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Philosophers and Writers of the Greek Golden Age CH 6 Section 2.

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Presentation on theme: "Philosophers and Writers of the Greek Golden Age CH 6 Section 2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Philosophers and Writers of the Greek Golden Age CH 6 Section 2

2 Section 1 review What did the Greeks use to make their statues more lifelike? The Greeks used more ______ _______ than the Egyptians in their art

3 The Rise of Philosophy One of the Greeks greatest achievements was the development of Philosophy Philosophy- is the study of the basic questions of reality and human existence {Philosopher means “Lover of wisdom”} The Greeks used philosophy to better understand the world around them {Early philosophers were called Cosmologists because they studied the nature of the universe}

4 Philosophy continued… According to Greek tradition the first philosopher was Thales of Miletus He and others like him wanted to understand the universe They set up formal rules of logic for philosophical arguments Democritus developed atomic theory by using logic and mathematics Atomic theory stated that everything is made up of tiny bits of matter called atoms

5 Socrates

6 Bill and Ted’s Socrates

7 Socrates One of the most important thinkers of the new era He taught that education was the key to personal growth {Socrates insisted that students think for themselves} He asked questions that forced students to test their own values and ideas Socrates way of teaching through questions became known as the Socratic method His questions often made public officials look foolish

8 He made many enemies who accused him of corrupting the youth He criticized democracy, saying unskilled people should not hold positions of power He was brought to trial by his enemies and did little to defend himself He was found guilty and executed He was forced to drink a poison called hemlock

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10 Plato Later generations learned of Socrates writings through Plato He was a young aristocrat and one of Socrates students He founded the Academy a special school in Athens for teaching philosophy He wrote dialogues or imaginary conversations between several people These dealt with government, education, justice and religion Most featured Socrates teaching and asking questions

11 Plato continued {Plato believed that the soul and body were separate but would reunite through reincarnation} {Plato also wanted a govt. ruled by an aristocracy or an intellectual upper class} The ideal rulers were philosophers not just the wealthy

12 Aristotle

13 One of Plato's students at the academy Aristotle founded his own school in Athens in 335 BC He believed that every field of study needed to be studied logically He collected as many facts as possible and organized them into systems {Aristotle believed that logical study led to truth} He investigated every field of study known to his time He analyzed Greek drama to understand what made a good or bad play

14 Math Medicine and Science The Greeks covered all fields of knowledge including math and science {Pythagoras was a philosopher that believed the world could be explained through math} He was best remembered for his theorem for the right triangle

15 Natural Science Greek philosophers did not specialize in any one field of study which kept them from fully developing scientific knowledge until much later Aristotle laid the foundations of anatomy, botany, and zoology The Greeks, in contrast to the Egyptians, believed the natural world could be explained in terms of natural law They also held that rules that govern our universe could be identified, observed and defined

16 Greek Science

17 Hippocrates Considered to be the founder of medical science It is believed that Hippocrates wrote between 60 and 70 medical studies He helped to collect medical knowledge in a useable form {His work sums up Greek science because it bases treatment on reason not magic} He thought that disease comes from natural causes not a punishment from the gods He taught that rest, fresh air, and proper diet made the best cures

18 Herodotus The Greeks became the first people to take the writing of history seriously Herodotus the first historian of the western world He traveled to Babylonia, Phoenicia, and Egypt and included his views of the countries and their people in his histories He was careful to note if he had seen something himself or someone had told him about it but did exaggerate at times He is often called the father of history

19 Greek Theater

20 Drama These are plays containing action or conflict of emotion The Greeks wrote plays in poetic form Male actors played the women's roles A group of singers, called the chorus, described the scene and commented on the action Their theaters were carved into hillsides The flat bottom of the Greek theater is known as the Orchestra Plays were often performed in connection with religious festivals they would have competitions between playwrights

21 What theater looks like with people

22 Tragedies This is when the main character struggles against fate or events Main characters are usually punished for displaying Hubris {Hubris is the sin of Pride} Oedipus Rex, written by Sophocles, was called the perfect example of tragedy by Aristotle Euripides was a realist playwright He questioned many of the old ideas and beliefs and in his plays showed the pain and misery of war

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24 Comedies These made fun of ideas and people Comedies included both tragic and humorous figures Aristophanes was known for his wit and would poke fun at Socrates for his theories about education Un like tragedies, the main characters usually solved their problem

25 Section Review What is another name for a lover of wisdom? What were lovers of wisdom originally known as? Who was Socrates student? Who believed that logical study led to truth? Another name for the sin of pride

26 Speaking of Comedies


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