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LATIN ADJECTIVES. GENERAL PRINCIPLES As in French, Latin adjectives can go before or after a noun. They more often go after the noun. Also as in French,

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Presentation on theme: "LATIN ADJECTIVES. GENERAL PRINCIPLES As in French, Latin adjectives can go before or after a noun. They more often go after the noun. Also as in French,"— Presentation transcript:

1 LATIN ADJECTIVES

2 GENERAL PRINCIPLES As in French, Latin adjectives can go before or after a noun. They more often go after the noun. Also as in French, the forms of adjectives change depending on whether the noun is singular or plural and on its gender. Latin is a little more complicated because –There are three genders – masculine, feminine and neuter –Adjectives also change according to the grammatical role of the noun it goes with – e.g. the endings are different when the noun is the subject of a verb from when it is the object

3 ADJECTIVES IN -US, -A, -UM These adjectives have masculine endings like servus, feminine ones like ancilla and neuter ones like tabl īnum So, the singular subject endings are: Masc –us, Fem -a, Neut -um and the singular object endings are: Masc -um, Fem -am, Neut -um: Look at these examples with puer, leō, umbrivir, liber (masculine). puella, rēgīna (feminine) and computātrum (neuter) –Puer malus puellam bonam pulsat. The bad boy hits the good girl [the boy is subject as he does the hitting, the girl is object as he gets hit! ] –Rēgīna bona leōnem ign ā vum spectat. The good queen looks at a lazy lion. [the queen is subject as she does the looking, the lion is object as he gets looked at; leōnem has –em for the object ending but ign ā vum keeps –um as it is an –us, -a, -um adjective] –Comput ā trum insānum mē terret. The crazy computer frightens me [the computer is subject as it does the terrifying!] –Puella irāta computātrum stultum pulsat. An angry girl hits a stupid computer. [ the girl does the hitting, the computer gets hit – notice the neuter keeps the same form whether it is subject or object] –Umbrivir insānus librum magnum tenet. A crazy gweilo is holding a big book. [ the gweilo does the holding, the book gets held ]

4 ADJECTIVES IN -US, -A, -UM (PLURAL) The plural subject endings are: Masc –ī, Fem -ae, Neut -a and the plural object endings are: Masc -ōs, Fem - ā s, Neut -a: Look at these sentences with the same nouns in the plural: –Puerī malī puellās bonās pulsant. The bad boys hit the good girls [the boys are subject as they do the hitting, the girls are object as they get hit! ] –Rēgīnae bonae leōnēs ign ā vōs spectant. The good queens look at lazy lions. [the queens are subject as they do the looking, the lions are object as they get looked at; leōnēs has –ēs for the object ending but ign ā vōs keeps –ōs as it is an –us, -a, -um adjective] –Comput ā tra insāna mē terrent. The crazy computers frighten me [the computer is subject as it does the terrifying!] –Puellae irātae computātra stulta pulsant. Angry girls hit stupid computers. [ the girls do the hitting, the computers get hit – notice the neuter keeps the same form whether it is subject or object] –Umbrivirī insānī librōs magnōs tenent. Crazy gweilos are holding big books. [ the gweilos do the holding, the books get held ]

5 THE –ER VARIATION A few adjectives (like a few nouns in the 2nd. Declension) have a Masculine Nominative singular ending -er instead of –us: –miser (miserable, wretched) l ī ber (free) –sacer (sacred) pulcher (beautiful) All the other forms of such adjectives (i.e. the other masculine cases and all of the Feminine and Neuter ones) add the normal endings after the r, with the preceding e sometimes retained and sometimes dropped: –(keeping e): miser, misera, miserum – l ī ber, l ī bera, l ī berum –(dropping e): sacer, sacra, sacrum – pulcher, pulchra, pulchrum

6 Now answer each question and check your answer with the following slide What form of bonus goes with a feminine plural object? ?

