Presentation on theme: "The Rise of Nationalism 19 th century Nationalism Definition: All peoples derive their identities from their nations, which are defined by common language,"— Presentation transcript:
The Rise of Nationalism 19 th century
Nationalism Definition: All peoples derive their identities from their nations, which are defined by common language, shared cultural traditions and sometimes religion When such “nations” do not coincide with state boundaries, nationalism can produce violence and warfare as different national groups compete for the same territory
Examples of 19 th century nationalism French during the revolution and Napoleonic Wars The French also provoked nationalist feelings in the people they conquered The Austrian Empire included a variety of peoples united only by their loyalty to the Habsburg Emperor; the empire included three main national groups- the Germans, who made up one- fourth of the empire;
German Unification Who would lead German Unification? Austria or Prussia? King Wilhelm I of Prussia appointed Otto Von Bismarck as Chancellor in 1862 Bismarck ruled Prussia and ignored the Reichstag (Parliament) Politics of Reality- “Realpolitik”
Chancellor Otto von Bismarck “Blood & Iron” Realpolitik The “Iron Chancellor”
Otto von Bismarck.... The less people know about how sausages and laws are made, the better they’ll sleep at night. Never believe in anything until it has been officially denied. The great questions of the day will not be settled by speeches and majority decisions—that was the mistake of —but by blood and iron.
Otto von Bismarck.... I am bored. The great things are done. The German Reich is made. A generation that has taken a beating is always followed by a generation that deals one. Some damned foolish thing in the Balkans will provoke the next war.
Prussia and other German states
Wars of Unification War against Denmark Austria and Prussia went to war for the German provinces of Schelswig and Holstein Prussia would administer Schleswig, and Austria, Holstein Bismarck “faked” disagreement over the two duchies to goad the Austrians into
Step #1: The Danish War  Step #1: The Danish War  The Peace of Vienna
The German Confederation
Austro-Prussian War Declaring war on Prussia In 1866, Austria went to war against Prussia with the support of most of the small states of the German Confederation Prussia won in 7 weeks Bismarck created the North German Confederation led by Prussia
Step #2: Austro-Prussian War [Seven Weeks’ War], 1866 Prussia Austria
Step #3: Creation of the Northern German Confederation, 1867 Shortly following the victory of Prussia, Bismarck eliminated the Austrian led German Confederation. He then established a new North German Confederation which Prussia could control Peace of Prague
Step #4: Ems Dispatch : Catalyst for War 1868 revolt in Spain. Spanish leaders wanted Prince Leopold von Hohenz. [a cousin to the Kaiser & a Catholic], as their new king. France protested & his name was withdrawn. The Fr. Ambassador asked the Kaiser at Ems to apologize to Nap. III for supporting Leopold. Bismarck “doctored” the telegram from Wilhelm to the French Ambassador to make it seem as though the Kaiser had insulted Napoleon III.
Franco-Prussian War In 1868, a military coup in Spain sent that country’s leaders looking for a new king They chose a German prince of the minor branch of the Prussian ruling family French were not happy and the candidate was withdrawn In 1870, the French ambassador asked William I at the German spa of Ems for an apology and promises that Prussia would never make claims on the Spanish throne
Franco-Prussian War Journalists in both countries stirred up nationalist feelings Bismarck edited the “Ems Telegram” to make it look like William had insulted Napoleon III The French public demanded war The Prussians captured Napoleon with his army on September 2, 1870
Franco-Prussian War The Second Empire fell on September 4, 1870 January, William was proclaimed Kaiser of a new, imperial Germany Peace signed in May required France to cede the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine to Germany and to pay a multibillion-franc indemnity
Step #5: Franco-Prussian War [ ] German soldiers “abusing” the French.
Step #4: Franco-Prussian War [ ]
1830 Failed Attempts at Independence Metternich sent troops to crush Revolutions in 3 Italian States
Revolutions Guiseppe Mazinni Risorgimento (Resurgence) Young Italy 2 lessons from the failures Need foreign help Rely on Piedmont for leadership
Italian Unification Architect of the new Italy was Camilli di Cavour ( ), prime minister of the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia Economic development King Victor Emmanuel II (r ) Cavour wanted Piedmont to lead the unification of Italy Austria still governed the provinces of Lombardy and Venetia
Count Cavour [The “Head”] Giuseppi Garibaldi [The “Sword”] King Victor Emmanuel II Giuseppi Mazzini [The “Heart”] Italian Nationalist Leaders
1849 – 1878 Victor Emanuel Savoy King of Piedmont Provided the leadership needed
Sardinia-Piedmont: The “Magnet” Italian unification: Risorgimento [“Resurgence”]
1852 fCount Cavour in named Prime Minister of Piedmont fEconomic Expansion fBuilt roads, canals, & railroads fExpanded credit fStimulated investment in new Industries
Italy Cavour turned to Napoleon III of France for help At a secret meeting in 1858, Cavour promised Napoleon the city of Nice and the region of Savoy in exchange for helping to drive the Austrians out of Italy Cavour provoked the Austrians to invade
1858 – Agreement with Napoleon III In Compensation France would get: Piedmont’s provinces of Nice and Savoy A Kingdom of Central Italy would be created for Napoleon III’s cousin Prince Napoleon
1859 – The Austrian War To make it “justifiable” – Piedmont provoked Austria July II, 1859 – France made Peace w/ Austria Thought war would be too long and costly Prussia had mobilized
Step #5: Austro-Prussian War, 1866 Austria looses control of Venetia. Venetia is annexed to Italy.
Pebiscites Nationalists had taken control in some Northern Italian States Plebiscites agreed to join Piedmont
Girabaldi Italian Patriot Revolt had broken in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies 1,000 Red Shirts landed in Sicily on May 11, 1860 By July 1860 Sicily was under Control
Step #6: Garibaldi & His “Red Shirts” Unites with Cavour
1860 – Kingdom of Italy Garibaldi yielded to Cavour
1866 – Annexation of Venetia Austro Prussian War Annexation of Rome Franco – Prussian War