steps towards a better life for them-Ethics and morals of many people would be put into play by this advertisement.Definition:A type of rhetoric based on the ethics and morals of the speaker used to persuade others.
71 Persuading someone based on the character of the speaker Ex. If Oprah Winfrey talks about a book she likes, many women will also want to read the book because they like Oprah.
75 Simile: He is as funny as a barrel of monkeys • Metaphor: You are what DefinitionExamplesSimile: He is as funny as abarrel of monkeys• Metaphor: You are whatyou eat.• Personification: Thetornado ran through townwithout a care.a type of language thatvaries from the norms of literallanguage, in which words meanexactly what they say. Alsoknown as the "ornaments oflanguage," ??????does not mean exactly what itsays, but instead forces the readerto make an imaginative leap inorder to comprehend an author'spoint.It usually involves a comparison between two things that may not, at first, seem to relate to one another
76 Examples:I was so hungry that I even ate the plate (Hyperbole)The rain seemed like an old friend who had finally found us (Simile)My father was the sun and the moon to me (Metaphor)Definition: ????? is a word or phrase that departs from everyday literal language for the sake of comparison, emphasis, clarity, or freshness. Metaphor and simile are the two most commonly used figures of speech, but things like hyperbole, synecdoche, puns, and personification are also figures of speech
77 Definition: Examples: Literal and ?????? is a distinction in traditional systems for analyzing language. Literal language refers to words that do not deviate from their defined meaning. ????? refers to words, and groups of words, that exaggerate or alter the usual meanings of the component words. ?????may involve analogy to similar concepts or other contexts, and may involve exaggerations. These alterations result in figures of speech.Examples:“You are an ant, while I am a lion” -“The poorest man is the richest, and the rich are poor.”“I fought a million rappers on an afternoon in June.”
78 Definition: Language that does not mean exactly what it says Examples:Busy as a bee.Uses “as” = simileMy teddy bear gave me a huge hug!gives a teddy bear human characteristics = personificationShe sells seashells by the seashoreRepetition of initiation letter or sound = alliterationI am so hungry I could eat an entire bearAn extreme exaggeration = hyperboleLife is a journey-comparing life and journey without using “like” or “as” = metaphorDefinition:Language that does not mean exactly what it says
80 Definition:- A literary or cinematic device in which an earlier event is inserted into the normal chronological order of a narrative.Examples:As the prisoner sat in his jail cell, he began to think about his past… when he was a young boy his parents never had time to care for him and were never around.The lady landed in her hometown where she grew up and began to remember all the fun times she had when she was growing up.
81 Definition:A ?????in literature is a device that allows the writer to present events that happened before the time of the current narration.Examples:MemoriesDreamsStories of the past told by charactersIn the Harry Potter series ???? are used as Harry often looks back to his tragic baby years.
82 Definition:“an interruption of the chronological sequence (as of a film or literary work) of an event of earlier occurrence” (Merriam, 288).”A reference to an event which took place prior to the beginning of a story or play.Examples:In Grendel, John Gardener uses ????? to give the reader a view of Grendel’s early life.In Harry Potter, ?????, in the form of Pensieves, are used to give the reader a view of the early life of Tom Riddle, among other things.
83 A ???? in literature is a device that allows the writer to present events that happened before the time of the current narration.
85 Joshua Kassabian Block 5 Definition- To show or indicate beforehand.Examples:-The witches in the opening scenes in Macbeth foreshadow the terrible things that will follow.-At the beginning of the Wizard of Oz, when Miss Gluch turns into a witch, foreshadows her roll in Oz.
86 Definition:the act of providing vague advance indications; representing beforehandExamples:The music in jaws before the shark comes. Duh nu. duh nu. duhnunununuThe characters in the Wizard of Oz are in the beginning of the film and appear normal but later are displayed by their characteristics such as the mean lady being the wicked witch of the west.