7 What form of bonus goes with a feminine plural object? bonās

8 What form of bonus goes with a masculine singular subject? ?

9 What form of bonus goes with a masculine singular subject? bonus

10 What form of bonus goes with a feminine singular subject? ?

11 What form of bonus goes with a feminine singular subject? bona

12 What form of bonus goes with a neuter singular subject? ?

13 What form of bonus goes with a neuter singular subject? bonum

14 What form of bonus goes with a masculine singular object? ?

15 What form of bonus goes with a masculine singular object? bon um

16 What form of bonus goes with a feminine singular object? ?

17 What form of bonus goes with a feminine singular object? bonam

18 What form of bonus goes with a neuter singular object? ?

19 What form of bonus goes with a neuter singular object? bonum

20 What form of bonus goes with a masculine plural subject? ?

21 What form of bonus goes with a masculine plural subject? bon ī

22 What form of bonus goes with a feminine plural subject? ?

23 What form of bonus goes with a feminine plural subject? bonae

24 What form of bonus goes with a neuter plural subject? ?

25 What form of bonus goes with a neuter plural subject? bona

26 What form of bonus goes with a masculine plural object? ?

27 What form of bonus goes with a masculine plural object? bonōs

28 What form of bonus goes with a feminine plural object? ?

29 What form of bonus goes with a feminine plural object? bonās

30 What form of bonus goes with a neuter plural object? ?

31 What form of bonus goes with a neuter plural object? bona

32 Now choose an adjective from the list to go in each of the blanks in the sentences magnus (big), stult ā s (foolish), probae (honest), parva (small), insānōs (crazy), Graecī (Greek), album (white), mea (my) Puella ________ c ē nam coquit. Le ō _________ in hortō ambulat. (leō is masculine) Caecilius mercātōrēs _________ sal ū tat. (mercātōrēs, m.) Librum _______ in mēnsam pōnō. (liber, m.) Puerī ________ theātrum spectant. P ō cula ________ sunt in cubiculō. (p ō culum, n.) Rēgīnās ________ nōn amāmus (rēgīnā = queen) Fēminae _________ Quīntum dēlectant.

33 Now choose an adjective from the list to go in each of the blanks in the sentences magnus (big), stult ā s (foolish), probae (honest), parva (small), insānōs (crazy), Graecī (Greek), album (white), mea (my) Puella __parva/mea__ c ē nam coquit. Le ō _________ in hortō ambulat. (leō is masculine) Caecilius mercātōrēs _________ sal ū tat. (mercātōrēs, m.) Librum _______ in mēnsam pōnō. (liber, m.) Puerī ________ theātrum spectant. P ō cula ________ sunt in cubiculō. (p ō culum, n.) Rēgīnās ________ nōn amāmus (rēgīnā = queen) Fēminae _________ Quīntum dēlectant.

34 Now choose an adjective from the list to go in each of the blanks in the sentences magnus (big), stult ā s (foolish), probae (honest), parva (small), insānōs (crazy), Graecī (Greek), album (white), mea (my) Puella __parva/mea__ c ē nam coquit. Le ō ___magnus_ in hortō ambulat. (leō is masculine) Caecilius mercātōrēs _________ sal ū tat. (mercātōrēs, m.) Librum _______ in mēnsam pōnō. (liber, m.) Puerī ________ theātrum spectant. P ō cula ________ sunt in cubiculō. (p ō culum, n.) Rēgīnās ________ nōn amāmus (rēgīnā = queen) Fēminae _________ Quīntum dēlectant.

35 Now choose an adjective from the list to go in each of the blanks in the sentences magnus (big), stult ā s (foolish), probae (honest), parva (small), insānōs (crazy), Graecī (Greek), album (white), mea (my) Puella __parva/mea__ c ē nam coquit. Le ō __magnus__ in hortō ambulat. (leō is masculine) Caecilius mercātōrēs _ insānōs _ sal ū tat. (mercātōrēs, m.) Librum _______ in mēnsam pōnō. (liber, m.) Puerī ________ theātrum spectant. P ō cula ________ sunt in cubiculō. (p ō culum, n.) Rēgīnās ________ nōn amāmus (rēgīnā = queen) Fēminae _________ Quīntum dēlectant.

36 Now choose an adjective from the list to go in each of the blanks in the sentences magnus (big), stult ā s (foolish), probae (honest), parva (small), insānōs (crazy), Graecī (Greek), album (white), mea (my) Puella __ parva/mea _ c ē nam coquit. Le ō _ magnus _ in hortō ambulat. (leō is masculine) Caecilius mercātōrēs insānōs salūtat. (mercātōrēs, m.) Librum _album_ in mēnsam pōnō.. (liber, m.) Puerī ______ theātrum spectant. P ō cula _________ sunt in cubiculō (p ō culum, n.) Rēgīnās ________ nōn amāmus (rēgīnā = queen) Fēminae _________ Quīntum dēlectant.

37 Now choose an adjective from the list to go in each of the blanks in the sentences magnus (big), stult ā s (foolish), probae (honest), parva (small), insānōs (crazy), Graecī (Greek), album (white), mea (my) Puella __ parva/mea _ c ē nam coquit. Le ō _ magnus _ in hortō ambulat. (leō is masculine) Caecilius mercātōrēs insānōs salūtat. (mercātōrēs, m.) Librum _album_ in mēnsam pōnō.. (liber, m.) Puerī _Graecī _ theātrum spectant. P ō cula _________ sunt in cubiculō (p ō culum, n.) Rēgīnās _________ nōn amāmus (rēgīnā = queen) Fēminae __________ Quīntum dēlectant.

