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Common Sense By: Thomas Paine

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1 Common Sense By: Thomas Paine
Group 1: Matt Fidurko, Katie Lyter, Kristin Youngs, Megan Burgess, Davey Carls, Alex Anzivine

2 Society vs. Government “Society is produced by our wants and government by our wickedness” Society promotes our happiness POSITIVELY Government restrains our behavior NEGATIVELY “The one encourages intercourse, the other creates distinctions. The first is a patron, the last a punisher.” Society is great, but Government restricts

3 “Government is a necessary evil”
Government restricts Society and forces us to give up freedoms It can be destructive and evil Society and Government must have a PEACEFUL CO-EXISTENCE Ensures the SECURITY of the people


5 Direct Democracy turns into a Republic
Colonies get TOO BIG TO ASSEMBLE Forcing people to get elected and represent “THE WHOLE” General mix won’t KEEP THEIR OWN OPINIONS Common change of the elected will lead to the whole community happy

6 Advantages of Absolute Government

7 Complexity of British Government
Society may suffer for a long time without anyone actually knowing the cause The British Government is divided between: Monarchial Tyranny of the King Aristocratical Tyranny of the Peers The Commons

8 Checks and Balances,“absurd”
Commons are supposed to be wiser and can check the King King also has power to check the commons by rejecting their bills THEY CONTRADICT THEMSELVES!

9 “HOW CAME THE KING BY A POWER WHICH THE PEOPLE ARE AFRAID TO TRUST, AND ALWAYS OBLIGED TO CHECK? Such a power could not be the gift of wise people , neither can any power, WHICH NEEDS CHECKING, be from God: yet the provision which the constitution makes supposes such a power to exist.” Constitution requires us to have a “King” King is DISTRUSTED and receives checking from society NO ABSOLUTE MONARCHY IN AMERICA!

10 “by the will of the king is as much the law of the land in Britain as in France, with this difference, that instead of proceeding directly from his mouth, it is handed to the people under the formidable shape of an act of parliament. For the fate of Charles The First, hath only made kings more subtle- not more just.” Form of government similar to an Absolute Monarchy Looked at more subtle because it seems the people now approve it

11 “The prejudice of Englishmen, in favour of their own government, by King, Lords and Commons, arises as much or more from national pride than reason.” Prejudice of the Englishmen comes from the pride of their nation, rather than coming with reason

12 Enlightenment and the Bible
Common Sense by Thomas Paine: Of Monarchy and Hereditary Succession Enlightenment and the Bible Mankind is equal in the order of creation Thomas Paine states “ Equality could only be destroyed by subsequent circumstance...” Paine refers to the pages of the Bible Not a Christian, uses the passages of Samuel People trusted faith and religion before the Enlightenment He uses the Bible to express his point so that people understand

13 Monarchies and God God disapproves of monarchy A republic is affective
- monarchies give too much power to one person - misfortune is brought onto the subjects under the King’s rule A republic is affective - protects citizens from unfair rule - ex. Jewish community first had a republic, but the citizens wanted monarchy

14 Samuel, the Mediator Samuel is a mediator between God and the people
God suggests a king is destructive of liberty God is the only one who can judge his people The people added on to their sins

15 “Popery of Government”
Paine refers to monarchy as “Popery of Government” “Popery of Government”- heads of government Pope is head of Roman Catholic Church King/Queen are heads of government King- head of government Pope- Head of Roman Catholic Church

16 Hereditary Monarchy Paine thinks hereditary monarchy is absurd
Not all descents are worthy of complete power Ex. Rehoboam – fostered dangerous principles - Inaugurated taxes and levies No one by birth should have the right to rule Honors, intelligence, sincerity, and equality “ASS FOR A LION”

17 Hereditary Monarchy and England
First established based on tradition People didn’t want to change Superstition Monarchy in England Not “natural” William the Conqueror Named himself king William the Conqueror

18 First Chosen Kings Precedents that exclude succession English monarchy
Kings chosen by lot Chosen by election Chosen by usurpation English monarchy Didn’t chose king in the previous ways

19 Hereditary = Bad Monarchies
Hereditary Monarchy Kings chosen by genetics Succession Bad Rulers vs. Good Rulers Unworthy and unfair kings Kings being born into power

20 Reasons and Ridiculousness
Plausible- stopping civil wars Eight civil wars First Civil War ( ) Second Civil War ( ) Third Civil War ( ) Nineteen rebellions