87 Definition:???? is a device in which an author suggests certain plot developments that might come later in the story.Examples:In the fairytale “Little Red Riding Hood”, Little Red Riding Hood’s mother warns her to behave herself on the way to grandmother’s and stay on the path. This foreshadows danger, more specifically danger of the wolf.???? is represented in a suspense novel when a character says, “You must never go through that door”. The reader can infer that the main character will venture to open the door in the future.
88 Foreshadowing is a device in which an author suggests certain plot developments that might come later in the story.
89 Hinting at what will happen later in the work of literature. Harry Potter – Throughout the seven books, there is talk about a final battle, in which one survives and one perishes. This ?????the seventh book, and the battle between Harry and Voldemort.MacBeth – The Three Witches in the first act prophesied what would later happen to MacBeth and other characters in the end of the play.(http://www.uleth.ca/edu/currlab/handouts/fores.jpg)
90 Definition: to show or indicate beforehand; prefigure 2 Examples:1). The witches in the opening scene of Shakespeare's Macbeth ????? the evil events that will follow. 2). In the opening of The Wizard of Oz, set in Kansas, the transformation of Miss Gulch into a witch on a broomstick ?????her reappearance as Dorothy's enemy in Oz.
91 Definition: ????? is the use of hints Examples: or clues to suggest what will happen later in literature.Examples:1. “I fear too early; for my mind misgives Some consequence yet hanging in the stars Shall bitterly begin his fearful date With this night's revels and expire the term Of a despised life closed in my breast By some vile forfeit of untimely death. But He that hath the steerage of my course, Direct my sail! On, lusty gentlemen” (Shakespeare).2. A classic example of ???? is found in the children's fairytale "Little Red Riding Hood." Her mother tells her to take some food to her ill grandmother. However, she warns her to behave herself on the way and stay on the path otherwise she might fall and break the glass. Her mother's warning ???? the big bad wolf.
92 Definition: n.- the use of hints or clues to suggest what will happen later in literature. Examples: In The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare Juliet ???? her death in the line: “Go ask his name.—If he be married, My grave is like to be my wedding bed” In Macbeth the whole witches scene ???? the death of Machbeth. "Great Birnam wood to high Dunsinane hill shall come against him".
94 Song of Myself by Walt Whitman has no rhyme scheme and no meter. A Game of Death by J.A. McManus has no rhym scheme and no meter.DefinitionVerse composed of variable, usually unrhymed lines having no fixed metrical pattern.Walt Whitman
95 Joshua Kassabian Block 5 Definition- Verse that does not follow a fixed metrical pattern.From Marriage Marianne Moore ( )This institution, perhaps one should say enterprise out of respect for which one says one need not change one’s mind about a thing one has believed in, requiring public promises of one’s intention to fulfill a private obligation: I wonder what Adam and Eve think of it by this time, this fire-gilt steel alive with goldenness; how bright it shows—Examples
98 Examples: simile, metaphor, hyperbole and personification Definition: a word or phrase that is used in a different way for comparison, emphasis, or clarityExamples: simile, metaphor, hyperbole and personificationAn example of a simile would be “fleece as white as snow”An example of a hyperbole would be “I’ve told you a thousand times”An example of a personification:
100 Poetry that does not rhyme or have a regular meter. Example One-“I celebrate myself, and sing myself,And what I assume you shall assume,For every atom belonging to me as good belongs to you.I loaf and invite my soul,I lean and loaf at my ease observing a spear of summer grass.”Song of Myself By Walt Whitman(http://www.types-of-poetry.org.uk/24-free-verse.htm)Example Two-“I buried my father in my heart.Now he grows in me, my strange son,My little root who won’t drink milk,Little pale foot sunk in unheard-of night,Little clock spring newly wetIn the fire, little grape, parent to the futureWine, a son the fruit of his own son,Little father I ransom with my life.”From Little FatherLi-Young Lee(http://wendicthomas.files.wordpress.com/2011/05/drummer-boy-2.jpg)
101 Example:Running through a field of clover, Stop to pick a daffodil I play he loves me, loves me not, The daffy lies, it says he does not love me! Well, what use a daffy When Jimmy gives me roses? -- Flora LaunaDefinition:Poetry with no set meter (rhythm) or rhyme schemeExample:Song of Myself by Walt WhitmanI celebrate myself, and sing myself, And what I assume you shall assume, For every atom belonging to me as good belongs to you. I loaf and invite my soul, I lean and loaf at my ease observing a spear of summer grass.By: Keira Hornyak
102 n. A verse that does not follow a fixed metrical pattern Definition:n. A verse that does not follow a fixed metrical patternVerse whose meter is irregular in some respect or whose rhythm is not metricalExamples:Here I swim, with my friends. They jump around me and flip in the air. I am in Florida. There is lots of different kinds of dolphin’s I am a Bottled nosed dolphin. I slip in the water to find my prey. My predators are sharks and some bigger animals than me that live in the ocean. I see something standing on land that I have seen before. There is a noise coming from there. I keep playing with my friends.As I slyly run down the path all you can see is a quick flash. I have nine cubs in a litter when they're only young. I guide their hunt. Days go by. Now it is their birthday. I don't have to tear meat off the bone.