38 Now choose an adjective from the list to go in each of the blanks in the sentences magnus (big), stult ā s (foolish), probae (honest), parva (small), insānōs (crazy), Graecī (Greek), album (white), mea (my) Puella __ parva/mea _ c ē nam coquit. Le ō _ magnus _ in hortō ambulat. (leō is masculine) Caecilius mercātōrēs insānōs salūtat. (mercātōrēs, m.) Librum _album_ in mēnsam pōnō.. (liber, m.) Puerī _Graecī _ theātrum spectant. P ō cula _parva/mea_ sunt in cubiculō (p ō culum, n.) Rēgīnās ________ nōn amāmus (rēgīnā = queen) Fēminae ________ Quīntum dēlectant.

39 Now choose an adjective from the list to go in each of the blanks in the sentences magnus (big), stult ā s (foolish), probae (honest), parva (small), insānōs (crazy), Graecī (Greek), album (white), mea (my) Puella __ parva/mea _ c ē nam coquit. Le ō _ magnus _ in hortō ambulat. (leō is masculine) Caecilius mercātōrēs insānōs salūtat. (mercātōrēs, m.) Librum _album_ in mēnsam pōnō.. (liber, m.) Puerī _Graecī _ theātrum spectant. P ō cula _parva/mea_ sunt in cubiculō (p ō culum, n.) Rēgīnās _ stult ā s _ nōn amāmus (rēgīnā = queen) Fēminae __________ Quīntum dēlectant.

40 Now choose an adjective from the list to go in each of the blanks in the sentences magnus (big), stult ā s (foolish), probae (honest), parva (small), insānōs (crazy), Graecī (Greek), album (white), mea (my) Puella __ parva/mea _ c ē nam coquit. Le ō _ magnus _ in hortō ambulat. (leō is masculine) Caecilius mercātōrēs insānōs salūtat. (mercātōrēs, m.) Librum _album_ in mēnsam pōnō.. (liber, m.) Puerī _Graecī _ theātrum spectant. P ō cula _parva/mea_ sunt in cubiculō (p ō culum, n.) Rēgīnās _ stult ā s _ nōn amāmus (rēgīnā = queen) Fēminae __probae_ Quīntum dēlectant.

41 ADJECTIVES IN -US, -A, -UM GENITIVE, DATIVE, ABLATIVE The singular Genitive (possessive) endings are: Masc –ī, Fem -ae, Neut -ī, the singular Dative (indirect object) endings are: Masc -ō, Fem -ae, Neuter –ō, and the singular Ablative endings: Masc -ō, Fem - ā, Neuter –ō Look at these examples with puer, leō, umbrivir, liber (masculine). puella, rēgīna (feminine), computātrum (neuter) and amīcus (masculine) –Puer puellae bonae pecūniam dat. The boy gives the good girl money –Rēgīna leōnī ignāvō cibum dat. The queen gives food to a lazy lion. [the ending on ignāvō is not the same as on leōnī because the adjective and the noun belong to different declensions, but the gender and case are the same (masculine Dative singular). –Liber puerī insānī est in mēnsā. The crazy boy’s book is on the table –Ubi est computātrum puellae irātae? Where is the angry girl’s computer? –Servus rēgīnae ignāvae librum rēgis probī tenet. The slave of the lazy queen is holding the honest king’s book. –Cum amīcō c ā rō ambul ō. I am walking with a dear friend.

42 ADJECTIVES IN -US, -A, -UM GENITIVE, DATIVE, ABLATIVE (PLURAL) The plural Genitive endings: Masc –ōrum, Fem -ārum, Neut - ōrum and the plural Dative and Ablative ending is -īs for all genders Look at these examples with puer, leō, umbrivir, liber (masculine). puella, rēgīna (feminine) and computātrum (neuter) –Puer puellīs bonīs pecūniam dat. The boy gives the good girls money –Rēgīna leōnibus ignāvīs cibum dat. The queen gives food to the lazy lions. [the ending on ignāvīs is not the same as on leōnibus because the adjective and the noun belong to different declensions, but the gender and case are the same (masculine Dative singular). –Liberī puerōrum insānōrum sunt in mēnsā. The crazy boy’s books are on the table –Ubi sunt computātra puellārum irātārum? Where are the angry girls’ computers? –Servī rēgīnārum ignāvārum librōs rēgum probōrum tenent. The slaves of the lazy queens are holding the honest kings’ books. –Amīcī mīlitum probōrum sunt in vīll ā. The friends of the honest soldiers are in the villa. –Marcus cum puellīs pulchrīs lūdit. Marcus is playing with the beautiful girls

