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Theories & Translation (1) 2008. Unit (4) Adjectives, Adverbs and Prepositions Upon completing this unit, you are expected to be able to: Upon completing.

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Presentation on theme: "Theories & Translation (1) 2008. Unit (4) Adjectives, Adverbs and Prepositions Upon completing this unit, you are expected to be able to: Upon completing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Theories & Translation (1) 2008

2 Unit (4) Adjectives, Adverbs and Prepositions Upon completing this unit, you are expected to be able to: Upon completing this unit, you are expected to be able to: 1. Find suitable TL equivalents to various types and categories of adjectives and adverbs, and adjective and adverb phrase. 2. Know the English adjectival order and refrain from transferring it to TL renditions. 3. Translate frequently adverbs and adjunct clusters and position properly. 4. Know the difference in meaning between the attributes and post- positive adjectives in English and transmit this to their Arabic renditions. 5. Identify the subtleties and difficulties which involve the use of the English prepositions, and 6. Recognize the difficulties related to English prepositional phrases and some of the more common idiomatic combinations.

3 Section (1): Adjectives An adjective is one of the parts of speech. An adjective is one of the parts of speech. An adjective comes as a word on its own or as a part of a phrase. An adjective comes as a word on its own or as a part of a phrase.Examples: - Ahmad is ill. أحمد مريض - Ahmad is very ill. أحمد مريض جدا - The very young boy ran away. هرب الولد الصغير هرب الولد الصغير

4 Section (1): Adjectives Exercise (1): Exercise (1): Identify all adjetives and adjectie phrases in the following sentences then translate the sentences into the following sentences then translate the sentences into Arabic: Arabic: 1. His voice is louder than all the others. 3. We painted the door green. 5. Many students are interested in foreign languages.

5 Section (1): Adjectives Exercise (2): Exercise (2): Translate the following sentences into English. Then identify all adjectives and English. Then identify all adjectives and adjective phrases in your sentences: adjective phrases in your sentences: 1. ابنتك فتاة جميلة 2. من منا لا يحب السماء المشمسة؟ 5. الإنسان اجتماعي بطبعه

6 Section (1): Adjectives Attributive and Predicative Adjectives Adjectives in English and Arabic function as attributive adjectives or predicative adjectives. Adjectives in English and Arabic function as attributive adjectives or predicative adjectives. Examples: Examples: * The exhausted farmer is... (Attributive)- [ adjectives are part of the noun phrase] (Attributive)- [ adjectives are part of the noun phrase] * She was tired (Predicative)- [adjectives are part of the verb phrase. (Predicative)- [adjectives are part of the verb phrase.

7 Section (1): Adjectives Attributive and Predicative Adjectives In English, an attributive adjective usually precedes the head of hte noun phrase; in Arabic it comes after it. head of hte noun phrase; in Arabic it comes after it.Note: In some cases in English, attributive adjectives follow the head of the noun phrase: Examples: - The persons responsible - الأشخاص المسئولون - Members willing to serve - أعضاء راغبون في الخدمة

8 Section (1): Adjectives Attributive and Predicative Adjectives - Predicative adjectives complete or describe the subject or the object. Examples: - Your plan seems foolish (Subjective complement) - I consider your plan foolish. (Objective complement)

9 Section (1): Adjectives Attributive and Predicative Adjectives - Exercise (3): - Identify the adjectives in the following sentences as either attributive or predicative, then translate each sentence into Arabic: - 1. Last night they revealed an important secret We found the teacher upset yesterday The police held the strange man responsible for the theft Foolish ideas result in disasters The door is red.

10 Section (1): Adjectives Attributive and Predicative Adjectives - Exercise (4): - Translate the following sentences and identify the adjectives in your sentences as either attributive or predicative. السماء صافية السماء الصافية تبعث على البهجة. قابلت مجموعة من الصبية الصغار النيل نهر طويل روايته الجديدة جعلته مشهورا

11 Section (1): Adjectives Attributive and Predicative Adjectives - Exercise (5): - The following sentences all have predicative adjecties. First state whether each of these adjectives is a subject attribute or an object attribute, then translate the sentences into Arabic: - The mother left her child asleep - They left him ashamed of what he had done. - The solution offered by the city planners was perfect.

12 Section (1): Adjectives Attributive and Predicative Adjectives - Exercise (5): - Translate the following sentences into English, then identify each adjective as subject attribute or object attribute. قيادة السيارة في الشوارع المزدحمة ليس سهلا أفضل الشاي حارا هل وجد القاضي المتهم بريئا؟

13 Section (1): Adjectives Attributive and Predicative Adjectives - Most adjectives can be used both attributively and predicatively as the following examples: - This is a green door (( هذا باب أخضر - The door is green ( الباب أخضر ) – subject complement - We painted the door green ( صبغنا الباب أخضر )- - Object complement

14 Section (1): Adjectives Attributive and Predicative Adjectives - Some adjectives act attributively only: - (e.g: upper, former) - Other similar adjectives are: mere, outer, inner, sole, main, previous. - **************************************** - Many adjectives act predicatively only: - Example: The man is a sleep. - Other adjectives are: alive, afraid, prepared to, tantamount (to).

15 Section (1): Adjectives Attributive and Predicative Adjectives - Exercise (7): - Translate the following into Arabic: - 1. The main cause of some diseases is til unknown All my chidren are dear to me The child was afraid of sleeping alone Car accidents constitue a principal cause of death.

16 Section (1): Adjectives Attributive and Predicative Adjectives - Exercise (7): - Translate the following into Arabic: عرض وزير الأشغال حلا عمليا لمشكلة المرور. إن من ما ارتكبته من أخطاء يرقى إلى حد الجريمة. استطاع الإنسان حتى اللآن غزو الفضاء الخارجي. ظل الحارس يقظا طوال الليل. الكتب القديمة تنطوي على كنز من المعلومات

17 Section (1): Adjectives Attributive and Predicative Adjectives - Postpositive adjective: - - The policeman involed in the bribery was jailed. - ( a reduced relative clause) - The policeman who was involved in the bribery was jailed.

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