103 A form of poetry with no set meter (rhythm) or rhyme scheme Definition:A form of poetry with no set meter (rhythm) or rhyme schemeA verse without a fixed metrical pattern, usually having unrhymed lines of varying lengthExamples:I celebrate myself, and sing myself, And what I assume you shall assume, For every atom belonging to me as good belongs to you. I loaf and invite my soul, lean and loaf at my ease observing a spear of summer grass. -Song of Myself by Walt WhitmanThe fog comes/ on little cat feet./ It sits looking/ over harbor and city/ on silent haunches/ and then moves on.-Fog by Carl SandburgRunning through a field of clover,/ Stop to pick a daffodil/ I play he loves me, loves me not,/ The daffy lies, it says he does not love me!/ Well, what use a daffy / When Jimmy gives me roses? -by Flora Launa
105 Examples:He was so hungry he could eat an elephant.I was beginning to cook from the heat.Definition:a literary term in which a huge exaggeration occurs
106 Definition: A deliberate exageration used for effect. Examples: “I’m so thirsty that I could drink the whole ocean.” Saying the person is thirsty.“I could lift a million pounds”. The person is strong.
108 Definition: a common meter in poetry consisting of an unrhymed line with five feet or accents, each foot containing an unaccented syllable and an accented syllable .The horse rode around the big field.The dog ate the deer with relish.
109 By: Keira HornyakDefinition:??????is a commonly used metrical line in traditional verse and verse drama. The term describes the particular rhythm that the words establish in that line. That rhythm is measured in small groups of syllables; these small groups of syllables are called “feet". The word “????" describes the type of foot that is used (in English, an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable). The word “????" indicates that a line has five of these "feet."Examples-da DUM da DUM da DUM da DUM da DUMWhen I do count the clock that tells the timeTo swell the gourd, and plump the hazel shellsTo swell | the gourd, || and plump | the ha- | zel shells
111 ImageryBy: Sarah CurtisDefinition: The formation of mental images, figures, or likenesses of thingsEx. 1: The music coursed through us, shaking our bodies as if it came from within us.Ex. 2: The jungle was lush, teeming with life to its very core.
112 figurative language, especially metaphors and similes or words addressing the senses, used in poetry, plays, and other literary piecesExample 1.The dessert tastes sweet yet spicy at once, with a tinge of orange tasteExample 2.I was as stiff as a wooden plank after running 8 miles for the first time in several months
114 something said or written that uses humor based on words suggesting the opposite of their literal meaningVerbal ????: a figure of speech in which what is said is the opposite of what is meantSituational ????: an outcome that turns out to be very different from what was expected, the difference between what is expected to happen and what actually doesDramatic ????: irony that is inherent in speeches or a situation of a drama and is understood by the audience but not grasped by the characters in the play.