43 Now choose an adjective from the list to go in each of the blanks in the sentences magnīs (big), stultae (foolish), probōrum (honest), parvō (small), insānī (crazy), Graecō (Greek), albīs (white), meōrum (my) Puellae ________ pec ū niam n ō n d ō. Leōnibus _________ nōn crēdimus. Caecilius verba mercātōrum _________ audit. (mercātōr,, m.) F ēli bus _______ aquam dare necesse est. Fābulam dominī ________ mē minime dēlectat Serv ō ________ ancilla n ōn placet. Can ī ________ cibum ded ī (canis, m.) Vidistīne librōs amīcorum _________ ?

44 Now choose an adjective from the list to go in each of the blanks in the sentences magnīs (big), stultae (foolish), probōrum (honest), parvō (small), insānī (crazy), Graecō (Greek), albīs (white), meōrum (my) Puellae __stultae____ pec ū niam n ō n d ō. Leōnibus ______________________ nōn crēdimus. Caecilius verba mercātōrum ______________________ audit. (mercātōr, m.) F ēli bus _________________ aquam dare necesse est. Fābula dominī _________ mē minime dēlectat Serv ō _________________ ancilla nōn placet. Can ī ___________________ cibum ded ī (canis, m.) Vidistīne librōs amīcorum _______________________ ?

45 Now choose an adjective from the list to go in each of the blanks in the sentences magnīs (big), stultae (foolish), probōrum (honest), parvō (small), insānī (crazy), Graecō (Greek), albīs (white), meōrum (white) Puellae __stultae____ pec ū niam n ō n d ō. Leōnibus __ magnīs/ albīs _______ nōn crēdimus. Caecilius verba mercātōrum ______________________ audit. (mercātōr, m.) F ēli bus _________________ aquam dare necesse est. Fābula dominī _________ mē minime dēlectat Serv ō _________________ ancilla nōn placet. Can ī ___________________ cibum ded ī (canis, m.) Vidistīne librōs amīcorum _______________________ ?

46 Now choose an adjective from the list to go in each of the blanks in the sentences magnīs (big), stultae (foolish), probōrum (honest), parvō (small), insānī (crazy), Graecō (Greek), albīs (white), meōrum (my) Puellae __stultae____ pec ū niam n ō n d ō. Leōnibus __ magnīs/ albīs _______ nōn crēdimus. Caecilius verba mercātōrum ___ probōrum/ meōrum _ audit. (mercātōr, m.) F ēli bus _________________ aquam dare necesse est. Fābula dominī _________ mē minime dēlectat Serv ō _________________ ancilla nōn placet. Can ī ___________________ cibum ded ī (canis, m.) Vidistīne librōs amīcorum _______________________ ?

47 Now choose an adjective from the list to go in each of the blanks in the sentences magnīs (big), stultae (foolish), probōrum (honest), parvō (small), insānī (crazy), Graecō (Greek), albīs (white), meōrum (my) Puellae __stultae____ pec ū niam n ō n d ō. Leōnibus __ magnīs/ albīs _______ nōn crēdimus. Caecilius verba mercātōrum ___ probōrum/ meōrum _ audit. (mercātōr, m.) F ēli bus __ magnīs/ albīs __ aquam dare necesse est. Fābula dominī _________ mē minime dēlectat Serv ō _________________ ancilla nōn placet. Can ī ___________________ cibum ded ī (canis, m.) Vidistīne librōs amīcorum _______________________ ?

48 Now choose an adjective from the list to go in each of the blanks in the sentences magnīs (big), stultae (foolish), probōrum (honest), parvō (small), insānī (crazy), Graecō (Greek), albīs (white), meōrum (my) Puellae __stultae____ pec ū niam n ō n d ō. Leōnibus __ magnīs/ albīs _______ nōn crēdimus. Caecilius verba mercātōrum ___ probōrum/ meōrum _ audit. (mercātōr, m.) F ēli bus __ magnīs/ albīs __ aquam dare necesse est. Fābula dominī __ insānī _ mē minime dēlectat Serv ō _________________ ancilla nōn placet. Can ī ___________________ cibum ded ī (canis, m.) Vidistīne librōs amīcorum _______________________ ?

