2Background to the Theatre Roman HistoryBackground to the Theatre
3Rome – in 753 B. C. was a town dominated by Etruria, North of Rome Rome – in 753 B.C. was a town dominated by Etruria, North of Rome. In 509 B.C., the Etruscan (from Etruria) ruler was expelled, and Rome became a republic (just as Athens became a democracy).In the 4th Century B.C., Rome expanded, and by 265 B.C. controlled the Italian peninsula, then Sicily, then several Greek territories.By 240 B.C., Greek Theatre was familiar to Romans, translated into Latin, and brought to Rome.The beginnings of Roman theatre recorded: the first record of drama at the Ludi Romani (Roman Festival or Roman Games).Rome became an empire after Julius Caesar, 27 B.C.Republic – from B.C. Empire – from 27 B.C.-476 A.D.By 345 A.D., there were 175 festivals a year, 101 devoted to theatre. In 55 B.C., the first stone theatre was built in Rome (by Julius Caesar)
5Roman Theatre Borrowed Greek ideas and improved (?) on them less philosophicalEncompassed more than drama : acrobatics, gladiators, jugglers, athletics, chariots races, naumachia (sea battles), boxing, venationes (animal fights)Entertainment tended to be grandiose, sentimental, diversionaryActors / performers were called "histriones"
63 major influences: Greek Drama Etruscan influences – emphasized circus-like elements3. Fabula Atellana – Atellan farces (Atella was near Naples).Short improvised farces, with stock characters, similar costumes and masks – based on domestic life or mythology – burlesqued, parodied – during the 1st century B.C., then declinedMay have influenced commedia dell ‘ArteStock characters:Bucco: braggart, boisterousPappas: foolish old manDossenus: swindler, drunk, hunchbackDrama flourished under the republic but declined into variety entertainment under the empire
7Roman festivals with theatre: Held in honor of the gods, but much less religious than in Greece.Ludi Romani – 6th century B.C.Became theatrical in 364 B.C.Held in September (the autumn)and honored Jupiter.By 240 B.C., both comedy and tragedy were performed.Five others: Ludi Florales (April), Plebeii (November), Apollinares (July), Megalenses (April), Cereales (no particular season).Under the empire, these festivals afforded "bread and circuses" to the masses – many performances.Performances at festivals probably paid for by the state a wealthy citizen, had free admission, were lengthy—including a series of plays or events, and probably had prizes awarded to those who put extra money in.Acting troupes (perhaps several a day) put on theatre events.
9Roman dramas – there are only about 200 years that are important: 2 important playwrights:Livius Andronicus – 240 – 204 B.C. – wrote, translated, or adapted comedies and tragedies, the first important works in Latin. Little is known, but he seems to have been best at tragedy.Gnaeus Naevius – B.C. excelled at comedy, but wrote bothBoth helped to "Romanize" the drama by introducing Roman allusions into the Greek originals and using Roman stories.Pantomime: solo dance, with music (lutes, pipes, cymbals) and a chorus.Used masks, story-telling, mythology or historical stories, usually serious but sometimes comicMime: overtook after 2nd century A.D. Fabula raciniata.Spoken Usually short Sometimes elaborate casts and spectacle Serious or comic (satiric) No masks Had women Violence and sex depicted literally (Heliogabalus, ruled A.D., ordered realistic sex) Scoffed at ChristianityNeedless to say, the Church did not look kindly at Mime.
10Roman comediesComedy was most popular: Only two playwrights' material survivesTitus Maccius Plautus (c B.C.) 21 extant plays, total.Very popular. Pot of Gold, The Menaechmi, Braggart Warrior -- probably between B.C. All based on Greek New Comedies, probably, none of which has survived Added Roman allusions, Latin dialog, varied poetic meters, witty jokes Some techniques: stychomythia – dialog with short lines, like a tennis match Slapstick SongsPublius Terenius Afer [Terence] (195 or B.C.)Born in Carthage, came to Rome as a boy slave, educated and freed Six plays, all of which survive The Brothers, Mother-in-Law, etc. More complex plots – combined stories from Greek originals. Character and double-plots were his forte – contrasts in human behavior Less boisterous than Plautus, less episodic, more elegant language. Used Greek characters. Less popular than Plautus.
