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Lecture 20 Infinitive (II). Teaching Contents 20.1 Adjective + infinitive 20.1 Adjective + infinitive 20.2 Noun (phrase) + infinitive 20.3 Verb + infinitive.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 20 Infinitive (II). Teaching Contents 20.1 Adjective + infinitive 20.1 Adjective + infinitive 20.2 Noun (phrase) + infinitive 20.3 Verb + infinitive."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 20 Infinitive (II)

2 Teaching Contents 20.1 Adjective + infinitive 20.1 Adjective + infinitive 20.2 Noun (phrase) + infinitive 20.3 Verb + infinitive

3 20.1 Adjective + infinitive 20.1 Adjective + infinitive Here “ adjective + infinitive ” refers to the combination that acts as complement in SVC patterns. These combinations were superficially similar but semantically different constructions, varying in meaning with the different categories of adjectives. Semantically, these combinations fall into three types, each of which contains several sub-types. Here “ adjective + infinitive ” refers to the combination that acts as complement in SVC patterns. These combinations were superficially similar but semantically different constructions, varying in meaning with the different categories of adjectives. Semantically, these combinations fall into three types, each of which contains several sub-types.

4 1) Type 1 This type of SCV pattern is characterized by the fact that the subject of the main clause is also the logical subject of the infinitive. The adjectives occurring in this pattern are all dynamic adjectives, which can be subdivided into the following categories. This type of SCV pattern is characterized by the fact that the subject of the main clause is also the logical subject of the infinitive. The adjectives occurring in this pattern are all dynamic adjectives, which can be subdivided into the following categories. a) Adjectives showing emotional feelings, such as delight, anger, joy and sorrow. etc. ---Henry was happy to hear it. ---Henry was happy to hear it. The feeling is caused from the action expressed by the infinitive construction.The implication is “ Henry heard it and as a result he was happy. ” The feeling is caused from the action expressed by the infinitive construction.The implication is “ Henry heard it and as a result he was happy. ”

5 After some adjectives, if the logical subject of the infinitive construction is not the subject of the sentence, sometimes we use “ for + noun + infinitive construction ” to express. After some adjectives, if the logical subject of the infinitive construction is not the subject of the sentence, sometimes we use “ for + noun + infinitive construction ” to express. ---He was ashamed for his son to ask such a simple question. ---He was ashamed for his son to ask such a simple question. b) Adjectives showing good or bad luck --- George was lucky to find it. --- George was lucky to find it. The infinitive construction here is the cause. If the logical subject of the infinitive construction is not the subject of the sentence, we often use that-clause. The infinitive construction here is the cause. If the logical subject of the infinitive construction is not the subject of the sentence, we often use that-clause. -- George was lucky that Mary found it. -- George was lucky that Mary found it.

6 c) Adjectives showing mental state or personal attitude. --He is anxious to see her. --He is anxious to see her. The implication: “ He wants very much to see her ”. The implication: “ He wants very much to see her ”. The infinitive construction refers to the action that does not take place. The infinitive construction refers to the action that does not take place. --I ’ m determined to finish them tonight. --I ’ m determined to finish them tonight. If the subject of the main clause is not the logical subject of the infinitive, the logical subject should be expressed with an introductory “ for ”. If the subject of the main clause is not the logical subject of the infinitive, the logical subject should be expressed with an introductory “ for ”. --I ’ m afraid for her to go swimming alone. --I ’ m afraid for her to go swimming alone.

7 d) Adjectives showing character or behavioral trait. --He is foolish to meet her again. --He is foolish to meet her again. The implication: “ He is being foolish by meeting her again. ” The implication: “ He is being foolish by meeting her again. ” In spoken English, it ’ s very common to use the construction with the initial it. In spoken English, it ’ s very common to use the construction with the initial it. --John was careless to break the cup. --John was careless to break the cup. --It was careless of John to break the cup. --It was careless of John to break the cup. We use “ of + noun phrase ” rather than “ for + noun phrase ”. We use “ of + noun phrase ” rather than “ for + noun phrase ”. --You are kind to say so. --You are kind to say so. --It ’ s kind of you to say so. --It ’ s kind of you to say so.