49 Now choose an adjective from the list to go in each of the blanks in the sentences magnīs (big), stultae (foolish), probōrum (honest), parvō (small), insānī (crazy), Graecō (Greek), albīs (white), meōrum (my) Puellae __stultae____ pec ū niam n ō n d ō. Leōnibus __ magnīs/ albīs _______ nōn crēdimus. Caecilius verba mercātōrum ___ probōrum/ meōrum _ audit. (mercātōr, m.) F ēli bus __ magnīs/ albīs __ aquam dare necesse est. Fābula dominī __ insānī _ mē minime dēlectat Serv ō __ parvō/ Graecō _ ancilla nōn placet. Can ī ___________________ cibum ded ī (canis, m.) Vidistīne librōs amīcorum _______________________ ?

50 Now choose an adjective from the list to go in each of the blanks in the sentences magnīs (big), stultae (foolish), probōrum (honest), parvō (small), insānī (crazy), Graecō (Greek), albīs (white), meōrum (white) Puellae __stultae____ pec ū niam n ō n d ō. Leōnibus __ magnīs/ albīs _______ nōn crēdimus. Caecilius verba mercātōrum ___ probōrum/ meōrum _ audit. (mercātōr, m.) F ēli bus __ magnīs/ albīs __ aquam dare necesse est. Fābula dominī __ insānī _ mē minime dēlectat Serv ō __ parvō/ Graecō _ ancilla nōn placet. Can ī ___ parvō/ Graecō __ cibum ded ī (canis, m.) Vidistīne librōs amīcorum _______________________ ?

51 Now choose an adjective from the list to go in each of the blanks in the sentences magnīs (big), stultae (foolish), probōrum (honest), parvō (small), insānī (crazy), Graecō (Greek), albīs (white), meōrum (white) Puellae __stultae____ pec ū niam n ō n d ō. Leōnibus __ magnīs/ albīs _______ nōn crēdimus. Caecilius verba mercātōrum ___ probōrum/ meōrum _ audit. (mercātōr, m.) F ēli bus __ magnīs/ albīs __ aquam dare necesse est. Fābula dominī __ insānī _ mē minime dēlectat Serv ō __ parvō/ Graecō _ ancilla nōn placet. Can ī ___ parvō/ Graecō __ cibum ded ī (canis, m.) Vidistīne librōs amīcorum __ probōrum/ meōrum ___ ?

52 THE FULL SET OF ENDINGS FOR BONUS - SINGULAR Masculine FeminineNeuter Nominativebonusbonabonum Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative

53 THE FULL SET OF ENDINGS FOR BONUS - SINGULAR Masculine FeminineNeuter Nominativebonusbonabonum Genitive bonībonaebonī Dative Accusative Ablative

54 THE FULL SET OF ENDINGS FOR BONUS - SINGULAR Masculine FeminineNeuter Nominativebonusbonabonum Genitive bonībonaebonī Dative bonōbonaebonō Accusative Ablative

55 THE FULL SET OF ENDINGS FOR BONUS - SINGULAR Masculine FeminineNeuter Nominativebonusbonabonum Genitive bonībonaebonī Dative bonōbonaebonō Accusativebonumbonambonum Ablative

56 THE FULL SET OF ENDINGS FOR BONUS - SINGULAR Masculine FeminineNeuter Nominativebonusbonabonum Genitive bonībonaebonī Dative bonōbonaebonō Accusativebonumbonambonum Ablative bonōbonābonō

57 THE FULL SET OF ENDINGS FOR BONUS - PLURAL Masculine FeminineNeuter Nominative bonībonaebona Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative

58 THE FULL SET OF ENDINGS FOR BONUS - PLURAL Masculine FeminineNeuter Nominative bonībonaebona Genitive bonōrumbonārumbonōrum Dative Accusative Ablative

59 THE FULL SET OF ENDINGS FOR BONUS - PLURAL Masculine FeminineNeuter Nominative bonībonaebona Genitive bonōrumbonārumbonōrum Dative bonīs Accusative Ablative

60 THE FULL SET OF ENDINGS FOR BONUS - PLURAL Masculine FeminineNeuter Nominative bonībonaebona Genitive bonōrumbonārumbonōrum Dative bonīs Accusative bonōsbonāsbona Ablative

61 THE FULL SET OF ENDINGS FOR BONUS - PLURAL Masculine FeminineNeuter Nominative bonībonaebona Genitive bonōrumbonārumbonōrum Dative bonīs Accusative bonōsbonāsbona Ablative bonīs

62 ADJECTIVES IN –IS, -E M & F (Sing)Neut (Sing)M & F (Plr)Neut (Plr) Nominative omnisomneomnēsomnia Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative

63 ADJECTIVES IN –IS, -E M & F (Sing)Neut (Sing)M & F (Plr)Neut (Plr) Nominative omnisomneomnēsomnia Genitive omnisomnium Dative Accusative Ablative