115 Definition:When something is said or done that contradicts what is happening or something that happened in the pastVerbal: When something is said that is sarcastic or doesn’t mean something literally.Dramatic: When the audience knows what is going to happen but the character does notSituational: When something happens that is opposite is what has been said is going to happen.Examples:A firehouse catches on fire—A fire station normally puts out firesThe Importance of Being Earnest- The audience knew who was who
116 Examples of verbal ????:Well that helped a lot.Nice haircut.Examples of situational ????:The fire department burns down.A lifeguard drowns in the kiddy poolExamples of dramatic ????:Spooky music in horror movies, you know something's coming, but the characters do not.The audience knows the killer is hiding in the closet but the character does not.
120 Definition Promises that are not made directly but are implied by the images on the commercial Examples:Use this shampooand you’ll look like herIf you buy this sports car pretty girls will wash it for you in their bathing suits
122 Definition: Examples: The assignment was a breeze.The desert is a burning furnace.Definition:a figure of speech in which a term or phrase is applied to something to which it is not literally applicable in order to suggest a resemblancesomething used, or regarded as being used, to represent something else; emblem; symbol.
123 Definition:Examples:A comparison of two unlike things without the use of like or as.America is a melting potHe has a heart of stoneThe defense was an impassable wallThat man is a pig
124 Example:He was a dog because he cheated on his girlfriend.The sun shone brightly, a flashlight in the sky.Definition:a comparison that does not use ‘like’ or ‘as’Example: She was a fish.By: Keira Hornyak
125 A ???? is the comparison of two unlike things. Ex. He is a pig.Ex. Thou art sunshine.
127 When a character is speaking their thoughts aloud, directly to another character or audience. Examples:- Puck’s verses in William Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream- Macbeth’s thoughts and feelings in Macbeth when he is thinking of killing the king
128 Definition: A composition in which a single person speaks alone. Examples:In the movie “Fight Club,” Edward Norton explains Tyler’s philosophy and the rules of fight club.In the movie “Men in Black,” Zed recites the regulations for the Men in Black.
130 DEFINITION: The atmosphere that pervades a literary work with the intention of evoking a certain emotion or feeling from the audience. In drama, ???? may be created by sets and music as well as words; in poetry and prose, ???? may be created by a combination of such elements as setting, voice, tone and theme.EXAMPLES:- Edgar Allen Poe has disturbing and horrific moods in his short stories.-Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger has a very brooding and desperate mood.- Jane Austen’s novels have a romantic and hopeful mood.
132 Definition: Examples: Noun A. A person who narrates something, esp. the events of a novel or narrative poem: "his poetic efforts are mocked by the ???? of the story".B. A person who delivers a commentary accompanying a movie, broadcast, piece of music, etcExamples:Morgan Freeman tells many stories and explains many phenomena on science channels making him a ????.The narrator of Twilight happens to be Bella Swan as she tells her story about vampires.-Twilight, Stephanie Meyer
133 Definition: Examples: a person who tells a story or gives an account of somethinga person who speaks in accompaniment of a film, television program, novel, etc.Examples:The Harry Potter series is told through a ????with a third person limited point of view.To Kill a Mockingbird is told through a ???? with a first person point of view.fanpop.com
134 Definition:???? one who tells a story, the speaker or the “voice” of an oral or written work. Although it can be, the ????is not usually the same person as the author. The ???? is one of three types of characters in a given work, (1) participant (protagonist or participant in any action that may take place in the story), (2) observer (someone who is indirectly involved in the action of a story), or (3) non participant (one who is not at all involved in any action of the story). The ???? is the direct window into a piece of work. Depending on the part of the character of the ???? plays in the story, the ????r may demonstrate bias when presenting a piece ofExample: The professional actress hired by the Smithsonian Museum was the ???? of the story in the reenactment of the civil rights sit-in.Example: Brittan was the ???? in her short story The Testament of Youth.
135 The ???? is the person who tells the story to the audience. Some examples of a ???? are; March of the Penguins narrated by Morgan Freeman, and A Clockwork Orange by Malcolm McDole.