8 e) In some grammar books, there is another sub-type, that is, adjectives showing possibility, certainty, such as, likely, unlikely, certain, sure, etc. --- He is likely to see Mary. --- He is likely to see Mary. too ready … to do 1. too 放在某些形容词,比如 ready, apt, anxious, eager, glad, willing 之前,其后不定式不再有否定意义, 而有肯定意义。 e.g. She is too ready to suspect. 她太好疑。 / 她爱起 疑心。 e.g. She is too ready to suspect. 她太好疑。 / 她爱起 疑心。 She is too willing to marry him. 她很愿意嫁给他。 She is too willing to marry him. 她很愿意嫁给他。

9 2. too...to" 结构之前带有 but, only, all, never, not 时, 是强调肯定的表示法,译作 " 非常 …… " 、 " 十 分 …… " 、 " 实在 …… " 、 " 真是太 …… " 等。例如: I am but too glad to do so. 我非常喜欢这样做。 We are only too happy to live in China. 生活在中国,我们太幸福了。 They are all too satisfied to go and do this work. 生活在中国,我们太幸福了。 They are all too satisfied to go and do this work. 他们很乐意地去做这项工作。 You're never too old to enjoy a Christmas stocking. 他们很乐意地去做这项工作。 You're never too old to enjoy a Christmas stocking. 你绝对不会老得不能获得圣诞长袜带来的快乐。 English is not too difficult to learn. 英语并不难学。 你绝对不会老得不能获得圣诞长袜带来的快乐。 English is not too difficult to learn. 英语并不难学。

10 3. 在 "too...to" 结构中,不定式为否定式时,是构 成的双重否定,其意为 " 非常 ( 很,太,那么 ) …… 不会不 ( 必定能,所以能 ) …… " ,也不表示否定意 义。例如: He is too kind not to help you. 他很善良,不会不帮 助你。 The girl is too careful not to do it well. 这姑娘很细心, 完全能干好那件事。 3. 在 "too...to" 结构中,不定式为否定式时,是构 成的双重否定,其意为 " 非常 ( 很,太,那么 ) …… 不会不 ( 必定能,所以能 ) …… " ,也不表示否定意 义。例如: He is too kind not to help you. 他很善良,不会不帮 助你。 The girl is too careful not to do it well. 这姑娘很细心, 完全能干好那件事。

11 4. 除了上述情况外,还有一种 "too...to" 结构在翻 译上也有它的特殊之处。请试译: The question is too easy(simple)to answer. 误:这个问题太容易 ( 简单 ) 了,回答不了。 正:这个问题太容易 ( 简单 ) 了,不值得回答。 这里按 "too...to" 结构表示否定意义来译,显然不 妥。这里 too 也是 " 过于 " 、 " 太 " 的意思,但这个 句子可以表达一种特殊的意义,即 " 太 …… ,不 值得 …… " 。 4. 除了上述情况外,还有一种 "too...to" 结构在翻 译上也有它的特殊之处。请试译: The question is too easy(simple)to answer. 误:这个问题太容易 ( 简单 ) 了,回答不了。 正:这个问题太容易 ( 简单 ) 了,不值得回答。 这里按 "too...to" 结构表示否定意义来译,显然不 妥。这里 too 也是 " 过于 " 、 " 太 " 的意思,但这个 句子可以表达一种特殊的意义,即 " 太 …… ,不 值得 …… " 。

12 再比较: The question is too complicated(difficult)to answer. 再比较: The question is too complicated(difficult)to answer. 这个问题太复杂 ( 难 ) 了,不好回答。 The question is simple enough to answer. 这个问题太复杂 ( 难 ) 了,不好回答。 The question is simple enough to answer. 这个问题很简单,容易回答。 这个问题很简单,容易回答。 比较: 比较: ① The room is too big to hold only afew people. ① The room is too big to hold only afew people. 容纳这么几个人,这个房间显然太大了。 容纳这么几个人,这个房间显然太大了。 ( 意即:容纳这么几个人,不值得用这么大的房 间。 ) This room is too small to hold so many people. ( 意即:容纳这么几个人,不值得用这么大的房 间。 ) This room is too small to hold so many people. 这个房间太小了,容纳不了这么多人。 这个房间太小了,容纳不了这么多人。