64 ADJECTIVES IN –IS, -E M & F (Sing)Neut (Sing)M & F (Plr)Neut (Plr) Nominative omnisomneomnēsomnia Genitive omnisomnium Dative omnīomnibus Accusative Ablative

65 ADJECTIVES IN –IS, -E M & F (Sing)Neut (Sing)M & F (Plr)Neut (Plr) Nominative omnisomneomnēsomnia Genitive omnisomnium Dative omnīomnibus Accusative omnemomneomnēsomnia Ablative

66 ADJECTIVES IN –IS, -E M & F (Sing)Neut (Sing)M & F (Plr)Neut (Plr) Nominative omnisomneomnēsomnia Genitive omnisomnium Dative omnīomnibus Accusative omnemomneomnēsomnia Ablative omnīomnibus

67 ADJECTIVES IN –X M & F (Sing)Neut (Sing)M & F (Plr)Neut (Plr) Nominative ferōxferōcēsferōcia Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative

68 ADJECTIVES IN –X M & F (Sing)Neut (Sing)M & F (Plr)Neut (Plr) Nominative ferōxferōcēsferōcia Genitive ferōcisferōcium Dative Accusative Ablative

69 ADJECTIVES IN –X M & F (Sing)Neut (Sing)M & F (Plr)Neut (Plr) Nominative ferōxferōcēsferōcia Genitive ferōcisferōcium Dative ferōcīferōcibus Accusative Ablative

70 ADJECTIVES IN –X M & F (Sing)Neut (Sing)M & F (Plr)Neut (Plr) Nominative ferōxferōcēsferōcia Genitive ferōcisferōcium Dative ferōcīferōcibus Accusative ferōcemferōxferōcēsferōcia Ablative

71 ADJECTIVES IN –X M & F (Sing)Neut (Sing)M & F (Plr)Neut (Plr) Nominative ferōxferōcēsferōcia Genitive ferōcisferōcium Dative ferōcīferōcibus Accusative ferōcemferōxferōcēsferōcia Ablative ferōcīferōcibus

72 Now choose an adjective from the list to go in each of the blanks in the sentences facilem (easy), gracilibus (graceful), difficilia (difficult), mīlitāria (military), levēs (light), tālium (such), simplicī (simple), speciālī (special) Nunc cum amīcō ________ lūdō. Iuvenēs puellīs __________ multa dōna dant. Magister vult nōs verba _________ discere. (verbum, n.) Servī armamenta _________ ad urbem portant. Fābulam ________ legere volumus. Fīliīs patrum ________ crēdere nōn possumus. Cūr quaestiōnī ________ respōnsum nōn dedistī Mīlitēs nostrī gladiōs _________ habent.

73 Now choose an adjective from the list to go in each of the blanks in the sentences facilem (easy), gracilibus (graceful), difficilia (difficult), mīlitāria (military), levēs (light), tālium (such), simplicī (simple), speciālī (special) Nunc cum amīcō __ speciālī/simplicī ___ lūdō. Iuvenēs puellīs ____________ multa dōna dant. Magister vult nōs verba _________ discere. (verbum, n.) Servī armamenta _____________ ad urbem portant. Fābulam ___________ legere volumus. Fīliīs patrum _________ crēdere nōn possumus. Cūr quaestiōnī _____________ respōnsum nōn dedistī Mīlitēs nostrī gladiōs _______ habent.

74 Now choose an adjective from the list to go in each of the blanks in the sentences facilem (easy), gracilibus (graceful), difficilia (difficult), mīlitāria (military), levēs (light), tālium (such), simplicī (simple), speciālī (special) Nunc cum amīcō __ speciālī/simplicī ___ lūdō. Iuvenēs puellīs _ gracilibus _ multa dōna dant. Magister vult nōs verba _________ discere. (verbum, n.) Servī armamenta _____________ ad urbem portant. Fābulam ___________ legere volumus. Fīliīs patrum _________ crēdere nōn possumus. Cūr quaestiōnī _____________ respōnsum nōn dedistī Mīlitēs nostrī gladiōs _______ habent.

75 Now choose an adjective from the list to go in each of the blanks in the sentences facilem (easy), gracilibus (graceful), difficilia (difficult), mīlitāria (military), levēs (light), tālium (such), simplicī (simple), speciālī (special) Nunc cum amīcō __ speciālī/simplicī ___ lūdō. Iuvenēs puellīs _ gracilibus _ multa dōna dant. Magister vult nōs verba _difficilia_ discere. (verbum, n.) Servī armamenta _____________ ad urbem portant. Fābulam ___________ legere volumus. Fīliīs patrum _________ crēdere nōn possumus. Cūr quaestiōnī _____________ respōnsum nōn dedistī Mīlitēs nostrī gladiōs _______ habent.