137 Definition:a statement or proposition that seems self-contradictory or absurd but in reality expresses a possible truth;a self-contradictory and false proposition;any person, thing, or situation exhibiting an apparently contradictory nature.a seemingly true statment or group of statements that lead to a contradiction or a situation which seems to defy logic or intuition.ExamplesWhich came first? Chicken or the egg?Traveling back in time to kill your grandfather before you were born.The twin paradox (One twin takes a trip into space and on return finds out he has aged less than his identical twin).The Predestination paradox (traveling back to discover the source of a fire, while in the building where the fire started, you start the fire that inspired you to go back in time).
143 Definition: A contradictory statement that upon closer inspection proves true. Examples:Those have ears but hear notStone walls do not a prison make, nor iron bars a cage.
144 Definition: A statement that appears to contradict itself. -Stairs go up, but which way is up?Examples :"Je ne parle pas Français." (Bart Simpson, The Simpsons)- Translates to " I do not speak French " , in French."War is peace." "Freedom is slavery." "Ignorance is strength." (George Orwell, 1984)- Each statement is being directly related to the other, although they are complete opposites.
145 ParadoxDefinition:a figure of speech in which a statement appears to contradict itself.something that has the possibility of being true or not true.Examples:War is peace.Freedom is slavery.Ignorance is strength.I must be cruel to be kind. ~ William Shakespeare (Hamlet)
147 Definition: The action or fact of. ing someone or of being Definition: The action or fact of ???ing someone or of being ????ed to do or believe something2 Examples: 1). "In a republican nation, whose citizens are to be led by reason and ????and not by force, the art of reasoning becomes of first importance."(Thomas Jefferson)2). "Oral delivery aims at ???? and making the listener believe he has been converted. Few persons are capable of being convinced; the majority allow themselves to be persuaded." (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe)
149 Definition:The ??? ? ?? is the position of the narrator in relation to the story, as indicated by the narrator’s outlook from which the events are depicted and by the attitude toward the characters.Examples:1st person singular – When you’re narrating yourself. “I was walking down the street when suddenly…”3rd person singular – When an outside person is narrating another person or event. “He was walking down the street when suddenly...”
151 Definition:(XXX) uses a narrator who refers to him-herself as “I.” Often, a first-person narrator is limited to his or her own experiences and thoughts who must assume the feelings, thoughts, or reactions of other characters, so first-person narrators may be unreliable or naive.Examples:Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry FinnSir Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes storiesTo Kill A Mocking Bird by Harper LeeWhat Life Means To Me by Jack London
153 3rd person point of view in which the narrator knows the thoughts and feelings of all of the characters in the storyMcCullough, The ThornbirdsMitchell, Gone with the WindMoby Dick by Herman Melville
155 Definition:(POV) The third-person limited is a narrative mode in which the reader experiences the story through the senses and thoughts of just one character. This is almost always the main characterthe narrator cannot tell the reader things that the focal character does not know—but the text is written in the third person.Examples:Card, Ender’s GameHarry Potter Series by J.K. RowlingTale of Two Cities by Charles Dickens
157 The leading character or a major character in a work of literature Batman, the ???? in the Batman movies, saved many from the Joker.The ???? in the book saved everyone from impending doom.
158 The main character who is usually a hero or heroine. Examples:~ Harry Potter~ SupermanDefinition~The main character who is usually a hero or heroine.