13 ② They got there too early to catch the bus. 赶公共汽 车,他们到那儿有点太早了。 ( 意即:不必去得 那么早。 ) 比较: They got there too late to catch the bus. 他们去得太 晚了,没有赶上公共汽车。 ② They got there too early to catch the bus. 赶公共汽 车,他们到那儿有点太早了。 ( 意即:不必去得 那么早。 ) 比较: They got there too late to catch the bus. 他们去得太 晚了,没有赶上公共汽车。 They got there early enough to catch the bus. 他们早 早到了那里,完全可以赶上公共汽车。 They got there early enough to catch the bus. 他们早 早到了那里,完全可以赶上公共汽车。

14 2) Type II In this type of SVC pattern, the subject of the main clause is the logical object of the infinitive. Here, the adjectives are generally stative adjectives, such as amusing, awful, cheap, convenience, dangerous, difficult, easy, expensive, extraordinary, funny, hard, horrible, important, simple, splendid, strange, and useful. In this type of SVC pattern, the subject of the main clause is the logical object of the infinitive. Here, the adjectives are generally stative adjectives, such as amusing, awful, cheap, convenience, dangerous, difficult, easy, expensive, extraordinary, funny, hard, horrible, important, simple, splendid, strange, and useful. --That question is difficult to answer. --That question is difficult to answer. --Dirty water is nasty to drink. --Dirty water is nasty to drink.

15 Anticipatory It – construction: Anticipatory It – construction: --It is difficult to answer that question. --It is difficult to answer that question. --It is nasty to drink dirty water. --It is nasty to drink dirty water. But there are constructions of the same type that cannot be so transformed. But there are constructions of the same type that cannot be so transformed. --The coffee is bitter to taste. (You will feel the coffee is biter when you taste it.) --The coffee is bitter to taste. (You will feel the coffee is biter when you taste it.) ≠To taste the coffee is bitter.(It is biter to taste … ) ≠To taste the coffee is bitter.(It is biter to taste … ) --- This map is very clear to read. --- This map is very clear to read.

16 3) Type III In this type, the subject of the main clause may be the logical subject or logical object of the infinitive. In this type, the subject of the main clause may be the logical subject or logical object of the infinitive. --- These books are easy to sell. --- These books are easy to sell. ==It is easy to sell these books. ==It is easy to sell these books. ==These books sell easily. ==These books sell easily. The adjective can be turned into a corresponding adverb in deep structure: The adjective can be turned into a corresponding adverb in deep structure: --He is quick to take offence. --He is quick to take offence. =He takes offence quickly. =He takes offence quickly.

17 20.2 Noun (phrase) + infinitive Here the infinitive is used as postmodification in noun phrases. Three points are worth mentioning. Here the infinitive is used as postmodification in noun phrases. Three points are worth mentioning. 1) Semantic relations A. A subject-verb relation, that is, the noun is the logical subject of the infinitive. --Jim was the last guest to arrive. --Jim was the last guest to arrive. B. The noun is the logical object of the infinitive, that is, a verb-object relation. --He has a large family to support. --He has a large family to support. Intransitive infinitive + preposition Intransitive infinitive + preposition --There is nothing to talk about. --There is nothing to talk about.

18 We need a room to live in. We need a room to live in. Night was coming on and I had to look for a place to sleep. Night was coming on and I had to look for a place to sleep. 一般情况下,人们还是使用 a place to live in ;但 是,也可常常看到 a place to live 的用法。英语语 法学家认为,这种用法符合英语惯用法。除 place 外, day, way, time 的动词不定式定语也可省略介 词。 一般情况下,人们还是使用 a place to live in ;但 是,也可常常看到 a place to live 的用法。英语语 法学家认为,这种用法符合英语惯用法。除 place 外, day, way, time 的动词不定式定语也可省略介 词。 e.g. Carrie looked about … for a place to sit and eat. e.g. Carrie looked about … for a place to sit and eat.

19 C. Sometimes the noun phrase is in apposition to the infinitive that follows. --I have no wish to quarrel with you. --I have no wish to quarrel with you.

20 2) Infinitive — active or passive A. In some contexts, both active and passive forms are possible. --Give me a list of people to invite/to be invited. --Give me a list of people to invite/to be invited. B. But in other cases, an active form seems more natural than the passive. --I have got a lot of letters to write. --I have got a lot of letters to write. --There is a lot of work to do. --There is a lot of work to do.