76 Now choose an adjective from the list to go in each of the blanks in the sentences facilem (easy), gracilibus (graceful), difficilia (difficult), mīlitāria (military), levēs (light), tālium (such), simplicī (simple), speciālī (special) Nunc cum amīcō __ speciālī/simplicī ___ lūdō. Iuvenēs puellīs _ gracilibus _ multa dōna dant. Magister vult nōs verba _difficilia_ discere. (verbum, n.) Servī armamenta _ mīlitāria __ ad urbem portant. Fābulam ___________ legere volumus. Fīliīs patrum _________ crēdere nōn possumus. Cūr quaestiōnī _____________ respōnsum nōn dedistī Mīlitēs nostrī gladiōs _______ habent.

77 Now choose an adjective from the list to go in each of the blanks in the sentences facilem (easy), gracilibus (graceful), difficilia (difficult), mīlitāria (military), levēs (light), tālium (such), simplicī (simple), speciālī (special) Nunc cum amīcō __ speciālī/simplicī ___ lūdō. Iuvenēs puellīs _ gracilibus _ multa dōna dant. Magister vult nōs verba _difficilia_ discere. (verbum, n.) Servī armamenta _ gracilibus __ ad urbem portant. Fābulam __ facilem _ legere volumus. Fīliīs patrum _________ crēdere nōn possumus. Cūr quaestiōnī _____________ respōnsum nōn dedistī Mīlitēs nostrī gladiōs _______ habent.

78 Now choose an adjective from the list to go in each of the blanks in the sentences facilem (easy), gracilibus (graceful), difficilia (difficult), mīlitāria (military), levēs (light), tālium (such), simplicī (simple), speciālī (special) Nunc cum amīcō __ speciālī/simplicī ___ lūdō. Iuvenēs puellīs _ gracilibus _ multa dōna dant. Magister vult nōs verba _difficilia_ discere. (verbum, n.) Servī armamenta _ gracilibus __ ad urbem portant. Fābulam __ facilem _ legere volumus. Fīliīs patrum _ tālium _ crēdere nōn possumus. Cūr quaestiōnī _____________ respōnsum nōn dedistī Mīlitēs nostrī gladiōs _______ habent.

79 Now choose an adjective from the list to go in each of the blanks in the sentences facilem (easy), gracilibus (graceful), difficilia (difficult), mīlitāria (military), levēs (light), tālium (such), simplicī (simple), speciālī (special) Nunc cum amīcō __ speciālī/simplicī ___ lūdō. Iuvenēs puellīs _ gracilibus _ multa dōna dant. Magister vult nōs verba _difficilia_ discere. (verbum, n.) Servī armamenta _ gracilibus __ ad urbem portant. Fābulam __ facilem _ legere volumus. Fīliīs patrum _ tālium _ crēdere nōn possumus. Cūr quaestiōnī _ speciālī/simplicī _ respōnsum nōn dedistī Mīlitēs nostrī gladiōs _______ habent.

80 Now choose an adjective from the list to go in each of the blanks in the sentences facilem (easy), gracilibus (graceful), difficilia (difficult), mīlitāria mīlitāria (military), levēs (light), tālium (such), simplicī (simple), speciālī (special) Nunc cum amīcō __ speciālī/simplicī ___ lūdō. Iuvenēs puellīs _ gracilibus _ multa dōna dant. Magister vult nōs verba _difficilia_ discere. (verbum, n.) Servī armamenta _ gracilibus __ ad urbem portant. Fābulam __ facilem _ legere volumus. Fīliīs patrum _ tālium _ crēdere nōn possumus. Cūr quaestiōnī _ speciālī/simplicī _ respōnsum nōn dedistī Mīlitēs nostrī gladiōs _ levēs _ habent.