159 Definition:“the leading character, hero, or heroine of a drama or other literary work.” –dictionary.comExamples:Harry Potter is the ???? of the Harry Potter series by J.K. RowlingIn Sherlock Holmes and the Hound of the Baskervilles, by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Dr. Watson is the ????.The ???? of the play “Hamlet” is HamletThe ???? of the book Grendel by John Gardner is not a hero, but the monster Grendel
160 DEFINITION: the leading character, hero, or heroine of a drama or other literary work. EXAMPLES:-Sherlock Holmes from Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s storiesHarry Potter in the Harry Potter series by J.K. RowlingNick Carraway in The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald
162 Definition: A phrase or verse reoccurring at intervals within a poem or song. -Stanzastwo andfour arerefrainsExamples:- From 'Lay the Bent to the Bonny Broom' by PentangleThere lived a lady by the North Sea shore,Lay the bent to the bonny broom*Two daughters were the babes she bore.Fa la la la la la la la la. *As one grew bright as is the sun,Lay the bent to the bonny broom *So coal black grew the other one.Fa la la la la la la la. **This contains a refrain midverse
163 Examples: Definition: “Cause baby you're a firework Come on show 'em what you're worth Make 'em go "Oh, oh, oh!" As you shoot across the sky-y-y Baby you're a firework Come on let your colors burst Make 'em go "Oh, oh, oh!" You're gunna leave 'em fallin' down-own-own”Firework by Katy Perry“There you go making my heart beat again, Heart beat again, Heart beat again There you go making me feel like a kid Won't you do it and do it one time? There you go pulling me right back in, Right back in, Right back in And I know-oo I'm never letting this go-ooo”Stuck Like Glue by SugarlandDefinition:A repeated line or number of lines in a poem or song, typically at the end of each verse/ chorus
164 Definition: A phrase or verse repeated in intervals throughout a song or poem. Each example below is repeated in their respective song or poem.“Hey soul sister, ain't that mister mister on the radio, stereo; The way you move ain't fair you know; Hey soul sister, I don't wanna miss a single thing you do; tonight!”- “Hey Soul Sister” by Train“Quoth the raven, "Nevermore.“”- “The Raven” by Edgar Allen Poe
166 EXAMPLES: DEFINITION: Roses are red, Violets are blue this is an example of ???? because of how you would say it, its kind of sing-songyIn music, the ???? makes the song sound the way it does, with its stressed and unstressed syllablesPitch, speech and many other things make up how we hear things, which is also ???? if you scream or something of the sort, it is pitch, which makes up ????.DEFINITION:The pattern of beats usually used in music and poetryThe movement of a recurring beat in something???? is the alteration of stressed and unstressed syllablesDictionary.com
167 Definition: a recognizable pulse, or "recurrence," which gives a distinct beat to a line and also gives it a shape.Example:Iambic pentameter;“So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see,So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.” – William Shakespeare – Sonnet 118
168 ?????-is a recognizable pulse, or "recurrence," which gives a distinct beat to a line and also gives it a shape.Ex: Rain before seven; Clear by eleven. A sunshiny shower Won't last an hour..
170 Definition:the use of irony, sarcasm, ridicule, or the like, in exposing, denouncing, or deriding vice, folly, etc.Examples:The Daily Show with Jon Stewart constantly makes fun of politicians.Stephen Colbert also constantly satires politics and other people in popular culture.
171 ????- A literary work that emphasizes peoples foolishness and stupidity by using sarcasm. Ex. “Not Another Teen Movie”Ex. “My Man Godfrey”
173 ???? ???? (also called cosmic irony) is a trope in which accidental events occur that seem oddly appropriate, such as the poetic justice of a pickpocket getting his own pocket picked. However, both the victim and the audience are simultaneously aware of the situation in situational irony.Examples:A couple appears in court to finalize a divorce, but during the proceeding, they remarry insteadYou buy yourself something after months of saving and then someone gets it for you for Christmas!
174 Definition: A type of irony emphasizing that human beings are enmeshed in forces beyond their comprehension and controlEx.1: You and your friend are walking down a road when you reach a dead end sign, behind the sign is a cemetery.Ex.2: Your walking along a boardwalk and you see a no seagulls sign, on top of the sign sits a seagull.
176 ????- times in a poem when the main character in the poem speaks about a deep topic when alone EX: “To be, or not to be, that is the question“ Act 3, scene 1 of Shakespeare's "Hamlet“. ”o Romeo, o Romeo wherefore art thou Romeo” act 2 scene 2
177 speaks his or her thoughts aloud. Example: Definition:A speech in which acharacter who is alonespeaks his or her thoughtsaloud.Example:“Is this a dagger which I see before me, The handle toward my hand? Come, let me clutch thee. I have thee not, and yet I see thee still. Art thou not, fatal vision, sensible To feeling as to sight? or art thou but A dagger of the mind, a false creation, Proceeding from the heat-oppressed brain? ” – Macbeth Act 2, Scene 2
179 Definition: a. One who speaks. b. A spokesperson. c. One who delivers a public speech.Examples:The ???? of the House is a vocal ???? who delivers speeches on the state of the nation.The President of The United States when he gives the State of the Union.