11Characteristics of Roman Comedy: Chorus was abandonedNo act or scene divisionsSongs (Plautus – average of three songs, 2/3 of the lines with music; Terence – no songs, but music with half of the dialog)Everyday domestic affairsAction placed in the street
12Roman tragediesNone survive from the early period, and only one playwright from the later period:Lucius Annaeus Seneca (5 or 4 B.C. – 65 A.D.)Nine extant tragedies, five adapted from Euripides.His popularity declined, suicide in 65 A.D.Though considered to be inferior, Seneca had a strong effect on later dramatists. The Trojan Women, Media, Oedipus, Agamemnon, etc., all based on Greek originals Probably closet dramas—never presented, or even expected to be.
13Characteristics of Roman Tragedy (Senecan) five episodes / acts divided by choral odeselaborate speeches – forensic influenceinterest in morality – expressed in sententiae (short pithy generalizations about the human condition)violence and horror onstage, unlike Greek (Jocasta rips open her womb, for example)Characters dominated by a single passion – obsessive (such as revenge) – drives them to doomTechnical devices:Soliloquies, asides, confidants interest in supernatural and human connections – was an interest in the Renaissance
14Roman Dramatic TheoryHorace – (65-8 B.C.) – a theoretician – Ars Poetica (The Art of Poetry)Little influence in his time (interest at the time was in theatre not drama), but much influence in the Renaissance Interpreted Aristotle’s Poetics, but less theoretical and more practice-oriented Mentions unities (of time, place, and action), genre separation, language use in tragedy and comedy
15Roman Theatre Design – Buildings First permanent Roman theatre built 54 A.D. (100 years after the last surviving comedy)So permanent structures, like Greece, came from periods after significant writingMore than 100 permanent theatre structures by 550 A.D.General characteristics:Built on level ground with stadium-style seating (audience raised)Skene becomes scaena – joined with audience to form one architectural unitParadoi become vomitorium into orchestra and audienceOrchestra becomes half-circleStage raised to five feetStages were large – feet deep, feet long, could seat 10-15,000 people3-5 doors in rear wall and at least one in the wingsscaena frons – façade of the stage house – had columns, niches, porticoes, statues – paintedstage was covered with a roof dressing rooms in side wingstrap doors were commonawning over the audience to protect them from the sunarea in from of the scaena called the proskene (proscenium)
18Circus MaximusAmpitheatresfor chariot races – 600 B.C.2000 feet long, 650 feet wide, 60,000 spectatorsTrack to race 12 chariots at a timealso housed circus games, horse racing, prize fighting, wrestling, etc.For gladiatorial contests, wild animal fights, and occasionally naumachia (sea battles)First permanent one in 46 B.C.The Colosseum – 80 A.D. – three stories, then 4; 157 feet tall; 620 feet long; 513 feet wide; 50,000 people.Had space with elevators below to bring up animals, etc.Used periaktoiPerhaps curtains – back and foregroundSpectacular effects:many performers (Cicero tell us: 600 mules, 3000 bowls)Mechanical lifts for animalsTrapsSome realistic, three-dimensional scenery
19Roman ActorsReferred to as histriones and mimes – later primarily histrionesMostly male – women were in mimesRocius – famous, raised to nobilityMimes, however, were considered inferior; perhaps they were slaves.We know little about the size of troupesIn the 1st century B.C., a "star" performer seems to have been emphasized6th century A.D. – Theodora – a star actress – married Emperor Justinian of the Eastern Empire – but had to renounce her profession
20Style of acting Mostly Greek traditions – masks, doubling of roles Tragedy – slow, stately, declamatory deliveryComedy—more rapid and conversationalmovements likely enlargedActors probably specialized in one type of drama, but did othersEncores if favorite speeches given (no attempt at "realism")Mimes – no masksGreek or roman costumesMuch music
21Theatre at the End of the Empire Fall of the Roman Empire6th Century A.D. – Christianity risingEmperor Constantine ( A.D.) – made Christianity legal.Emperor Theodosius – made any other worship illegalBy 400 A.D., many festivals abated, diminished – no gladiators by 404 A.D., and no ventiones (animal fights) by 523, but others continuedChurch opposition to Theatre:Association with pagan godslicentiousnessridicule of church by mimes (sacrament and baptism)Also, a decay of Roman empire from within and barbarians from without.533 A.D. is the last record we have of a performance in the Roman Empire – mentioned in a letter.