81 3rd DECLENSION ADJECTIVES IN –ER, (E)RIS, -E Masc SFem SNeut SM & F PlNeut Pl Nominative celerceleriscelerecelerēs celeria Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative

82 3rd DECLENSION ADJECTIVES IN –ER, (E)RIS, -E Masc SFem SNeut SM & F PlNeut Pl Nominative celerceleriscelerecelerēs celeria Genitive celeriscelerium Dative Accusative Ablative

83 3rd DECLENSION ADJECTIVES IN –ER, (E)RIS, -E Masc SFem SNeut SM & F PlNeut Pl Nominative celerceleriscelerecelerēs celeria Genitive celeriscelerium Dative celerī celeribus Accusative Ablative

84 3rd DECLENSION ADJECTIVES IN –ER, (E)RIS, -E Masc SFem SNeut SM & F PlNeut Pl Nominative celerceleriscelerecelerēs celeria Genitive celeriscelerium Dative celerī celeribus Accusative celeremcelerecelerēs celeria Ablative

85 3rd DECLENSION ADJECTIVES IN –ER, (E)RIS, -E Masc SFem SNeut SM & F PlNeut Pl Nominative celerceleriscelerecelerēs celeria Genitive celeriscelerium Dative celerī celeribus Accusative celeremcelerecelerēs celeria Ablative celerī celeribus

86 IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES Although most 3rd declension adjectives have – ī in the ablative singular, –ium in the genitive plural and –ia in the neuter plural, there are some exceptions: –The single-termination adjectives pauper, pauperis and vetus, veteris usually had ablative in –e, genitive plural in –um and neuter plural in –a –Comparative adjectives (e.g. laetior, laetius) also used these non-ī endings. –Present participles (for which there is a separate PowerPoint – INFINITIVES AND PARTICIPLES) had –ium and -ia in the plural but in the singular used –e for the ablative when the participle referred to a temporary action (and was thus felt to be more verbal) and –ī for lasting state (more adjectival) There is also inconsistency between different ancient authors (even the Romans themselves found 3rd terminations a bit confusing) and, of course, between different modern books on Latin grammar!

87 COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES The comparative (expressed in English with –er or more) is formed by adding the endings –ior (m/f) and –ius (neuter) to a stem formed by removing the ending ( ī, ae or is) from the genitive singular: –laetus (genitive: laetī or laetae ) > laetior, laetius –fēlīx (genitive: fēlīcis) > fēlīcior, fēlīcius The superlative (English –est or most) is usually formed by adding the suffix –issimus/-a/-um to the same stem: –laetus (genitive: laetī or laetae ) > laetissimus –fēlīx (genitive: fēlīcis) > fēlīcissimus Adjectives in –er, -(e)ra, -(e)rum add `-rumus/a/um to the masculine nominative singular for the superlative: –pulcher > pulchrior > pulcherrimus –miser > miserior > miserrimus

88 COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES (II) Six adjectives ending in –ilis use the irregular ending –illimus/-a/-um in the superlative: –facilis (easy)> facilior, facilius > facillimus –difficilis (difficult)> difficilior, difficilius > difficillimus –similis (similiar)> similior, similius > simillimus –dissimilis (dissimilar)> dissimilior, dissimilior > dissimillimus –gracilis (graceful)> gracilior, gracilius > gracillimus –humilis (low, humble)> humilior, humilius > humillimus A few adjectives are completely irregular (as in English): –magnus (large)> maior, maius > maximus –parvus (small)> minor, minus > minimus –bonus (good)> melior, melius, optimus –malus (bad)> peior, peius > pessimus –multus (much)> plūs* > plūrimus *N.B. plūs is declined like an ordinary comparative in the plural (see following slides) but in the singular is an indeclinable noun and used with the genitive: plūs aquae (more water) plūs vīnī (more wine)

89 LAETIOR (happier) M & F (Sing) Neut (Sing)M & F (Plr)Neut (Plr) Nominative laetiorlaetiuslaetiōrēslaetiōra Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative

90 LAETIOR (happier) M & F (Sing) Neut (Sing)M & F (Plr)Neut (Plr) Nominative laetiorlaetiuslaetiōrēslaetiōra Genitive laetiōrislaetiōrum Dative Accusative Ablative

91 LAETIOR (happier) M & F (Sing) Neut (Sing)M & F (Plr)Neut (Plr) Nominative laetiorlaetiuslaetiōrēslaetiōra Genitive laetiōrislaetiōrum Dative laetiōrīlaetiōribus Accusative Ablative

92 LAETIOR (happier) M & F (Sing) Neut (Sing)M & F (Plr)Neut (Plr) Nominative laetiorlaetiuslaetiōrēslaetiōra Genitive laetiōrislaetiōrum Dative laetiōrīlaetiōribus Accusative laetiōremlaetiuslaetiōrēslaetiōra Ablative

93 LAETIOR (happier) M & F (Sing) Neut (Sing)M & F (Plr)Neut (Plr) Nominative laetiorlaetiuslaetiōrēslaetiōra Genitive laetiōrislaetiōrum Dative laetiōrīlaetiōribus Accusative laetiōremlaetiuslaetiōrēslaetiōra Ablative laetiōrelaetiōribus


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