180 Is someone in a story who talks in first person or one who give a speech or a lecture. Some examples are Martin Luther King Jr. in his speech, or Nelson Mandela in his speech.
181 The person who is (assumed to be) talking. Examples: Definition:The person who is (assumed to be) talking.Examples:In Frankenstein, the ???? shifts between Robert Walton, Victor Frankenstein, and Frankenstein’s monster.tvtropes.org
182 Definition: Examples: Each night representatives are shown on C-Span. The ???? in the poem “Uphill” is the author Christina RossettiDefinition:The narrative or elegiac voice in a poem or story that speaks of his or her situation or feelings.A person who delivers a speech or lecture
184 A ???? ????is one that stays the same throughout a story Tom from “Tom and Jerry” always tries to catch the mouse but never seems to learnIf you ever saw “The Princess Bride” Inigo Montoya is a static character
186 Examples: Definition: the study of the rules for the formation of grammatical sentences in a language.the study of the patterns of formation of sentences and phrases from words.a system or orderly arrangementThe arrangement of words in a sentence"Colorless green ideas sleep furiously." (Linguist Noam Chomsky created this sentence--which is grammatically correct but incomprehensible--to demonstrate that the rules governing ???? are distinct from the meanings words convey.)Now it’s not interesting to talk when we know that the conversation’s being recorded.Don’t you be having no more of ’em bagels now, son.
187 ????- (noun) the order of words in a sentence Examples-If I pay attention in school and learn the principles of grammar I will be able to use proper ????.Thank you, sir. OR Sir, Thank You
189 Definition:The ???? is usually described as being the dominant or unifying idea in a story or work of art.Examples:Romeo and Juliet “Love conquers all” would the ????.Macbeth “Evil never Triumphs” would be the main ???? of that story.
191 ???? is a reflection of a writer’s or speaker’s attitude toward a subject of a poem, story, or other literary work.Ex.1. Holden Caulfield has an undeniable tone in Catcher in the Rye. He is sarcastic, tough, and inquisitive. He also makes poignant observations through his rather biting tone.2. Voldemort, in the Harry Potter series, constantly has a dark and threatening ????.
192 The writer's attitude toward the material and/or readers. ????may be playful, formal, intimate,angry, serious, ironic, outraged, baffled, tender,serene, depressed, etc.Examples:“All morons hate it when you call them a moron.” The ???? in this sentence could be described as sarcastic.“Get to bed. Now.” The ???? in this sentence would be serious.
193 Examples:"The course of true love never did run smooth." –A Midsummer Night’s Dream: In a different context, this quotation could be full of woe and misery. However, although Lysander is making comments about troubles with love, ultimately the reality is that the words are spoken by a comic character highlighting that the play is sure to be full of perplexing yet light trials of love."Life and death appeared to me ideal bounds, which I should first break through, and pour a torrent of light into our dark world." -Frankenstein: Victor speaks these words at the very beginning of the novel, setting an ominous mood for the rest of the tale.Definition: ???? is the attitude a writer takes towards a subject or character: serious, humorous, sarcastic, ironic, satirical, tongue-in-cheek, solemn, objective.
194 The author’s attitude towards the audience Optimism, Anger, Hatred, Pessimism, HappinessThe author’s “voice”
196 Definition:The character flaw or error of a tragic hero that leads to his downfall.Example:Hamlet’s ?????? is his indecisiveness which leads to his death.Romeo’s friends’ aggressiveness led to tension between families.
197 -nounDefinition: The character flaw or error of a tragic hero that leads to his downfall.Although the murder of the man led to his ??? ???, he was still a hero nonetheless.