21 C. In still other cases, a passive form sounds more appropriate. --The cases to be investigated must not be made public in press. --The cases to be investigated must not be made public in press. --The question to be discussed at the next meeting will be a hard nut to crack. --The question to be discussed at the next meeting will be a hard nut to crack.

22 如果句子主语是不定式所表动作的施动者时,大 多采用不定式的主动形式作名词的后置修饰语。 如果句子主语是不定式所表动作的施动者时,大 多采用不定式的主动形式作名词的后置修饰语。 e.g. I want a book to read. e.g. I want a book to read. You need something to eat. You need something to eat. 当不定式的施动者并非句子主语时,两种结构都 可以使用,而且语义上没有什么区别。 当不定式的施动者并非句子主语时,两种结构都 可以使用,而且语义上没有什么区别。 e.g. The best thing to do / to be done is as follows. e.g. The best thing to do / to be done is as follows. Give me a list of the people to invite / to be invited. Give me a list of the people to invite / to be invited. He is the man to choose / to be chosen. He is the man to choose / to be chosen.

23 这一点在存在句型中尤其明显: 这一点在存在句型中尤其明显: e.g. There were many things to be done. 有许多事情 要干。 e.g. There were many things to be done. 有许多事情 要干。 There is one thing to do / to be done. 只需干一件事。 There is one thing to do / to be done. 只需干一件事。 There is a lot to do / to be done. 有许多事要做。但 某些有限情况下,存在句型使用动词不定式的主 动与被动形式作后置修饰语在语义上有些差别。 There is a lot to do / to be done. 有许多事要做。但 某些有限情况下,存在句型使用动词不定式的主 动与被动形式作后置修饰语在语义上有些差别。 e.g. There is nothing to do. 没事可干。 ( 表义务 duty) e.g. There is nothing to do. 没事可干。 ( 表义务 duty) There is nothing to be done about it. 对于此事毫 无办法。 ( 表可能性 possibility) There is nothing to be done about it. 对于此事毫 无办法。 ( 表可能性 possibility)

24 3) “ Noun + infinitive ” vs. “ noun + preposition + -ing ” A. With some nouns such as attempt, chance, effort, freedom, the postmodifier may be an infinitive or a “ preposition + -ing ” with no difference in meaning. ---These is no necessity to buy/of buying a new car. ---These is no necessity to buy/of buying a new car. B. With some other nouns such as ability, agreement, ambition, anxiety, curiosity, disposition, mind, obligation, permission, refusal, reluctance, temptation, tendency, wish, etc. it is appropriate to use an infinitive rather than a “ preposition + - ing ” as postmodifier. --They have the ability to produce nuclear weapons. --They have the ability to produce nuclear weapons.

25 C. There are still other nouns which do not admit of an infinitive as postmodifier; a “ preposition + -ing ” is normally used. C. There are still other nouns which do not admit of an infinitive as postmodifier; a “ preposition + -ing ” is normally used. --There is no hope of winning the game. --There is no hope of winning the game. The nouns in the same use include aptitude, delay, difficulty, excuse, experience, interest, etc. The nouns in the same use include aptitude, delay, difficulty, excuse, experience, interest, etc.

26 20.3 Verb + infinitive The infinitive can function as the object of some verbs. There are three groups: The infinitive can function as the object of some verbs. There are three groups: 1) Verb + infinitive (SVO) These are verbs that can be directly followed by an infinitive rather than an-ing form as object. These verbs include agree, apply … etc. These are verbs that can be directly followed by an infinitive rather than an-ing form as object. These verbs include agree, apply … etc. --- We must agree to differ. --- We must agree to differ. --- I aim to finish it tomorrow. --- I aim to finish it tomorrow.

27 Some of these verbs such as agree, arrange, promise, resolve, claim, decide, demand, determine, hope, pretend, profess, swear, threaten, etc, can also be followed by a corresponding that clause. Some of these verbs such as agree, arrange, promise, resolve, claim, decide, demand, determine, hope, pretend, profess, swear, threaten, etc, can also be followed by a corresponding that clause. --- I hope to be able to come. --- I hope to be able to come.  I hope that I ’ ll be able to come.  I hope that I ’ ll be able to come. 2) verb + object + infinitive There are verbs that cannot be directly followed by an infinitive unless the verb and the infinitive are intervened by a noun or pronoun. These verbs include five groups. There are verbs that cannot be directly followed by an infinitive unless the verb and the infinitive are intervened by a noun or pronoun. These verbs include five groups.