21 England’s Constitution
Glory of the Constitution House of Commons Poison of the Constitution Crown Kendra Antle, Kate Cecchi, Abbey Jones, Robby Higby, Dom Saglimben, Katelyn Woods Period 7 J.C.C. History Mr. Roh

22 Works Cited Paine, Thomas. Common Sense. Part II, Of Monarchy and Hereditary Succession Print. Images: Kendra Antle, Kate Cecchi, Abbey Jones, Robby Higby, Dom Saglimben, Katelyn Woods Period 7 J.C.C. History Mr. Roh

23 Common Sense: Of Monarchy and Hereditary Succession
Madison Moran, Kellie Smith, Shelby Grimmer

24 Enlightenment Theories
Paine thought all men are equal No matter rich or poor

25 Christian References Uses them to make his point
Majority of the audience Christian Show that it goes against god. (sin)

26 Why God disapproves It is a sin to idolize anything/anyone other than god. God says “kings equal people being enslaved, cook and bakers, instruments of war.” Kings will take the benefits of the people People still wanted a monarchy When people realize how hard it is god will not hear their prayers.

27 “Popery of government”
PEOPLE CONTRADICT THEMSELVES! Popery= pope having total control People did not like pope having total control. Yet people wanted monarchy King= having total control of government

28 Absurdity of hereditary monarchies
You never know what you’re going to get Taking away the rights of future generations

29 How It Started Most likely from a savage tribe choosing the head of their group (Lord of the Flies) Having sons lead was “convenient” After a few generation it became traditional

30 “It’s just not natural!’
All men are born with equal rights. No birth should be any more important. Adam chose to disobey god, it affected his children Adam= hereditary succession

31 Kings chosen by lot Choosing by lot= random king
Most likely will not have good leadership skills Could be a “couch potato”

32 Kings chosen by election
The people vote for the king Hereditary succession= children won’t be as qualified as voted leader

33 Kings by usurpation William the Conqueror
Take over by force; makes themselves leader No right to power= descendents have no right to power

34 Born Naive Royal children= spoiled brats
Don’t empathize with their people= leads to making wrong decisions Foolish, evil, wrong leaders

35 Monarchies prevents civil wars… Pssshhtt, yeah right.
Monarchies are supposed to prevent civil wars If this was true it would be one good thing about monarchies BUT England's has a history of 8 civil war and 19 rebellions under monarchies King= make peace but are distracted by themselves If a king has more than 1 son= bloody battle for crown

36 The “Glory” of the Constitution
Common people in England thought they had a say in government= House of Commons King held the true power and bribed members of the House of Commons To say England is a “Republic” is a greatly inaccurate statement Kings= impoverished nations and wars

37 By Thomas Paine Part IV Common Sense
Annie McHone Melanie Hudson, Ryan Vossler, Lexie Zimmer, Josh Greaves, Andrew Stady

38 “Small islands not capable of protecting themselves are the proper objects for kingdoms to take under their care; but there is something very absurd, in supposing a continent to be perpetually governed by an island.” Typically, the empire with the strong central government protects the weak. In this case, Britain, an island, rules over America, a huge continent.

39 Why does Paine refer to King George III as the “Sullen tempered Pharaoh of England”?
Ignores the pain he is causing because he believes he is all powerful. King angrily punishes colonies Similar belief of the Egyptian Pharaohs.

40 Why is separation the only possible way forward?
Move backward forever if American’s submit to British laws. Always be arguing over change that will never come. America is already greater than what the king wishes. Only way forward is to break away from the king.

41 Why is reconciliation not possible?
Reuniting with British is foolish. Bond between those in England, and those in colonies is weak. Grudges Tensions would carry on for centuries to come.

42 What does Paine propose is a major problem with monarchies?
Monarchies are always at war within themselves or other countries. Kings believe that their thoughts are correct. Kings don’t actually understand what goes on in their country.

43 What type of government does Paine propose would be best for America?
Paine wants a republican government. Laws passed through voting. Each colony would sent at least thirty delegates to one Congress. Laws must have three fifths of Congress to pass.

44 What does Paine mean when he declares that in America “LAW IS KING”?
We did not focus on one leader. We focus on a set of written laws to rule us.

45 Why does Paine believe that his understanding of the nature of government is a product of the Enlightenment? Paine believes in natural rights. Paine believes that government should be ruled by people and a set of laws, not a divine ruler. - Paine states that all people have liberties.

46 Who is the “fugitive” Paine speaks of?
The fugitive is freedom. No one has yet found freedom. Who must receive the fugitive? All countries must receive the fugitive. If everyone can receive freedom then they can achieve world peace.

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