198 The character defect that causes the downfall of the protagonist of a tragedy. Examples: Macbeth, Hamlet
199 Definition: Examples: a weakness in a character that eventually leads to his or her downfallExamples:In the Tortoise and the Hare, the Hare’s overconfidence leads him to losing the race.Oedipus’s lack of knowledge of his adoption leads him to killing him father and marrying his mother
200 Definition:–noun Literature Definition:–noun Literature . the character defect that causes the downfall of the protagonist of a tragedyExamples:Shakespeare's Hamlet---Hamlet's ??? ???is his indecisiveness and it leads to his downfall.Family Guy--- Peter Griffin is extremely impulsive and causes many problems for his family and friendsPhilip J. Fry has a severe lack of intelligence which causes many problems for him and his friends: Futurama.
202 Definition:–noun Literature Definition:–noun Literature . the character defect that causes the downfall of the protagonist of a tragedyExamples:Shakespeare's Hamlet---Hamlet's ??? ??? is his indecisiveness and it leads to his downfall.Family Guy--- Peter Griffin is extremely impulsive and causes many problems for his family and friendsPhilip J. Fry has a severe lack of intelligence which causes many problems for him and his friends: Futurama.
203 Definition:–nounthe character defect that causes the downfall of the protagonist of a tragedy; hamartia.Examples:MacbethHamletRomeoJuliet
205 Examples:Dad is finally out of patience with picking up after his son, who can't seem to be trained to put his dirty clothes in the hamper instead of letting them drop wherever he happens to be when he takes them off. "Would Milord please let me know when it pleases him to have his humble servant pick up after him?“Mother comes into the TV room and discovers her 11-year-old watching South Park instead of doing his homework, as he was set to a dozen minutes ago. Pointing to the screen she says, "Don't let me tempt you from your duties, kiddo, but when you're finished with your serious studies there, maybe we could take some time out for recreation and do a little math."??? ???(also called sarcasm) is a trope in which a speaker makes a statement in which its actual meaning differs sharply from the meaning that the words ostensibly express. Often this sort of irony is plainly sarcastic in the eyes of the reader, but the characters listening in the story may not realize the speaker's sarcasm as quickly as the readers do.
206 Definition: When a character means to say one thing but it's heard by others as something different. Ex.1: You call your mom to pick you up from school however you come out several minutes late, your mom says, “Well please let me know what time your humble servant should be here next time”Ex.2: You’ve had a bad day and when you get home your brother comes up and says, “Your dog died”, after hearing this comment you simply say “Oh great!”
208 Definition:Of, relating to, or belonging to the period of the reign of Queen VictoriaRelating to or displaying the standard or ideals of morality regarded as characteristic of the time of Queen VictoriaExamples:The house down the street has a Victorian style to it, being built in 1893 and having a castle like appearance.The woman at in the play had an intricately designed dress that reminded me of the Victorian Era
209 A period of history in Britain from 1837-1901, describing the reign of Queen Victoria. Charles Darwin published his book, The Origin of Species, during the ??? ???.During the ??? ???, Britain experienced a time of great imperialism.
210 The novel became the leading form of literature Definition:The ??? ??? of the United Kingdom was the period of Queen Victoria's reign from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.Transition between the writers of the romantic era to the literature of the 20th centuryThe novel became the leading form of literatureVictorian literature - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 25 May <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victorian_LiteratureExamples:Dickens the author of the novel The Pickwick Players (his first novel and a big success)William Thackeray author of the novel Vanity Affair. (which is his most famous and in the Victorian era was popular in the genre of historic novel)Queen Victoria
211 ??? ???Simple Definition: The ???? ??? in England was the period of queen Victoria's reign. It lasted from 1837 to 1901.Example: Charles Dickens and his masterpiece, Vanity Fair.Example: The Importance of Being Ernest was written by Oscar Wilde during the Victorian Era.
212 Definition:The ??? ???of the United Kingdom was the period of Queen Victoria's reign from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a long period of prosperity for the British people.Examples:Charles Dickens is a prime exemplar of Victorian novelist.William Thackeray was Dickens's great rival at the time
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