28 a) Verbs of perception or sense verbs such as see, hear, watch, feel, etc. --Did you see him enter the building? --Did you see him enter the building? b) Causative verbs such as have, let, make, etc. --Don ’ t forget to have your children come with you. --Don ’ t forget to have your children come with you. c) Some prepositional verbs such as arrange for, ask for, rely on, etc. --I ’ ll arrange for you to meet the manager. --I ’ ll arrange for you to meet the manager.

29 d) Verbs showing mental state such as consider, declare, find, prove, think, believe, discover, feel, imagine. ---I believe him to be reliable. ---I believe him to be reliable. The infinitive after verbs under this group is invariably “ to be ”. The infinitive after verbs under this group is invariably “ to be ”. ---We know him to be reliable. ---We know him to be reliable. After such verbs as consider, declare, find, prove, think, the infinitive “ to be ” can be omitted. ---He proved himself innocent. ---He proved himself innocent. If the infinitive “ to be ” is in the perfective form, then it cannot be omitted. If the infinitive “ to be ” is in the perfective form, then it cannot be omitted. --We considered him to have been foolish. --We considered him to have been foolish.

30 e) Verbs having the force of “ advice ”, “ permission, ” “ forbiddance ” etc. such as advise, allow, forbid, permit, recommend, require, urge, etc. --- I advised him to give up smoking. --- I advised him to give up smoking. Some of the verbs of this group such as advise, allow, forbid, permit, recommend can also be followed directly by an – ing form as object. Some of the verbs of this group such as advise, allow, forbid, permit, recommend can also be followed directly by an – ing form as object. --She advised us to give up smoking. --She advised us to give up smoking. --she advised giving up smoking. --she advised giving up smoking. And some may also be followed by a that clause. And some may also be followed by a that clause. --They required us to get there before nine. --They required us to get there before nine. --They required that we get there before nine. --They required that we get there before nine.

31 3) Verb + (object) + infinitives (SVO, SVOC) With some verbs such as ask, can ’ t bear, hate, intend, like, prefer, want, etc. the object is optional: “ verb + infinitive ”, “ verb + object + infinitive ”. With some verbs such as ask, can ’ t bear, hate, intend, like, prefer, want, etc. the object is optional: “ verb + infinitive ”, “ verb + object + infinitive ”. ---Do you intend to make a long stay there? ---Do you intend to make a long stay there? ---We didn ’ t intend them to act like that. ---We didn ’ t intend them to act like that.

32 Most of these verbs can also be followed by a that- clause. Most of these verbs can also be followed by a that- clause. --She asked to do more work. --She asked to do more work. --She asked them to give her more work to do. --She asked them to give her more work to do. --She asked that she be given more work to do. --She asked that she be given more work to do. Some may also be directly followed by an -ing form. Some may also be directly followed by an -ing form. --I hate troubling you about trifles. --I hate troubling you about trifles.

33 1. It ’ s no use dong. 是常见的标准用法。而 It ’ s no use to do 有时也见于著名作家和语言学家著作中。 It ’ s no use your running away. It ’ s no use your running away. It ’ s no use for you to run away. It ’ s no use for you to run away. It ’ s no use asking Tod. ( 由于他无知或不愿助人 ) “ 问 他是无用的 ” 。 It ’ s no use asking Tod. ( 由于他无知或不愿助人 ) “ 问 他是无用的 ” 。 It ’ s no use to ask Tod. ( 由于他不了解这个问题或 此时没有时间 ) …. It ’ s no use to ask Tod. ( 由于他不了解这个问题或 此时没有时间 ) …. 动名词表经常情况,动词不定式表某一具体情况。 动名词表经常情况,动词不定式表某一具体情况。

