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Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.22 | 1 CHAPTER 22 Adjectives and Adverbs
22 | 2Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Adjectives An adjective describes a noun or a pronoun It tells which one, what kind, or how many: o The red coat belongs to me. o He looks healthy.
22 | 3Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Adverbs An adverb describes a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Adverbs often end in -ly. They tell how, to what extent, why, when, or where. o Laura sings loudly. o Lift this box very carefully.
22 | 4Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Confusing Adjectives and Adverbs Adjective –awful –bad –poor –quick –quiet –real –sure Adverb –awfully –badly –poorly –quickly –quietly –really –surely
22 | 5Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Confusing Adjectives and Adverbs This chair is a real antique. (adjective) Gina really wants to win. (adverb) That necktie is awful. (adjective) My brother sings awfully. (adverb)
22 | 6Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Good / Well Unlike most adjectives, good does not add -ly to become an adverb; it changes to well o Peter is a good student. (adjective) o He writes well. (adverb) Note, however, that well can be used as an adjective to mean in good health: o He felt well after his long vacation.
22 | 7Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Comparatives Comparatives are formed with either more or - er—not both Add -er to adjectives and adverbs that have one syllable: shortshorter fastfaster thinthinner
22 | 8Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Comparatives Place the word more before adjectives and adverbs that have two or more syllables: foolishmore foolish happilymore happy To show the comparative of two-syllable adjectives ending in -y, change the y to i and add -er: cloudycloudier
22 | 9Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Superlatives Use the superlative when you wish to compare more than two people or things To form superlatives, o add -est to adjectives and adverbs of one syllable: short shortest o place the word most before adjectives and adverbs that have two or more syllables: foolish most foolish
22 | 10Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Exception to forming superlatives: o With two-syllable adjectives ending in y, change the y to i and add est: happy happiest Superlatives
22 | 11Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Troublesome Comparatives and Superlatives ComparativeSuperlative Adjective:goodbetterbest Adverb:wellbetterbest Adjective:badworseworst Adverb”badlyworseworst
22 | 12Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Demonstrative Adjectives This, that, these, and those are called demonstrative adjectives because they point out— or demonstrate — which noun is meant o I don’t trust that wobbly front wheel. o Those toys are not as safe as their makers claim.
22 | 13Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. SingularPlural This bookThese books That bookThose books Demonstrative adjectives are the only adjectives that change to show singular and plural: Demonstrative Adjectives
22 | 14Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Proofreading Strategy Read slowly, and highlight every adjective purple and every adverb gray (or use colors of your choice) Next check every purple and gray word, one by one Ask yourself what word each one describes, and make sure adjectives describe nouns and adverbs describe verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.
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