34 2. not to say / let alone 1)let alone  not to mention, to say nothing of ( 更不用说 ) 。 1)let alone  not to mention, to say nothing of ( 更不用说 ) 。 e.g. There ’ s no room for her, let alone the children. e.g. There ’ s no room for her, let alone the children. He hasn ’ t enough money for food, let alone amusements. He hasn ’ t enough money for food, let alone amusements. 2)not to say  even, perhaps even, and almost, if not to use a more moderate word or statement than ( 甚至、甚至也许、 甚或、即使不 … 也、简直可以说、虽不能说、即使不能 说 ) 2)not to say  even, perhaps even, and almost, if not to use a more moderate word or statement than ( 甚至、甚至也许、 甚或、即使不 … 也、简直可以说、虽不能说、即使不能 说 ) e.g. It is warm, not to say hot. e.g. It is warm, not to say hot. He sound impolite, not to say rude. 他那样说话,虽说不上 粗鲁,也够不礼貌的了。 He sound impolite, not to say rude. 他那样说话,虽说不上 粗鲁,也够不礼貌的了。 他的话听起来很不礼貌,甚至有些粗鲁。 他的话听起来很不礼貌,甚至有些粗鲁。

35 3) 用法上, let alone 一般用于否定句: if you say something is not the case, let alone something else, you mean that since the first thing is not the case, the second thing cannot be, because it is difficult or unusual. 3) 用法上, let alone 一般用于否定句: if you say something is not the case, let alone something else, you mean that since the first thing is not the case, the second thing cannot be, because it is difficult or unusual. e.g. I had never seen him, let alone spoken to him. e.g. I had never seen him, let alone spoken to him. Let alone 用于肯定句的情况比较罕见。 Let alone 用于肯定句的情况比较罕见。 e.g. It will cost us a fortune for the food, let alone the wine. 单 食品就得花去我们一大笔,更不用说酒了。 e.g. It will cost us a fortune for the food, let alone the wine. 单 食品就得花去我们一大笔,更不用说酒了。 4)let alone 与 not to say 都是准并列连词 (quasi-coordinators) 。 它们可以连接各种句子成分或各类词。绝不要把 not to say 中的 say 看作及物动词,因而认为它只能后接名次短 语。 4)let alone 与 not to say 都是准并列连词 (quasi-coordinators) 。 它们可以连接各种句子成分或各类词。绝不要把 not to say 中的 say 看作及物动词,因而认为它只能后接名次短 语。

36 3.not to speak of = to say nothing of “ 更不用说、且不说 ” 。 1)(=not to mention) 既可以用于肯定句之后,亦可以用于 否定句之后。 1)(=not to mention) 既可以用于肯定句之后,亦可以用于 否定句之后。 e.g. He can dance, not to speak of singing. e.g. He can dance, not to speak of singing. He has no scholarship, not to speak of experience. He has no scholarship, not to speak of experience. 2)to say nothing of :有时为了补充追加某种不重要的东 西,有时为了强调更为重要的东西。 2)to say nothing of :有时为了补充追加某种不重要的东 西,有时为了强调更为重要的东西。 e.g. The effort required is immense, to say nothing of the cost. the cost 在程度上 / 重要性上比 effort 更进一步。 e.g. The effort required is immense, to say nothing of the cost. the cost 在程度上 / 重要性上比 effort 更进一步。 Three people badly hurt, to say nothing of damage to the building. 程度上,前者重后者轻。 Three people badly hurt, to say nothing of damage to the building. 程度上,前者重后者轻。 He had his wife and 7 children with him in the car, to say nothing of two dogs, a cat and a parrot. 所引部分处于次要 地位,仅仅是附带说明而已; =as well as, in addition, including 。 He had his wife and 7 children with him in the car, to say nothing of two dogs, a cat and a parrot. 所引部分处于次要 地位,仅仅是附带说明而已; =as well as, in addition, including 。

37 4.not to mention 与 let alone 都是准并列连词,但是有 一个重要区别:前者后面只接名词短语,而后者 可以接任何词性的词项;另外,后者只用于非正 式语体。 e.g. He rejected it for its cost, not to mention its ugliness. 更不用说它很难看了。 e.g. He rejected it for its cost, not to mention its ugliness. 更不用说它很难看了。 We ’ re too busy to take a long holiday this year, not to mention the fact that we can ’ t afford it. We ’ re too busy to take a long holiday this year, not to mention the fact that we can ’ t afford it. David is handsome and smart, not to mention being a good athlete. 更不用说还是个好运动员。 David is handsome and smart, not to mention being a good athlete. 更不用说还是个好运动员。


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